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Drug adherence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913307/urothelium-adherent-ion-triggered-liposome-in-gel-system-as-a-platform-for-intravesical-drug-delivery
#1
Shruti GuhaSarkar, Prachi More, Rinti Banerjee
Instillations of therapeutic agents into the urinary bladder have limited efficacy due to drug washout and inadequate attachment to and penetration into the bladder wall. Instilled nanoparticles alone have low stability and high susceptibility to washout, while gel-based systems are difficult to administer and retain. To overcome disadvantages of current technologies, a biodegradable, in situ-gelling liposome-in-gel (LP-Gel) system was developed for instillation into the bladder, composed of nano-sized, fluidizing liposomes incorporated into a "smart" biopolymeric, urine-triggered hydrogel...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911362/automated-acoustic-dispensing-for-the-serial-dilution-of-peptide-agonists-in-potency-determination-assays
#2
Jacqueline Naylor, Alessandra Rossi, Christopher Brankin, David C Hornigold
As with small molecule drug discovery, screening for peptide agonists requires the serial dilution of peptides to produce concentration-response curves. Screening peptides affords an additional layer of complexity as conventional tip-based sample handling methods expose peptides to a large surface area of plasticware, providing an increased opportunity for peptide loss via adsorption. Preventing excessive exposure to plasticware reduces peptide loss via adherence to plastics and thus minimizes inaccuracies in potency prediction, and we have previously described the benefits of non-contact acoustic dispensing for in vitro high-throughput screening of peptide agonists(1)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910715/how-do-we-measure-adherence-to-anti-tuberculosis-treatment
#3
Salomé Valencia, Montserrat León, Irene Losada, Victor G Sequera, Manuel Fernandez Quevedo, Alberto L García-Basteiro
Completion of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment is of paramount importance for TB patients, as well as for the global efforts of TB control. However, there is neither a gold-standard measure to monitor adherence to TB treatment nor a widely used definition for different levels of adherence. Areas covered: in this review we aim to describe the different methods used to measure patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment, identifying their main strengths and limitations, with a focus on low resource settings. Expert commentary: there is a need for continuing the quest for a low cost, reliable and acceptable measure of adherence to TB treatment...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909535/search-for-the-ideal-antithrombotic-drug-utopian-task-likely-is-implemented-already
#4
REVIEW
Petras Stirbys Md PhD
Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia with a high risk of ischemic stroke. Thromboprophylaxis plays a key role in prevention of cardioembolic and non-cardioembolic events. Oral antithrombotic drugs are most often used to reduce hypercoagulable state. Patients may suffer from both under- and overtreatment compromising the outcomes. Medication peculiarities at large are well-known and widely debated. Non-adherence to antithrombotic drug regimen poses a significant risk of stroke. There is a pressing need for more detailed delineation of risk factors, namely by incorporation of the letter "N" (meaning "Non-adherence to drug therapy") into the well-known risk score alphanumeric display: CHA2DS2N-VASc...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909096/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#5
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We previously demonstrated that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we use neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections co-express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908843/treatment-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-by-telemedically-supported-paramedics-compared-with-physician-based-treatment-a-prospective-interventional-multicenter-trial
#6
Jörg C Brokmann, Clemens Conrad, Rolf Rossaint, Sebastian Bergrath, Stefan K Beckers, Miriam Tamm, Michael Czaplik, Frederik Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Prehospital treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in German emergency medical services (EMSs) is reserved for EMS physicians due to legal issues. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective, interventional, multicenter trial was to evaluate the quality of telemedically-delegated therapy and the possible complications in patients with ACS. METHODS: After approval by the ethics committee and trial registration, a one-year study phase was started in August 2012 with 5 ambulances, telemedically equipped and staffed with paramedics, in 4 German EMS districts...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908257/ginkgo-biloba-as-an-alternative-medicine-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-in-dementia-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Sandeep Kumar Singh, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are the most common health problems in the worldwide population. Current medicines against these conditions have undesired side effects or limited effectiveness. These disadvantageous pharmacological and therapeutic characteristics provoke a low adherence to treatment in an important percentage of patients with mental disorders. Since ancient times, ethnically different groups have been using plants extracts as medicines for the treatment of mental conditions including dementia, depression and anxiety disorders...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#8
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906995/assessment-of-the-world-health-organization-s-hiv-drug-resistance-early-warning-indicators-in-main-and-decentralized-outreach-antiretroviral-therapy-sites-in-namibia
#9
Nicholus Mutenda, Alexandra Bukowski, Anne-Marie Nitschke, Tuli Nakanyala, Ndapewa Hamunime, Tadesse Mekonen, Francina Tjituka, Greatjoy Mazibuko, Samson Mwinga, David Mabirizi, Evans Sagwa, Rosalia Indongo, Natalie Dean, Michael R Jordan, Steven Y Hong
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) early warning indicators (EWIs) of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR. METHODS: In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites): On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906612/stably-transfected-adherent-cancer-cell-models-with-decreased-expression-of-5-nucleotidase-cn-ii
#10
Gabriel Bricard, Emeline Cros-Perrial, Christelle Machon, Charles Dumontet, Lars Petter Jordheim
The 5'-nucleotidase cN-II has been shown to be associated with the sensitivity to nucleoside analogues, the survival of cytarabine treated leukemia patients and to cell proliferation. Due to the lack of relevant cell models for solid tumors, we developed four cell lines with low cN-II expression and characterized them concerning their in vitro sensitivity to cancer drugs and their intracellular nucleotide pools. All four cell models had an important decrease of cN-II expression but did not show modified sensitivity, cell proliferation or nucleotide pools...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906026/plasma-hiv-1-rna-viral-load-rebound-among-people-who-inject-drugs-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-art-in-a-canadian-setting-an-ethno-epidemiological-study
#11
Will Small, M J Milloy, Ryan McNeil, Lisa Maher, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV often experience sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment outcomes, including HIV plasma viral load (PVL) rebound. While previous studies have identified risk factors for PVL rebound among PWID, no study has examined the perspectives of PWID who have experienced PVL rebound episodes. We conducted an ethno-epidemiological study to investigate the circumstances surrounding the emergence of rebound episodes among PWID in Vancouver, BC, Canada...
July 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905999/factors-associated-with-hiv-viral-load-blips-and-the-relationship-between-self-reported-adherence-and-efavirenz-blood-levels-on-blip-occurrence-a-case-control-study
#12
Aaron Farmer, Xun Wang, Anuradha Ganesan, Robert G Deiss, Brian K Agan, Thomas A O'Bryan, Kevin Akers, Jason F Okulicz
BACKGROUND: The uncertain etiology of HIV viral load (VL) blips may lead to increased use of clinical resources. We evaluated the association of self-reported adherence (SRA) and antiretroviral (ART) drug levels on blip occurrence in US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) participants who initiated the single-tablet regimen efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). METHODS: ART-naïve NHS participants started on EFV/FTC/TDF between 2006 and 2013 who achieved VL suppression (<50 copies/mL) within 12 months and had available SRA and stored plasma samples were included...
March 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905987/factors-associated-with-the-first-antiretroviral-therapy-modification-in-older-hiv-1-positive-patients
#13
Justyna D Kowalska, Joanna Kubicka, Ewa Siwak, Piotr Pulik, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Andrzej Horban
BACKGROUND: Rates of first antiretroviral therapy (cART) modifications are high in most observational studies. The age-related differences in treatment duration and characteristics of first cART modifications remain underinvestigated. With increasing proportion of older patients in HIV population it is important to better understand age-related treatment effects. METHODS: Patients were included into this analysis, if being cART naïve at the first visit at the clinic...
January 7, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#14
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905897/cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-tuberculosis-treatment-shortening-a-model-based-analysis
#15
G B Gomez, D W Dowdy, M L Bastos, A Zwerling, S Sweeney, N Foster, A Trajman, M A Islam, S Kapiga, E Sinanovic, G M Knight, R G White, W A Wells, F G Cobelens, A Vassall
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. METHODS: We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905633/-failure-to-radical-cure-in-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#16
Julián García, Agustín Seijo, Andrés Benchetrit, Esteban Couto, Sofía Echazarreta, Susana Lloveras, Tomás Orduna
Relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria is due to activation of dormant intrahepatic parasitic forms known as hypnozoits. Primaquine is the only available drug effective against hypnozoits and, alongside a schizonticidal drug, constitutes the radical treatment of malaria. Failure of radical treatment is frequently attributed to inadequate dosing, poor adherence, or reinfection. However, several cases of radical treatment failure without these factors have been reported, inferring that metabolic properties of the host or tolerance mechanisms of the parasite may be implied...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903216/treatment-and-response-to-statins-gender-related-differences
#17
Raparelli Valeria, Pannitteri Gaetano, Todisco Tommaso, Toriello Filippo, Napoleone Laura, Manfredini Roberto, Basili Stefania
Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most common used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903083/club-drugs-and-alcohol-abuse-predicted-dropout-and-poor-adherence-among-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients-in-guangzhou-china
#18
Di Liu, Jing Gu, Huifang Xu, Chun Hao, Mingxu Jiao, Xiao Zhang, Yuteng Zhao, Babbitt Andrew, Yuantao Hao
Club drugs and alcohol abuse are prevalent among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. However, little is known about the association between these abuse and treatment outcomes among MMT patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of club drugs and alcohol abuse among MMT patients and to investigate the associations between these abuse and treatment outcomes - dropout and poor adherence. In this one-year cohort study conducting in Guangzhou, China, data including background characteristics, club drugs use in the last six months, alcohol use history and treatment-related information was collected...
November 30, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901520/depot-antipsychotics-where-do-we-stand
#19
Ahsan Y Khan, Salman Salaria, Muhammad Ovais, George D Ide
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medication is a major problem for patients with schizophrenia. To counter this problem, pharmaceutical companies began developing depot antipsychotics. Although there are currently 5 first-generation and 6 second-generation depot antipsychotics available worldwide, many physicians are still reluctant to use this category of drug initially. This review provides the latest information about the use of depot antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment as well as several studies in support of depot antipsychotic use as first-line treatment for patients with schizophrenia...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898736/long-term-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-adults-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#20
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Cissy Kityo, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Maria Roura
BACKGROUND: Long-term success of HIV antiretroviral therapy requires near-perfect adherence, maintained throughout one's lifetime. However, perceptions towards ART and patterns of adherence may change during the life course. We assessed challenges to long-term adherence in adolescents and adults in three regional HIV treatment centers in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted 24 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions with a total of 33 health-care providers and expert clients (HIV patients on long-term ART who assist with adherence support of fellow patients)...
2016: PloS One
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