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Acute myeloblastic leukemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849184/ring-chromosome-7-a-rare-structural-abnormality-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml
#1
Kristie Q Liu, Carlos A Tirado
Ring chromosomes, often leading to partial deletions, are found in about 2% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are typically associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we present the case of a 62-year-old female who showed markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of myeloblasts, monoblasts, and promonocytes, confirmed by flow cytometry and cases of AML with r(7) have been reported. Analysis of these cases demonstrated that r(7) was a sole abnormality in 20%, a primary abnormality in 14%, and in the context of a complex karyotype in 66%...
2016: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833171/serum-levels-of-soluble-adhesion-molecules-in-newly-diagnosed-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-in-complete-remission-suggest-endothelial-cell-activation-by-myeloblasts
#2
Tomas Kupsa, Jan Vanek, Zak Pavel, Ladislav Jebavy, Jan M Horacek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite high-dose multi-agent chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the relapse rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is high. Further, the disease is highly resistent to drugs. We speculated that deeper understanding of AML-endothelial cell interactions might provide new targets for selective modulation of the AML microenvironment and form the basis for novel treatment approaches. In this study, we evaluated levels of endothelium derived soluble adhesion molecules in active disease and in complete remission (CR) and their relationship with inflammatory cytokines...
November 10, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826123/novel-strategies-of-adoptive-immunotherapy-how-natural-killer-cells-may-change-the-treatment-of-elderly-patients-with-acute-myeloblastic-leukemia
#3
REVIEW
Roberto M Lemoli, Sarah Parisi, Antonio Curti
Although many attempts have been made to identify novel molecular-targeted therapies for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, their translation into the clinic have had limited impact. In particular, the question of effective and curative treatments for elderly patients, who are not eligible for stem cell transplantation, remains an unmet medical need. To answer this question, a wide range of immunologic therapeutic strategies, mostly T cell based, have been proposed and investigated. At present, however, the clinical results have been largely unsatisfactory...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800262/ophthalmologic-findings-in-children-with-leukemia-a-single-center-study
#4
Betül Orhan, Barış Malbora, Sezin Akça Bayar, Zekai Avcı, Bülent Alioğlu, Namık Özbek
OBJECTIVES: Ophthalmologic disease in patients with acute leukemia occurs due to primary leukemic infiltration (involvement), or secondary to the disease and its treatment. In recent years the life expectancy of acute leukemia patients has increased with the advent of modern therapies. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of ocular manifestations in children with acute leukemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 120 patients diagnosed with acute leukemia at Başkent University Hospital, Pediatric Hematology Department between 1995 and 2010...
April 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721621/primary-intraoral-granulocytic-sarcoma-a-rare-case-presenting-as-generalized-gingival-enlargement
#5
Thayalan Dineshkumar, Vemuri Suresh, Ramadas Ramya, Krishnan Rajkumar
Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is an extremely rare condition involving infiltration of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells in an extramedullary site. It is also known as chloroma, myeloid sarcoma or extramedullary myeloid tumor. It usually occurs concomitantly with acute myelogenous leukemia or with the onset of blastic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia. On rare occasions, it evolves even before the onset of leukemias, and when it precedes leukemias without any overt signs, it is referred to as the primary type...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646584/a-case-of-myeloid-sarcoma-of-intestine
#6
Sung Won Lim, Hang Lak Lee, Kang Nyeong Lee, Dae Won Jun, In Young Kim, Eunjin Kim, Hyein Ahn, Chan Kum Park
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is an extramedullary involvement of immature myeloid proliferation. An isolated MS is defined as a myeloblastic tumor when it arises without any concomitant circulating disease. A diagnosis of MS is established using pathologic features including infiltration of myeloblasts and strong myeloperoxidase expression with negative cytokeratin immunohistochemical staining. We report a rare case of colonic MS without any peripheral blood abnormality. If the affected patient were left untreated, the MS could evolve into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) within one year...
September 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641501/inhibition-of-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-overcomes-differentiation-blockade-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#7
David B Sykes, Youmna S Kfoury, François E Mercier, Mathias J Wawer, Jason M Law, Mark K Haynes, Timothy A Lewis, Amir Schajnovitz, Esha Jain, Dongjun Lee, Hanna Meyer, Kerry A Pierce, Nicola J Tolliday, Anna Waller, Steven J Ferrara, Ashley L Eheim, Detlef Stoeckigt, Katrina L Maxcy, Julien M Cobert, Jacqueline Bachand, Brian A Szekely, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Larry A Sklar, Joanne D Kotz, Clary B Clish, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Paul A Clemons, Andreas Janzer, Stuart L Schreiber, David T Scadden
While acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises many disparate genetic subtypes, one shared hallmark is the arrest of leukemic myeloblasts at an immature and self-renewing stage of development. Therapies that overcome differentiation arrest represent a powerful treatment strategy. We leveraged the observation that the majority of AML, despite their genetically heterogeneity, share in the expression of HoxA9, a gene normally downregulated during myeloid differentiation. Using a conditional HoxA9 model system, we performed a high-throughput phenotypic screen and defined compounds that overcame differentiation blockade...
September 22, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635276/diagnostic-dilemma-in-appendiceal-mucormycosis-a-rare-case-report
#8
Sali Priyanka Akhilesh, Yadav Kamal Sunder, Pande Prasad, George Mary Asha, Agarwal Mohan, Mehta Hitesh
Appendiceal mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening infection seen in immunocompromised patients. It is usually seen in chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, the symptoms and signs may be masked due to ongoing corticosteroids. The condition may mimic bacterial appendicitis and the less serious condition, typhlitis. The disease demands prompt surgical debulking and aggressive antifungal treatment. However, surgery is delayed due to the poor performance status and severe neutropenia...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610044/selected-polyphenols-potentiate-the-apoptotic-efficacy-of-glycolytic-inhibitors-in-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cell-lines-regulation-by-protein-kinase-activities
#9
Elena de Blas, María Cristina Estañ, María Del Carmen Gómez de Frutos, Javier Ramos, María Del Carmen Boyano-Adánez, Patricio Aller
BACKGROUND: The glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) is a safe, potentially useful anti-tumour drug, but its efficacy is normally low when used alone. Recent studies indicated that 2-DG stimulates the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK defensive pathways, which limits the apoptotic efficacy in tumour cell lines. We hypothesized that co-treatment with selected polyphenols could improve 2-DG-provoked apoptosis by preventing defensive kinase activation. METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured by cell counting or the MTT assay...
2016: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599292/functionally-identifiable-apoptosis-insensitive-subpopulations-determine-chemoresistance-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Patrick D Bhola, Brenton G Mar, R Coleman Lindsley, Jeremy A Ryan, Leah J Hogdal, Thanh Trang Vo, Daniel J DeAngelo, Ilene Galinsky, Benjamin L Ebert, Anthony Letai
Upfront resistance to chemotherapy and relapse following remission are critical problems in leukemia that are generally attributed to subpopulations of chemoresistant tumor cells. There are, however, limited means for prospectively identifying these subpopulations, which hinders an understanding of therapeutic resistance. BH3 profiling is a functional single-cell analysis using synthetic BCL-2 BH3 domain-like peptides that measures mitochondrial apoptotic sensitivity or "priming." Here, we observed that the extent of apoptotic priming is heterogeneous within multiple cancer cell lines and is not the result of experimental noise...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562492/erythroleukemia-shares-biological-features-and-outcome-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes-with-excess-blasts-a-rationale-for-its-inclusion-into-future-classifications-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#11
Xavier Calvo, Leonor Arenillas, Elisa Luño, Leonor Senent, Montserrat Arnan, Fernando Ramos, María Teresa Ardanaz, Carme Pedro, Mar Tormo, Julia Montoro, María Díez-Campelo, Beatriz Arrizabalaga, Blanca Xicoy, Santiago Bonanad, Andrés Jerez, Benet Nomdedeu, Ana Ferrer, Guillermo F Sanz, Lourdes Florensa
Erythroleukemia was considered an acute myeloid leukemia in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and is defined by the presence of ≥50% bone marrow erythroblasts, having <20% bone marrow blasts from total nucleated cells but ≥20% bone marrow myeloblasts from nonerythroid cells. Erythroleukemia shares clinicopathologic features with myelodysplastic syndromes, especially with erythroid-predominant myelodysplastic syndromes (≥50% bone marrow erythroblasts). The upcoming WHO revision proposes to eliminate the nonerythroid blast cell count rule and to move erythroleukemia patients into the appropriate myelodysplastic syndrome category on the basis of the absolute blast cell count...
August 26, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521328/eltrombopag-use-in-patients-with-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia-cmml-a-cautionary-tale
#12
Hanadi Ramadan, Vu H Duong, Najla Al Ali, Eric Padron, Ling Zhang, Jeffrey E Lancet, Alan F List, Rami S Komrokji
INTRODUCTION: Eltrombopag used for thrombocytopenia in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients is being explored in clinical trials including those with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report our experience treating patients with CMML enrolled in a sequential 2-stage dose escalation study with eltrombopag in patients with MDS after hypomethylating agent failure. Patients with CMML were compared with patients with MDS in respect to response and adverse events...
August 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521325/myelodysplastic-syndromes-in-adolescent-young-adults-one-institution-s-experience
#13
Joanna Grabska, Bijal Shah, Damon Reed, Najla Al Ali, Eric Padron, Hanadi Ramadan, Jeffrey Lancet, Alan List, Rami Komrokji
INTRODUCTION: There has been little improvement in cancer survival of adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, aged 18 to 39 years, possibly reflecting different disease biology. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is mainly a disease of the elderly. The characteristics, outcomes, and response to treatment are not well described in the AYA population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients from the Moffitt Cancer Center MDS database. We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes of the AYA population to older patients...
August 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501207/effect-of-acupressure-on-nausea-vomiting-in-patients-with-acute-myeloblastic-leukemia
#14
Hatice Sevil Avc, Nimet Ovayolu, Özlem Ovayolu
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acupressure, applied at P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point, on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. This was a randomized controlled trial conducted on patients with myeloblastic leukemia. A total of 90 patients, who received the same chemotherapy regimen and antiemetic therapy, were included in the study as 30 patients in the control group, 30 patients in the band group, and 30 patients in the pressure group. Although acupressure was applied by placing wristbands at P6 acupuncture point of both wrists in patients of the band group for totally 4 days, acupressure was applied with the use of finger pressure in patients of the pressure group for totally 4 days...
September 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499639/lapatinib-induces-autophagic-cell-death-and-differentiation-in-acute-myeloblastic-leukemia
#15
Yu-Jen Chen, Li-Wen Fang, Wen-Chi Su, Wen-Yi Hsu, Kai-Chien Yang, Huey-Lan Huang
Lapatinib is an oral-form dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB/Her) superfamily members with anticancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of lapatinib on several human leukemia cells lines, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. We found that lapatinib inhibited the growth of human AML U937, HL-60, NB4, CML KU812, MEG-01, and ALL Jurkat T cells. Among these leukemia cell lines, lapatinib induced apoptosis in HL-60, NB4, and Jurkat cells, but induced nonapoptotic cell death in U937, K562, and MEG-01 cells...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450683/severe-phototoxic-reaction-secondary-to-subcutaneous-5-azacitidine
#16
Matthew Keating, Constantin A Dasanu
Phototoxicity occurs when the effects of sunlight and certain drugs converge at the skin level. Various pharmacologic agents have been linked to photosensitivity, including agents used in hematology and oncology. We describe herein a severe phototoxic response to subcutaneous 5-azacitidine. There are no previous reports of phototoxicity reactions to this agent in the published literature. As 5-azacitidine is frequently used to treat patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloblastic leukemia, familiarity with this side effect is important for the medical and scientific community at large...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436336/npm1-flt3-and-cebpa-mutations-in-pediatric-patients-with-aml-from-argentina-incidence-and-prognostic-value
#17
Patricia Rubio, B Campos, J A Digiorge, M S Gallego, A Medina, J G Rossi, M S Felice, C N Alonso
Mutations in NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA genes are found in 25-35 % of adult acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cases and correlate with prognosis. To date, there have been no reports about these mutations in pediatric AML from Argentina. The aims of the present study were to describe the incidence of NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA mutations and to analyze their prognostic impact in this population. The incidences of these mutations within a population of 216 pediatric AML cases were: NPM1-mutated 4.2 %, CEBPA-mutated 1.9 %, FLT3-ITD 10...
July 19, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431642/-a-case-of-a-multidisciplinary-team-approach-to-serious-hand-foot-syndrome-induced-by-high-dose-cytarabine-therapy
#18
Hiroaki Sakurada, Miki Aoi, Masaaki Yuge, Yuriko Sugimura, Kunio Kitamura, Masumi Yamamura, Tomoya Tachi, Hitomi Teramachi
A 40's year-old female patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia received high-dose cytarabine(HD-Ara-C)as her third induction therapy. Because the pharmacist in charge noticed on a prior interview that she had experienced a mild skin eruption similar to hand-foot syndrome(HFS)in the previous round oftherapy(idarubicin and cytarabine), heparinoid lotion and hypoallergenic soap were used to prevent HFS. However, HFS occurred on day 3, and further developed on day 6 to grade 3 with painful erythema, swelling, and paresthesia affecting the entire surface of both hands...
July 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401303/prognostic-impact-of-p15-gene-aberrations-in-acute-leukemia
#19
Marc De Braekeleer, Nathalie Douet-Guilbert, Etienne De Braekeleer
The p15 gene (also known as CDKN2B, INK4B, p15(INK4B)), located in band 9p21, encodes a protein that induces a G1-phase cell cycle arrest through inhibition of CDK4/6 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6). It also plays an important role in the regulation of cellular commitment of hematopoietic progenitor cells and myeloid cell differentiation. p15 can be silenced by several mechanisms, including deletion and hypermethylation of its promoter. Homozygous p15 deletion is rare in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) but frequent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)...
July 12, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320120/-therapy-related-acute-myeloid-leukemia-following-etoposide-based-chemotherapy-in-germ-cell-tumor
#20
Yoshinaga Okumura, Masashi Oae, Yusuke Shiraishi, Takeshi Soda, Hiroshi Kanamaru, Nobuyoshi Arima
A 27-year-old man visited our hospital with painless swelling of the left scrotum. Hematologic studies showed the following levels of lactate dehydrogenase, 3,171 IU/l ; alpha-fetoprotein, 2.2 ng/ml ; and β- human chorionic gonadotropin, 0.4 ng/ml, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a mass of 10×8 ×4 cm in the left testis, and that of 3.5×3.0×5.0 cm in the left renal hilar lymph node, without any other metastasis. Left high inguinal orchiectomy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed mixed form with seminoma and teratoma...
May 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
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