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Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Graziella V DiRenzo, Stephanie A Yarwood, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Karen R Lips
Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin, some of which inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Yet, there has been no systematic survey of anti-Bd bacteria across localities, species and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variation in amphibian susceptibility to Bd. Our sites were within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling indicated low Bd prevalence. We determined the number and identity of anti-Bd bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Katrina Daoud, Audra Gollenberg, Kim Fendley
BACKGROUND: As posited in multiple health communication theories, it is vital to understand modern health communication preferences among communities in order to develop tailored interventions to reduce Infant Mortality (IM). Literature suggests that health communication inequalities play an important role in infant health knowledge gaps, thus contributing to the disparate IM rates. We sought to understand preferred methods of communication among expectant or mothers of young children of varying sociodemographics...
March 2016: J Health Educ Res Dev
Shenandoah Robinson, Faith C Robertson, Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Cormac P O'Brien, Charles Berde, Horacio Padua
OBJECTIVE Medically refractory spasticity and dystonia are often alleviated with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) administration through an indwelling catheter inserted in the lumbar spine. In patients with cerebral palsy, however, there is a high incidence of concomitant neuromuscular scoliosis. ITB placement may be technically challenging in those who have severe spinal deformity or who have undergone prior instrumented thoracolumbar fusion. Although prior reports have described drilling through the lumbar fusion mass with a high-speed bur, as well as IT catheter implantation at the foramen magnum or cervical spine, these approaches have notable limitations...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Tammi L Johnson, Christine B Graham, Karen A Boegler, Cara C Cherry, Sarah E Maes, Mark A Pilgard, Andrias Hojgaard, Danielle E Buttke, Rebecca J Eisen
Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Kristopher A Sarosiek, Cameron Fraser, Nathiya Muthalagu, Patrick D Bhola, Weiting Chang, Samuel K McBrayer, Adam Cantlon, Sudeshna Fisch, Gail Golomb-Mello, Jeremy A Ryan, Jing Deng, Brian Jian, Chris Corbett, Marti Goldenberg, Joseph R Madsen, Ronglih Liao, Dominic Walsh, John Sedivy, Daniel J Murphy, Daniel Ruben Carrasco, Shenandoah Robinson, Javid Moslehi, Anthony Letai
It is not understood why healthy tissues can exhibit varying levels of sensitivity to the same toxic stimuli. Using BH3 profiling, we find that mitochondria of many adult somatic tissues, including brain, heart, and kidneys, are profoundly refractory to pro-apoptotic signaling, leading to cellular resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapies and ionizing radiation. In contrast, mitochondria from these tissues in young mice and humans are primed for apoptosis, predisposing them to undergo cell death in response to genotoxic damage...
January 9, 2017: Cancer Cell
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Shenandoah Robinson, Jacqueline B Berglass, Jesse L Denson, Justin Berkner, Christopher V Anstine, Jesse L Winer, Jessie R Maxwell, Jianhua Qiu, Yirong Yang, Laurel O Sillerud, William P Meehan, Rebekah Mannix, Lauren L Jantzie
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, with recently increased awareness of the potential long-term sequelae of repetitive injury. Although TBI is common, objective diagnostic tools with sound neurobiological predictors of outcome are lacking. Indeed, such tools could help to identify those at risk for more severe outcomes after repetitive injury and improve understanding of biological underpinnings to provide important mechanistic insights. We tested the hypothesis that acute and subacute pathological injury, including the microgliosis that results from repeated mild closed head injury (rmCHI), is reflected in susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging microstructural abnormalities...
April 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Rebekah Mannix, Justin Berkner, Zhengrong Mei, Sasha Alcon, Jumana Hashim, Shenandoah Robinson, Lauren Jantzie, William P Meehan, Jianhua Qiu
Recently, there has been increasing interest in outcomes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) (e.g., sports concussions). Although most of the scientific attention has focused on elite athlete populations, the sequelae of rmTBI in children and young adults have not been well studied. Prior TBI studies have suggested that developmental differences in response to injury, including differences in excitotoxicity and inflammation, could result in differences in functional and histopathological outcomes after injury...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
T M Coxon, B K Odhiambo, L C Giancarlo
The progressively declining ecological condition of the Chesapeake Bay is attributed to the influx of contaminants associated with sediment loads supplied by its largest tributaries. The continued urban expansion in the suburbs of Virginia cities, modern agricultural activities in the Shenandoah Valley, the anthropogenic and climate driven changes in fluvial system hydrodynamics and their potential associated impacts on trace metals enrichment in the bay's tributaries necessitate constant environmental monitoring of these important water bodies...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Annie F Johns, Scarlett E Graham, Meagan J Harris, April J Markiewicz, Jonah M Stinson, Wayne G Landis
We have conducted a series of regional scale risk assessments using the Bayesian Network Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) to evaluate the efficacy of 2 remediation options in the reduction of risks to the South River and upper Shenandoah River study area. The 2 remediation options were 1) bank stabilization (BST) and 2) the implementation of best management practices for agriculture (AgBMPs) to reduce Hg input in to the river. Eight endpoints were chosen to be part of the risk assessment, based on stakeholder input...
January 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Shenandoah Robinson, Jesse L Winer, Justin Berkner, Lindsay A S Chan, Jesse L Denson, Jessie R Maxwell, Yirong Yang, Laurel O Sillerud, Robert C Tasker, William P Meehan, Rebekah Mannix, Lauren L Jantzie
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity for otherwise healthy full-term infants around the world. Currently, the primary treatment for infant TBI is supportive, as no targeted therapies exist to actively promote recovery. The developing infant brain, in particular, has a unique response to injury and the potential for repair, both of which vary with maturation. Targeted interventions and objective measures of therapeutic efficacy are needed in this special population...
June 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Wayne G Landis, Kimberley K Ayre, Annie F Johns, Heather M Summers, Jonah Stinson, Meagan J Harris, Carlie E Herring, April J Markiewicz
We have conducted a regional scale risk assessment using the Bayesian Network Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) to calculate the ecological risks to the South River and upper Shenandoah River study area. Four biological endpoints (smallmouth bass, white sucker, Belted Kingfisher, and Carolina Wren) and 4 abiotic endpoints (Fishing River Use, Swimming River Use, Boating River Use, and Water Quality Standards) were included in this risk assessment, based on stakeholder input. Although mercury (Hg) contamination was the original impetus for the site being remediated, other chemical and physical stressors were evaluated...
January 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Lauren L Jantzie, Jesse L Winer, Jessie R Maxwell, Lindsay A S Chan, Shenandoah Robinson
Encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP) is a term that encompasses the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with preterm birth. To best advance translational objectives and uncover new therapeutic strategies for brain injury associated with preterm birth, preclinical models of EoP must include similar mechanisms of prenatal global injury observed in humans and involve multiple components of the maternal-placental-fetal system. Ideally, models should produce a similar spectrum of functional deficits in the mature animal and recapitulate multiple aspects of the pathophysiology...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shenandoah Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Jessie R Maxwell, Jesse L Denson, Nancy E Joste, Shenandoah Robinson, Lauren L Jantzie
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is a major cause of infant morbidity and long-term disability, and is associated with numerous central nervous system (CNS) deficits. Infants exposed to intrauterine inflammation, specifically chorioamnionitis, are at risk for very early preterm birth and neurological complications including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and behavioral and cognitive deficits. However, placenta-brain axis abnormalities and their relationship to subsequent permanent CNS injury remain poorly defined...
December 2015: Placenta
Lauren L Jantzie, Jesse L Winer, Christopher J Corbett, Shenandoah Robinson
Preterm infants suffer central nervous system (CNS) injury from hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation - termed encephalopathy of prematurity. Mature CNS injury activates caspase and calpain proteases. Erythropoietin (EPO) limits apoptosis mediated by activated caspases, but its role in modulating calpain activation has not yet been investigated extensively following injury to the developing CNS. We hypothesized that excess calpain activation degrades developmentally regulated molecules essential for CNS circuit formation, myelination and axon integrity, including neuronal potassium-chloride co-transporter (KCC2), myelin basic protein (MBP) and phosphorylated neurofilament (pNF), respectively...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Shenandoah Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Lauren L Jantzie, Paulina M Getsy, Jesse L Denson, Daniel J Firl, Jessie R Maxwell, Danny A Rogers, Christopher G Wilson, Shenandoah Robinson
Infants who suffer perinatal brain injury, including those with encephalopathy of prematurity, are prone to chronic neurological deficits, including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems, such as anxiety, inattention, and poor social interaction. These deficits, especially in combination, pose the greatest hindrance to these children becoming independent adults. Cerebral function depends on adequate development of essential inhibitory neural circuits and the appropriate amount of excitation and inhibition at specific stages of maturation...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Lauren L Jantzie, Shenandoah Robinson
Encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP) encompasses the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with injury from preterm birth. Although rapid progress is being made, limited understanding exists of how cellular and molecular CNS injury from early birth manifests as the myriad of neurological deficits in children who are born preterm. More importantly, this lack of direct insight into the pathogenesis of these deficits hinders both our ability to diagnose those infants who are at risk in real time and could potentially benefit from treatment and our ability to develop more effective interventions...
2015: Developmental Neuroscience
Yoichiro Kanno, Benjamin H Letcher, Nathaniel P Hitt, David A Boughton, John E B Wofford, Elise F Zipkin
Climate change affects seasonal weather patterns, but little is known about the relative importance of seasonal weather patterns on animal population vital rates. Even when such information exists, data are typically only available from intensive fieldwork (e.g., mark-recapture studies) at a limited spatial extent. Here, we investigated effects of seasonal air temperature and precipitation (fall, winter, and spring) on survival and recruitment of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) at a broad spatial scale using a novel stage-structured population model...
May 2015: Global Change Biology
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