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Hugh Klein, Claire E Sterk, Kirk W Elifson
Purpose. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol-related problems, the factors underlying these problems, and whether or not there is evidence of syndemic effects in a community population of southern, urban African American women. Methods. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 817 women, all African American, from 80 targeted census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Most of the alcohol users (67.8%) experienced at least one problem as a result of their alcohol (ab)use, with most women experiencing two or more such problems...
2016: Journal of Addiction
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Jacob J van den Berg, M Isabel Fernández, Joseph L Fava, Don Operario, Bret J Rudy, Patrick A Wilson
Identifying risk and protective factors associated with condomless sex among youth living with HIV is imperative for developing effective HIV prevention strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 1728 participants, 12-26 years of age, recruited from adolescent medicine clinics in 17 U.S. cities completed an audio-computer assisted self-interview with questions about their substance use, psychosocial factors, and attitudinal and behavioral factors. Guided by syndemics theory, a path analysis was used to assess the interrelations of these factors...
September 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Merrill Singer
It is estimated that over a million people die each year from infectious diseases of zoonotic origin and hundreds of millions suffer from these pervasive threats to human well-being. In light of the emergent global concern over the Zika virus, evidence that it has not one but two competent mosquito vector species in the Aedes family, and that both can be co-infected with other pathogens including dengue and chikungunya, this paper examines research suggesting the prospect of significant twenty-first-century outbreaks of arbovirus syndemics...
September 2, 2016: Global Public Health
Courtney Peasant, Tami P Sullivan, Nicole H Weiss, Isabel Martinez, Jaimie P Meyer
BACKGROUND: HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). OBJECTIVE: The current study (1) applied a syndemic framework to study the collective effects of problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on fear of condom negotiation, condom negotiation, and condom use and (2) evaluated condom negotiation (controlling for fear of condom negotiation) as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use among low-income IPV-exposed women...
September 2, 2016: AIDS Care
Rebecca C Chukwuanukwu, Charles C Onyenekwe, Luisa Martinez-Pomares, Robin Flynn, Sonali Singh, Grace I Amilo, Nneka R Agbakoba, Jude O Okoye
Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The African region has 24% of the world TB cases. TB overlaps with other infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV which are also highly prevalent in the African region. TB is a leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients and co-infection with HIV and TB has been described as a syndemic. In view of the overlapping epidemiology of these diseases, it is important to understand the dynamics of the immune response to TB in the context of co-infection...
August 31, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
P Alvarez, F Genre, M Iglesias, J J Augustin, E Tamayo, J C Escolà-Gil, B Lavín, F Blanco-Vaca, R Merino, J Merino
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficiency promoted an exacerbation of autoimmune arthritis in mice by inducing proinflammatory immune responses. In this study we analysed the contribution of hypercholesterolaemia and/or the absence of ApoE anti-inflammatory properties, unrelated to its function in the control of cholesterol metabolism, towards the acceleration of arthritis in these mutant animals. The induction and severity of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) were compared for B10.RIII wild-type (WT), B10...
August 29, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Alice Fiddian-Green, Aline C Gubrium, Jeffery C Peterson
Public health efforts focused on Latina youth sexuality are most commonly framed by the syndemic of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, a narrow and often heteronormative focus that perpetuates silences that contribute to health inequities and overlooks the growing need for increased education, awareness, and support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. This article presents findings from the project Let's Talk About Sex: Digital Storytelling for Puerto Rican Latina Youth, which used a culturally centered, narrative-based approach for analyzing participants' own specifications of sexual values and practices...
August 26, 2016: Health Communication
Paula M Frew, Kimberly Parker, Linda Vo, Danielle Haley, Ann O'Leary, Dazon Dixon Diallo, Carol E Golin, Irene Kuo, Lydia Soto-Torres, Jing Wang, Adaora A Adimora, Laura A Randall, Carlos Del Rio, Sally Hodder
BACKGROUND: We sought to understand the multilevel syndemic factors that are concurrently contributing to the HIV epidemic among women living in the US. We specifically examined community, network, dyadic, and individual factors to explain HIV vulnerability within a socioecological framework. METHODS: We gathered qualitative data (120 interviews and 31 focus groups) from a subset of women ages 18-44 years (N = 2,099) enrolled in the HPTN 064 HIV seroincidence estimation study across 10 US communities...
2016: BMC Public Health
M Reuel Friedman, Robert W S Coulter, Anthony J Silvestre, Ron Stall, Linda Teplin, Steve Shoptaw, Pamela J Surkan, Michael W Plankey
Though functional social support has been shown to serve as a protective factor for HIV viral load suppression in other populations, scant research has examined this relationship among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We assessed characteristics of social support, effects of social support on HIV viral load, and moderation by social support of the relationship between psychosocial indicators of a synergistic epidemic (syndemic) and HIV viral load. We analyzed longitudinal data from HIV-positive MSM using antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 712)...
July 25, 2016: AIDS Care
Omar Martinez, Sonya Arreola, Elwin Wu, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Ethan Czuy Levine, Scott Edward Rutledge, Carolina Hausmann-Stabile, Larry Icard, Scott D Rhodes, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Carlos E Rodríguez-Díaz, M Isabel Fernandez, Theo Sandfort
OBJECTIVE: Syndemic theory has been proposed as a framework for understanding the role of multiple risk factors driving the HIV epidemic among sexual and gender minority individuals. As yet, the framework has been relatively absent in research on Latinos/as. METHODS: We used logistic regression to assess relationships among cumulative syndemic conditions - including clinically significant depression, high-risk alcohol consumption, discrimination, and childhood sexual abuse - engagement with multiple partners and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) in a sample of 176 Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Tonia Poteat, Ayden Scheim, Jessica Xavier, Sari Reisner, Stefan Baral
INTRODUCTION: Transgender populations have been underrepresented in HIV epidemiologic studies and consequently in HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. Since 2012, there has been a dramatic increase in research focused on transgender people. Studies highlight the burden of HIV and risk determinants, including intersecting stigmas, as drivers of syndemics among transgender populations. This review synthesizes the most recent global epidemiology of HIV infection and describes current gaps in research and interventions to inform prioritization of HIV research for transgender populations...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rebecca K Papas, Benson N Gakinya, Michael M Mwaniki, Alfred K Keter, Hana Lee, Michelle P Loxley, Debra A Klein, John E Sidle, Steve Martino, Joyce B Baliddawa, Kathryn L Schlaudt, Stephen A Maisto
BACKGROUND: To counteract the syndemics of HIV and alcohol in Sub-Saharan Africa, international collaborations have developed interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. Reliable and accurate methods are needed to estimate alcohol use outcomes. A direct alcohol biomarker called phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has been shown to validate heavy, daily drinking, but the literature indicates mixed results for moderate and nondaily drinkers, including among HIV-infected populations. This study examined the associations of the PEth biomarker with self-report alcohol use at 2 time points in 127 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya...
August 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jaimie P Meyer, Julie A Womack, Britton Gibson
Women comprise nearly one-quarter of all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the U.S. and 20 percent of incident annual cases. Though women overall are more likely than men to be diagnosed with HIV and engage in care, they are as unlikely to successfully achieve viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy, suggesting gender-based disparities that should be addressed by gender-responsive policies and programs. Using the socioecological model of health and syndemics theory, we comprehensively reviewed published literature to evaluate reasons for and ways to address gender differences in HIV risk and treatment...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Debra M Furr-Holden, Adam J Milam, Elizabeth D Nesoff, Joshua Garoon, Mieka J Smart, Alexandra Duncan, Gregory C Warren
THE PROBLEM: The prevalence of injection drug use (IDU) and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain high in Baltimore, where IDU is a primary HIV risk factor. Substance use disorders and HIV are related syndemically--their causes and consequences interact synergistically. Baltimore is increasingly considering the syndemic relationship of substance use disorders, IDU, and HIV in making decisions about drug treatment funding and location. PURPOSE OF ARTICLE: Our goal was to empirically identify the optimal location of new drug treatment programs through the development and application of a novel, practical tool...
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Isabel Martinez, Trace S Kershaw, Jessica B Lewis, Emily C Stasko, Jonathan N Tobin, Jeannette R Ickovics
Substance use, intimate partner violence, and depression contribute to sexual risk individually, yet have not been evaluated as a syndemic for adolescents. Using data from 772 pregnant Latina adolescents, we evaluated these factors as a syndemic and tested the moderating role of immigration. Bivariate analyses showed syndemic score (OR = 1.40, p = 0.02) and severity (OR = 1.68, p = 0.006) were predictors for multiple sex partners, and syndemic score predicting STIs (OR = 1.15, p = 0.05). Syndemic severity remained significant in multivariate analyses for multiple sex partners (OR = 1...
June 23, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Keshab Deuba, Sarah Anderson, Anna Mia Ekström, Satish Raj Pandey, Rachana Shrestha, Deepak Kumar Karki, Gaetano Marrone
OBJECTIVES: Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries. In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers. This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal...
August 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Adam W Carrico, Roland Zepf, Steven Meanley, Abigail Batchelder, Ronald Stall
Because problematic patterns of alcohol and other substance use are prevalent drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, comprehensive interventions are needed for substance-using men who have sex with men (SUMSM). We conducted a systematic review of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioral interventions for reducing condomless anal intercourse (CAI) in SUMSM. Three RCTs observed that cognitive-behavioral or motivational interviewing interventions achieved a 24% to 40% decrease in CAI. Interventions also tended to demonstrate greater efficacy for reducing CAI and substance use among those who had lower severity of substance use disorder symptoms...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Patrick A Wilson, Ilan H Meyer, Nadav Antebi-Gruszka, Melissa R Boone, Stephanie H Cook, Emily M Cherenack
Young Black gay/bisexual men (YBGBM) are affected by contextual stressors-namely syndemic conditions and minority stress-that threaten their health and well-being. Resilience is a process through which YBGBM achieve positive psychosocial outcomes in the face of adverse conditions. Self-efficacy, hardiness and adaptive coping, and social support may be important resilience factors for YBGBM. This study explores different profiles of these resilience factors in 228 YBGBM in New York City and compares profiles on psychological distress, mental health, and other psychosocial factors...
March 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Sarah J Reed, Robin Lin Miller
We examined resilience associated with the avoidance of psychosocial health conditions (i.e., syndemics) that increase vulnerability for HIV among young Black gay and bisexual men. We used analytic induction to compare a sample of 23 men who showed no evidence of syndemic conditions to a sample of 23 men who experienced syndemic conditions. The men who avoided syndemics reported supportive relationships with people who helped them to develop a strong sense of identity, provided them with opportunities to give back to their communities, and promoted positive norms about health...
March 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
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