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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474268/twenty-five-years-of-lamivudine-current-and-future-use-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#1
Romina Quercia, Carlo-Federico Perno, Justin Koteff, Katy Moore, Cynthia McCoig, Marty St Clair, Daniel Kuritzkes
Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health crisis into a treatable but chronic disease...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472872/pharmacoresistant-severe-mental-health-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-functional-abnormalities-of-cytochrome-p450-2d6
#2
Susanne Thümmler, Emmanuelle Dor, Renaud David, Graziella Leali, Michele Battista, Alexia David, Florence Askenazy, Céline Verstuyft
Background: Severe mental health disorders in children and adolescents represent a major public health problem. Despite adequate drug treatment, some patients develop pharmacoresistant disease. As a consequence, physicians are confronted with prescribing challenges, prolonged hospitalization and increased risk of adverse events, thus aggravating short-, medium-, and long-term prognosis. The majority of psychotropic treatments, particularly antipsychotics and antidepressants, are metabolized at hepatic level by cytochrome P450 (CYP), particularly by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472515/development-of-a-standardized-approach-for-managing-opioids-in-adults-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#3
Jessica M Downes, Donald G Klepser, Jennifer Foster, Maggie Nelson
PURPOSE: The implementation of a chronic pain protocol (CPP) and its effects on the management of long-term opioid therapy are described. SUMMARY: The CPP used at a federally qualified health center and primary care clinic was updated in 2015 and included a prescribing ceiling in morphine equivalent dose (MED) per day and standardized the prescribing of chronic opioids. Intermittent urine drug screening performed at least once annually was added as a requirement of the pain management contract between the provider and the patient...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471667/review-of-differentiated-approaches-to-antiretroviral-therapy-distribution
#4
Nicole Davis, Natasha Kanagat, Melissa Sharer, Sabrina Eagan, Jennifer Pearson, Ugochukwu Ugo Amanyeiwe
In response to global trends of maximizing the number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), this review summarizes literature describing differentiated models of ART distribution at facility and community levels in order to highlight promising strategies and identify evidence gaps. Databases and gray literature were searched, yielding thirteen final articles on differentiated ART distribution models supporting stable adult patients. Of these, seven articles focused on distribution at facility level and six at community level...
February 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470253/management-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-disease
#5
Mark H Adelman, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent original research and specialty society guidelines regarding the diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of NTM pulmonary disease has risen in recent years. The prevalence of individual NTM species varies geographically, although Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) remain among the most commonly encountered in many regions...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469638/cost-comparison-of-continued-anticoagulation-with-rivaroxaban-versus-placebo-based-on-the-one-year-einstein-extension-trial-efficacy-and-safety-results
#6
Philip S Wells, Anthonie W A Lensing, Lloyd Haskell, Bennett Levitan, François Laliberté, Michael Durkin, Veronica Ashton, Yongling Xiao, Concetta Crivera, Dominique Lejeune, Jeff Schein, Patrick Lefebvre
AIMS: The EINSTEIN-Extension trial (EINSTEIN-EXT) found that continued treatment with rivaroxaban for an additional 6 or 12 months (versus placebo) after 6-12 months of initial anticoagulation significantly reduced the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) with a small non-significant increased risk of major bleeding (none fatal or in critical site). This study aimed to compare total healthcare cost between rivaroxaban and placebo based on the EINSTEIN-EXT event rates. METHODS: Total healthcare cost was calculated as sum of treatment and clinical event costs from a US managed care perspective...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469616/prehospital-echocardiography-during-resuscitation-impacts-treatment-in-a-physician-staffed-helicopter-emergency-medical-service-an-observational-study
#7
Rein Ketelaars, Christian Beekers, Geert-Jan Van Geffen, Gert Jan Scheffer, Nico Hoogerwerf
BACKGROUND: Patients in cardiac arrest must receive algorithm-based management such as basic life support and advanced (cardiac) life support. International guidelines dictate diagnosing and treating any factor that may have caused the arrest or may be complicating the resuscitation. Ultrasound may be of potential value in this process and can be used in a prehospital setting. The objective is to evaluate the use of prehospital ultrasound during traumatic and non-traumatic CPR and determine its impact on prehospital treatment decisions in a Dutch helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS)...
February 22, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469240/actual-versus-expected-doses-of-half-tablets-containing-prescribed-psychoactive-substances-a-systematic-review
#8
Jaqueline K Eserian, Márcia Lombardo, Jair R Chagas, José C F Galduróz
Objective: To assess through a systematic review of the literature if the practice of splitting tablets containing psychoactive/psychotropic medications for medical or economic reasons would result in the expected doses. Data Sources: A MEDLINE and PsycInfo comprehensive search of English-language publications from January 1999 to December 2015 was conducted using the terms describing tablet splitting (tablet splitting, split tablets, tablet subdivision, divided tablets, and half tablets) and psychoactive substances (psychoactive medicines, psychotropic medicines, antidepressants, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and antiparkinsonian agents)...
February 8, 2018: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468526/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-pharmacotherapy-in-slovenian-adults-a-population-based-study
#9
Matej Stuhec, Igor Locatelli
Background Pharmacotherapy is the first line treatment for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the percentage of treated patients may indicate the quality of treatment of adult ADHD. The main aim of this study was to investigate the rates of pharmacological treatment for adult ADHD in Slovenia from 2003 to 2015. Methods The number of prescriptions per patient was obtained for three different age groups (18-24, 25-49, 50 + age group). The national consumption rates were obtained from the national database...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467656/sublingual-administration-of-sildenafil-oro-dispersible-film-new-profiles-of-drug-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-for-pde5-inhibitors
#10
Luca De Toni, Maurizio De Rocco Ponce, Erica Franceschinis, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Roberto Padrini, Nicola Realdon, Andrea Garolla, Carlo Foresta
Objective: Type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE5i) are efficient drugs used for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED); however, a large discontinuation rate due to major side effects is reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible improvement of sildenafil (Sild) pharmacokinetics associated to the sublingual administration of the new available oro-dispersible film (ODF), compared to both the oro-dispersible tablet (ODT) and the film-coated tablet (FCT) as original per os formulation. Methods: In vitro disaggregation test, dissolution test, and permeation test in specific devices to estimate the trans-mucosal absorption...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467570/reference-ranges-for-antiepileptic-drugs-revisited-a-practical-approach-to-establish-national-guidelines
#11
Arne Reimers, Jon Andsnes Berg, Margrete Larsen Burns, Eylert Brodtkorb, Svein I Johannessen, Cecilie Johannessen Landmark
Background and objective: Laboratories sometimes use different reference ranges for the same antiepileptic drug (AED), particularly for new and poorly investigated drugs. This may contribute to misunderstandings, concerns or inappropriate dose changes, which in turn may affect therapeutic effect, drug safety or treatment adherence. Therefore, the Norwegian Association of Clinical Pharmacology wished to update and harmonize the reference ranges for AEDs and establish national guidelines for Norway...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467460/early-antiretroviral-therapy-on-reducing-hiv-transmission-in-china-strengths-weaknesses-and-next-focus-of-the-program
#12
Pengtao Liu, Zhenzhu Tang, Guanghua Lan, Qiuying Zhu, Huanhuan Chen, Yinghui You, Xiaoyi Yang, Shujia Liang, Yi Chen, Hui Xing, Lingjie Liao, Yi Feng, Zhiyong Shen, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is a recommended public health approach for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. In this cohort study, we included 13132 serodiscordant couples. ART was initiated for patients with CD4+ T cell counts less than 200 cells/uL, 350 cells/uL, and 500 cells/uL respectively. This divided the ART treated couples into three groups. Univariate and multivariate intention-to-treat analyses were performed to examine the association between the study groups. Early-ART initiation was associated with a 45% lower risk of partner infection than was late-ART initiation (AHR 0...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467098/retention-engagement-and-adherence-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-prep-brasil-48-week-results-of-a-demonstration-study
#13
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Brenda Hoagland, Ronaldo I Moreira, Esper G Kallas, Jose V Madruga, Silvia Goulart, Iuri C Leite, Lucilene Freitas, Luana M S Martins, Thiago S Torres, Ricardo Vasconcelos, Raquel B De Boni, Peter L Anderson, Albert Liu, Paula M Luz, Valdiléa G Veloso
BACKGROUND: PrEP Brasil was a demonstration study to assess feasibility of daily oral tenofovir diphosphate disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine provided at no cost to men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women at high risk for HIV within the Brazilian public health system. We report week 48 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) retention, engagement, and adherence, trends in sexual behaviour, and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in this study cohort. METHODS: PrEP Brasil was a 48 week, open-label, demonstration study that assessed PrEP delivery at three referral centres for HIV prevention and care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), and São Paulo, Brazil (Universidade de São Paulo and Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST e AIDS)...
February 16, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466056/a-guide-to-follow-on-biologics-and-biosimilars-with-a-focus-on-insulin
#14
Richard Dolinar, Frank Lavernia, Steven Edelman
OBJECTIVE: Many healthcare providers in the U.S. are not familiar with follow-on biologics and biosimilars nor with their critical distinctions from standard generics. Our aim is to provide a detailed review of both, with a focus on insulins in the U.S. regulatory system. METHODS: Literature has been reviewed to provide information on various aspects of biosimilars and a follow-on biologic of insulin. This will include structure, efficacy, cost, switching, and legal issues...
February 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464833/cgpdr1-gain-of-function-mutations-lead-to-azole-resistance-and-increased-adhesion-in-clinical-candida-glabrata-strains
#15
Qi Ni, Chen Wang, Yuan Tian, Danfeng Dong, Cen Jiang, Enqiang Mao, Yibing Peng
BACKGROUND: Recently, Candida glabrata has emerged as a health-threatening pathogen and the rising resistance to antifungal agent in C. glabrata often leads to clinical treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the evolution of drug resistance and adherence ability in four paired clinical isolates collected before and after antifungal treatment. METHODS: Sequence analysis, gene disruption, drug-susceptibility, adhesion tests, and real-time quantitative PCR were performed...
February 21, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463627/spironolactone-versus-clonidine-as-a-fourth-drug-therapy-for-resistant-hypertension-the-rehot-randomized-study-resistant-hypertension-optimal-treatment
#16
Eduardo M Krieger, Luciano F Drager, Dante M A Giorgi, Alexandre C Pereira, José Augusto Soares Barreto-Filho, Armando R Nogueira, José Geraldo Mill, Paulo A Lotufo, Celso Amodeo, Marcelo C Batista, Luiz C Bodanese, Antônio C C Carvalho, Iran Castro, Hilton Chaves, Eduardo A S Costa, Gilson S Feitosa, Roberto J S Franco, Flávio D Fuchs, Armênio C Guimarães, Paulo C Jardim, Carlos A Machado, Maria E Magalhães, Décio Mion, Raimundo M Nascimento, Fernando Nobre, Antônio C Nóbrega, Antônio L P Ribeiro, Carlos R Rodrigues-Sobrinho, Antônio F Sanjuliani, Maria do Carmo B Teixeira, Jose E Krieger
The aim of this study is to compare spironolactone versus clonidine as the fourth drug in patients with resistant hypertension in a multicenter, randomized trial. Medical therapy adherence was checked by pill counting. Patients with resistant hypertension (no office and ambulatory blood pressure [BP] monitoring control, despite treatment with 3 drugs, including a diuretic, for 12 weeks) were randomized to an additional 12-week treatment with spironolactone (12.5-50 mg QD) or clonidine (0.1-0.3 mg BID). The primary end point was BP control during office (<140/90 mm Hg) and 24-h ambulatory (<130/80 mm Hg) BP monitoring...
February 20, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463490/motivational-interviewing-and-medication-review-in-coronary-heart-disease-mimeric-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-investigating-effects-on-clinical-outcomes-adherence-and-quality-of-life
#17
Malin Johansson Östbring, Tommy Eriksson, Göran Petersson, Lina Hellström
BACKGROUND: Preventive treatment goals for blood pressure and cholesterol levels continue to be unmet for many coronary patients. The effect of drug treatment depends on both its appropriateness and the patients' adherence to the treatment regimen. There is a need for adherence interventions that have a measurable effect on clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects on treatment goals of an intervention designed to improve patient adherence and treatment quality in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease...
February 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461230/-clinical-and-psychological-correlations-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#18
G Suleymanova, R Grekhov, I Zborovskaya
The features of clinical symptoms, neurotic disorders and the level of subjective control were studied in patients with fibromyalgia. The analysis of relationship between the level of subjective control and neurotic symptoms (asthenia, depression, anxiety, hypochondria) depending the severity of main clinical manifestations of the disease was carried out. It was found that high intensity of fatigue, muscle pain, stiffness, insomnia, and an increase in the number of diagnostic tender points contribute to the formation of inverse correlation between the level of subjective control and neurotic disturbances...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460706/using-a-treatment-diary-to-improve-the-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia
#19
Fiorenzo Santoleri, Ruggero Lasala, Andrea Logreco, Elena Ranucci, Alberto Costantini
Purpose The aim of this study was to verify whether the distribution of a treatment diary by a pharmacist could influence the adherence to oral treatment with imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Methods The level of adherence was calculated using the received daily dose/prescribed daily dose ratio and compared between patients who used a diary and those who did not. Results Forty-four (35.8%) of 123 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia completed the diary: 20 (45...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460659/video-assisted-patient-education-improves-compliance-with-follow-up-and-depression-scores-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#20
Nagesh Kamat, Surulivel Rajan Mallayasamy, P S V N Sharma, Asha Kamath, C Ganesh Pai
OBJECTIVES: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have to deal with a poor quality of life (QOL) and psychomorbidity resulting from an incurable illness. We aimed to study the effect of patient education on QOL, compliance, anxiety and depression in IBD. METHODS: Patients were prospectively enrolled over two years beginning July 2014 and divided into an interventional and usual care group. Both received the standard of care, but the former in addition received an 8 minute session of video-assisted education...
February 20, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
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