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Akihiro Koyama, J Megan Steinweg, Michelle L Haddix, Jeffrey S Dukes, Matthew D Wallenstein
The structure and function of soil microbiomes often change in response to experimental climate manipulations, suggesting an important role in ecosystem feedbacks. However, it is difficult to know if microbes are responding directly to environmental changes or are more strongly impacted by plant responses. We investigated soil microbial responses to precipitation and temperature manipulations at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment in Massachusetts, USA in both vegetated and bare plots to parse direct vs plant-mediated response to multi-factor climate change...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Anirudh Kumar, John F Wagener, Daniel Wojdyla, W Schuyler Jones, Manesh R Patel, Sunil V Rao
BACKGROUND: Studies comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) have shown lower repeat revascularization rates in patients who undergo CABG. The reason remains unclear. METHODS: We identified patients with multivessel CAD who received CABG or PCI enrolled in the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease (2003 to 2012). We compared the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) between the two groups...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Daniel Juneau, Mohammad Golfam, Samir Hazra, Fernanda Erthal, Lionel S Zuckier, Jordan Bernick, George A Wells, Rob S B Beanlands, Benjamin J W Chow
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition. Currently, the modified Duke criteria is used to assist with the diagnosis of IE, but it can still remain difficult. Growing data supports the potential use of molecular imaging to assist in the diagnosis of IE. Our objective was to understand the potential utility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), (67)Ga citrate and radiolabeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of IE...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Sonja Cleary, Maxine Duke
BACKGROUND: After their attempts to have patient safety concerns addressed internally were ignored by wilfully blind managers, nurses from Bundaberg Base Hospital and Macarthur Health Service felt compelled to 'blow the whistle'. Wilful blindness is the human desire to prefer ignorance to knowledge; the responsibility to be informed is shirked. OBJECTIVE: To provide an account of instances of wilful blindness identified in two high-profile cases of nurse whistleblowing in Australia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
Patrick J Smith, Laurie D Snyder, Scott M Palmer, Benson M Hoffman, Gregory L Stonerock, Krista K Ingle, Caroline K Saulino, James A Blumenthal
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant candidates and have been associated with poorer clinical outcomes in some studies. Previous studies have been plagued by methodologic problems, including small sample sizes, few clinical events, and uncontrolled confounders, particularly perioperative complications. In addition, few studies have examined social support as a potential protective factor. We therefore examined the association between pre-transplant depressive symptoms, social support, and mortality in a large sample of lung transplant recipients...
November 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Oleg I Kit, Dmitry I Vodolazhsky, Denis S Kutilin, Yaroslav S Enin, Yury A Gevorkyan, Peter V Zolotukhin, Yanis Boumber, Leonid V Kharin, Svetlana B Panina
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and third most common cancer in men. Cell signaling alterations in colon cancer, especially in aggressive metastatic tumors, require further investigations. The present study aims to compare the expression pattern of proteins associated with cell signaling in paired tumor and non-tumor samples of patients with colon cancer, as well as to define the cluster of proteins to differentiate patients with non-metastatic (Dukes' grade B) and metastatic (Dukes' grade C&D) colon cancer...
November 11, 2017: Protein Journal
Shiwanthi L Ranasinghe, Mary Duke, Marina Harvie, Donald P McManus
OBJECTIVES: To develop a vaccine against schistosomiasis, which is a major challenge due to the complex life cycle of the causative schistosome parasite. METHODS: SmKI-1 is a 16kDa Kunitz type protease inhibitor present in the excretory/secretory products and tegument of adult worms and eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. Two independent vaccine trials were carried out in mice to determine the efficacy of rSmKI-1 in developing protective immunity. RESULTS: The results obtained showed reductions of 23-33% in adult worms, 28-31% in intestinal eggs, 33-39% in fecal eggs and 20-43% in liver eggs...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
K Thom, A Hanslik, J L Russell, S Williams, P Sivaprakasam, U Allen, C Male, L R Brandão
BACKGROUND: Pediatric infective endocarditis (IE) has been associated with high morbidity and mortality, mostly related to thromboembolic complications (TEC). The objective of our study was to describe the experience in children with IE and to review the changes over a thirty-year period, regarding origin of IE, incidence of vegetations, TEC and their respective morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children aged 0-18years with IE defined by the Duke Criteria and admitted to The Hospital for Sick Children, was conducted...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Lauren M Abbate, Amy S Jeffreys, Cynthia J Coffman, Todd A Schwartz, Liubov Arbeeva, Leigh F Callahan, Nicole A Negbenebor, Wendy M Kohrt, Robert S Schwartz, Ernest Vina, Kelli D Allen
OBJECTIVE: To identify patient demographic and clinical characteristics associated with osteoarthritis (OA) treatment use. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of three clinical trials among patients with hip or knee OA conducted in 1) Duke Primary Care practices, 2) the Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System (DVAHCS), and 3) the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC). At baseline, participants reported socio-demographic characteristics, OA-related pain and function, and OA treatment use including oral analgesia, topical creams, joint injections and physical therapy...
November 10, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
Mario Suwalsky, Ivan Castillo, Brenda N Sánchez-Eguía, María José Gallardo, Nathan Dukes, Edelmiro Santiago-Osorio, Itzen Aguiñiga, Ana R Rivera-Martínez
Two cytotoxic copper(II) complexes with N-H and N-methylated benzimidazole-derived ligands (Cu-L(1) and Cu-L(1Me); L(1)=bis(2-methylbenzimidazolyl)(2-methylthioethyl)amine, L(1Me)=bis(1-methyl-2-methylbenzimidazolyl)(2-methylthioethyl)amine) were synthesized and exposed to human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane. The latter were bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), classes of lipids present in the external and internal moieties of the human red cell membrane, respectively...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Lifeng Wang, Jia Qi, Jinlong Yu, Haijin Chen, Zhaowei Zou, Xiaohua Lin, Linlang Guo
In order to understand the clinical significance of rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (Rictor) in colorectal cancer (CRC), 62 CRC tissue samples excised during operations were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the association between the expression level of Rictor protein and clinicopathological parameters demonstrated that the expression level of Rictor in CRC tissues was significantly higher than that in paracarcinoma tissues (P<0.0001). In cellular experiments, this result was further confirmed by comparing differences in Rictor expression between the CRC cell lines HCT116, SW480 and LoVo, and the human normal liver cell line HL-7702...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
José M Quintana, Ane Anton-Ladislao, Santiago Lázaro, Nerea Gonzalez, Marisa Bare, Nerea Fernandez de Larrea, Maximino Redondo, Eduardo Briones, Antonio Escobar, Cristina Sarasqueta, Susana Garcia-Gutierrez
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic with that of open surgery up to 2 years after intervention in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgery (laparoscopic or open) between June 2010 and December 2012 in 22 acute hospitals. Main outcomes were mortality, complications, reoperation, readmission, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), as measured using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-Q30 and Q29, the Barthel Index (BI), and the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
JinShil Kim, Mi-Seung Shin, Seon Young Hwang, Eunok Park, Young-Hyo Lim, Jae Lan Shim, Sun Hwa Kim, Yeon Hee Kim, Minjeong An
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the degree of cognitive impairment and its association with physical functional capacity among patients with heart failure (HF) in Korea. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared cognitive impairment between patients with HF and community-dwelling participants with non-HF medical conditions (medical participants) and its association with physical functional capacity. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study and assessed the neuropsychological cognitive status (Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery) and physical functional capacity (Duke Activity Status Index) of patients with HF and medical participants using face-to-face interviews...
November 2, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Ronak Patel, John E Anderson, Claire McKenzie, Mhairi Simpson, Nina Singh, Fredrick Ruzvidzo, Praveen Sharma, Roy Scott, Angus MacDonald
AIMS: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines require patients with colorectal cancer to wait no longer than 62 days from first referral to initiation of definitive treatment. We previously demonstrated that failure to meet with these guidelines did not appear to lead to poor outcomes in the short term. This study investigates whether this holds true over a longer period. METHODS: The survival status of 1,012 patients treated for colorectal cancer between January 1999 and June 2005 was reviewed...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Todd C Crawford, J Trent Magruder, Joshua C Grimm, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Nishant Patel, Christopher M Sciortino, Kenton J Zehr, Kaushik Mandal, Ryan J Tedford, Stuart D Russell, John V Conte, Robert S Higgins, Duke E Cameron, Glenn J Whitman
BACKGROUND: Prolonged hospital length of stay (PLOS) after heart transplantation increases cost and morbidity. To better inform care, we developed a risk score to identify patients at risk for PLOS after heart transplantation. METHODS: We queried the United Network for Organ Sharing Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database for adult patients who underwent isolated heart transplantation from 2003 to 2012. The population was randomly divided into a derivation cohort (80%) and a validation cohort (20%)...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Thomas Plieger, Andrea Felten, Hanna Splittgerber, Éilish Duke, Martin Reuter
Although HPA - axis reactivity has repeatedly been related to cognitive functioning, ambiguity remains regarding the direction of the effect, i.e. whether it benefits or impairs functioning. Genetic factors that contribute to HPA - axis reactivity on the one hand and to cognitive functioning on the other could therefore help clarify the association between stress and cognition. We genotyped 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the NR3C1 gene (rs10482682, rs33389, rs10482633, rs10515522, rs2963156, rs4128428, rs9324918, rs41423247, rs6189, rs10052957) coding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 4 SNPs on the NR3C2 gene (rs6810951, rs4635799, rs11099695, rs2070950) coding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and required N=126 healthy males to perform tasks assessing attention and reasoning before and after experiencing an acute laboratory stressor (the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, SECPT)...
October 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
S Grace Prakalapakorn, David K Wallace, Sharon F Freedman
Importance: Some proponents of telemedicine screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) believe that a screening system based on the characteristics of posterior pole vessels is sufficient for identifying infants needing treatment. Objective: To evaluate the vascular characteristics present when treatment was determined to be needed and the number of days from the last examination when the vessels of both eyes were noted to be normal until a decision was made to treat...
November 2, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
Mark A Weaver, Brian E Scheffler, Mary Duke, Linda Ballard, Hamed K Abbas, Michael J Grodowitz
Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic contaminant of many commodities that are infected by Aspergillus flavus Nonaflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus have been utilized as biological control agents. Here, we report the genome sequences from three biocontrol strains. This information will be useful in developing markers for postrelease monitoring of these fungi.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
Sylvain A Lother, Davinder S Jassal, Philippe Lagacé-Wiens, Yoav Keynan
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) from patients with Group C and G streptococci (GCGS) bacteremia, and characterize the burden of disease, clinical characteristics, and outcomes through a case series of patients with GCGS IE. METHODS: Individuals with blood cultures growing GCGS in Manitoba, Canada, between January 2012 and December 2015 were included. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were collected retrospectively...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Tasleem Katchi, Howard A Cooper, Srikanth S Yandrapalli, Sahil Khera, John Fallon, David Spielvogel, Wilbert S Aronow, Julio A Panza
Despite significant technological advances, the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) remains a major challenge, and the condition continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Valvular vegetations have long been the diagnostic and pathologic hallmarks of IE. However, IE can be diagnosed even in the absence of vegetations using the modified Duke criteria. Vegetation-negative endocarditis is rare, and to the present authors' knowledge no cases of septic emboli in the absence of valvular vegetations have been reported...
May 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
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