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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784276/associations-of-drug-use-violence-and-depressive-symptoms-with-sexual-risk-behaviors-among-women-with-alcohol-misuse
#1
Kristen Lee, Heidi E Hutton, Catherine R Lesko, Anne K Monroe, Anika Alvanzo, Mary E McCaul, Geetanjali Chander
BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk behaviors by women. Drug use, intimate partner violence (IPV), and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur, are well-recognized alcohol misuse comorbidities, and may interact to increase risk behaviors. Using a syndemic framework we examined associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behaviors by 400 women with alcohol misuse attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic...
May 18, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784059/diabetes-intervention-accentuating-diet-and-enhancing-metabolism-diadem-i-a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-examine-the-impact-of-an-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-consisting-of-a-low-energy-diet-and-physical-activity-on-body-weight-and-metabolism-in-early
#2
Shahrad Taheri, Odette Chagoury, Hadeel Zaghloul, Sara Elhadad, Salma Hayder Ahmed, Omar Omar, Sherryl Payra, Salma Ahmed, Neda El Khatib, Rasha Abou Amona, Katie El Nahas, Matthew Bolton, Henem Chaar, Noor Suleiman, Amin Jayyousi, Mahmoud Zirie, Ibrahim Janahi, Wahiba Elhag, Abdulla Alnaama, Abduljaleel Zainel, Dahlia Hassan, Tim Cable, Mary Charlson, Martin Wells, Abdulla Al-Hamaq, Samya Al-Abdulla, Abdul Badi Abou-Samra
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are syndemic and will have a significant impact on affected individuals and healthcare services worldwide. Evidence shows that T2DM remission can be achieved with significant weight loss in those who are younger with early diabetes and requiring fewer medications for glycaemic control. DIADEM-I aims to examine the impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) using a low-energy diet (LED) meal replacement approach combined with physical activity in younger individuals with early T2DM...
May 21, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770077/outbreaks-in-the-age-of-syndemics-new-insights-for-improving-indigenous-health
#3
A Andermann
Conventional approaches for the prevention and control of communicable diseases within Indigenous contexts may benefit from new insights arising from the growing interest in syndemics. Syndemics is a term used to describe a conceptual framework for understanding diseases or health conditions, and how these are exacerbated by the social, economic, environmental and political milieu in which a population is immersed. The use of conventional approaches for outbreak prevention and control remains the bedrock of intervention in the field of communicable diseases; yet on their own, these strategies are not always successful, especially within contexts of marginalization and disadvantage...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671203/the-policy-driven-hiv-epidemic-among-opioid-users-in-the-russian-federation
#4
REVIEW
Robert Heimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the consequences of policies implemented in the Russian Federation in response to syndemic of HIV-1 and opioid use disorder and compare the responses to the concomitant syndemic in rural America. RECENT FINDINGS: The syndemic spread has not been reduced by policies implemented by the Russian government, which continues to underfund harm reduction efforts to reduce HIV transmission, refuses to approve evidence-based opioid agonist treatments for opioid use disorder, and relies on criminal justice and abstinence approaches to control illicit opioids...
April 18, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665064/tourism-labor-embodied-suffering-and-the-deportation-regime-in-the-dominican-republic
#5
Mark Padilla, José Félix Colón-Burgos, Nelson Varas-Díaz, Armando Matiz-Reyes, Caroline Mary Parker
In this article, we use syndemic theory to examine socio-structural factors that result in heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and drug addiction among Dominican deportees who survive post-deportation through informal tourism labor. Through an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study of the syndemic of HIV and problematic drug use among men involved in tourism labor in the Dominican Republic, we argue that the legal and political-economic context of the global deportation regime contributes to structural vulnerabilities among deportees in the Dominican Republic, most of whom are men with histories of incarceration in the United States and/or Puerto Rico...
April 17, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661572/chemsex-and-mental-health-as-part-of-syndemic-in-gay-and-bisexual-men
#6
Perry N Halkitis, Stuart N Singer
A commentary is provided on the study reported by Garrett Prestage and his colleagues, which examined the relations between mental health states, non-injection drug use and sexual risk behaviors in a cross-sectional sample of 3,017Australian gay and bisexual men. We provide a summary of the findings in relation to the extant literature on the interconnectedness of these behaviors and health states and interpret the findings in this regard, noting both strengths and limitations. We couch our commentary in a theory of syndemics for considering how these associations may manifest and for informing both research and practice...
April 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651922/prior-exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-less-hiv-testing-among-young-women
#7
Yukiko Washio, Elizabeth Novack Wright, Annet Davis-Vogel, Jesse Chittams, Claire Anagnostopulos, Linda M Kilby, Anne M Teitelman
Low-income minority women are disproportionately represented among those living with HIV in the United States. They are also at risk for the SAVA (substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS) syndemic issues. Women who have recently given birth are at high risk for substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV), and HIV testing is not routinely administered during the postpartum visit. We explored the relationship between substance use, IPV, and HIV testing among low-income young adult women attending Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a federally supported nutrition program...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629649/two-diseases-same-person-moving-toward-a-combined-hiv-and-tuberculosis-continuum-of-care
#8
Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis syndemic remains a global public health threat. Separate HIV and tuberculosis (TB) global targets have been set; however, success will depend on achieving combined disease control objectives and care continua. The objective of this study was to review available policy, budgets, and data to reconceptualize TB and HIV disease control objectives by combining HIV and TB care continua. For 22 World Health Organization (WHO) TB and TB/HIV priority countries, we used 2015 data from the HIV90-90-90watch website, UNAIDS AIDSinfo, and WHO 2016 and 2017 Global TB Reports...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628175/syndemics-a-theory-in-search-of-data-or-data-in-search-of-a-theory
#9
Alexander C Tsai
The concept of a syndemic was proposed more than two decades ago to explain how large-scale social forces might give rise to co-occurring epidemics that synergistically interact to undermine health in vulnerable populations. This conceptual instrument has the potential to help policymakers and program implementers in their endeavors to improve population health. Accordingly, it has become an increasingly popular heuristic for advocacy, most notably in the field of HIV treatment and prevention. However, most empirical studies purporting to validate the theory of syndemics actually do no such thing...
March 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615297/is-there-synergy-in-syndemics-psychosocial-conditions-and-sexual-risk-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-india
#10
Cecilia Tomori, Allison M McFall, Sunil S Solomon, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Santhanam Anand, P Balakrishnan, Shruti H Mehta, David D Celentano
Syndemic theory describes the clustering and synergistic interaction of disease driven by contextual and social factors, which worsen health outcomes for a population, and has been applied to men who have sex with men (MSM) and their risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Recent reviews, however, have critiqued prevailing approaches in syndemic studies that assess only additive associations without evaluation of synergy. Following these suggestions, we compared the traditional additive approach with a test for synergistic association of 5 syndemic conditions (alcohol dependence, illicit drug use, depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and childhood sexual abuse (CSA)) with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and active syphilis infection among 11,771 MSM recruited through respondent driven sampling from 12 cities in India...
March 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609674/young-adult-victimization-and-midlife-consequences-sensitization-or-steeling-effects-of-childhood-adversity
#11
Elaine Eggleston Doherty, Brittany Jaecques, Kerry M Green, Margaret E Ensminger
The interrelationship between victimization, violence, and substance use/abuse has been well established, yet those who experience victimization do not necessarily respond with violence or substance use or escalate to experiencing substance abuse symptoms. Drawing on literature from both the syndemic research from medical anthropology and the resilience research from psychology, this study examines the interaction between early childhood adversity and young adult violent victimization on later substance use/abuse and violent offending to provide insight into conditional effects...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607658/syndemic-effect-of-mental-illness-and-substance-use-on-viral-suppression-among-recently-incarcerated-hiv-infected-individuals-in-the-care-corrections-study
#12
Hannah Yellin, Curt Beckwith, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, Breana Castonguay, Rudy Patrick, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Irene Kuo
Few studies on HIV-related syndemics of co-occurring and mutually reinforcing psychosocial conditions have assessed clinical outcomes in criminal justice (CJ)-involved populations. Baseline data from the CARE+ Corrections study were used to quantify co-occurring mental illness and substance use and examine syndemic effects on viral suppression among 106 CJ-involved HIV-infected individuals. Ninety-one (86%) reported a mental illness diagnosis, 30 (28%) reported hazardous alcohol use, and 61 (58%) were drug dependent...
April 1, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589136/syndemic-conditions-hiv-transmission-risk-behavior-and-transactional-sex-among-transgender-women
#13
Jeffrey T Parsons, Nadav Antebi-Gruszka, Brett M Millar, Demetria Cain, Sitaji Gurung
This study examined the effect of four syndemic conditions-namely, polydrug use, depression, childhood sexual abuse, and intimate partner violence-on rates of HIV transmission risk behavior (TRB) and separately, transactional sex among transgender women. TRB was defined as the number of condomless penetrative sex events with a casual or main partner of discordant or unknown HIV status. Using data from 212 transgender women in New York City, multivariable analyses revealed that, compared to those with no syndemic conditions, dramatically higher rates of recent HIV TRB events (ARR = 8...
March 27, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533847/the-additive-effects-of-depressive-symptoms-and-polysubstance-use-on-hiv-risk-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Kiffer G Card, Nathan J Lachowsky, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Paul Sereda, Jody Jollimore, Thomas L Patterson, Trevor Corneil, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), collinearity between polysubstance use and mental health concerns has obscured their combined effects on HIV risk with multivariable results often highlighting only one or the other. METHODS: We used mediation and moderation analyses to examine the effects of polysubstance use and depressive symptoms on high-risk sex (i.e., condomless anal sex with serodiscordant/unknown status partner) in a sample of sexually-active GBM, aged ≥16 years, recruited in Metro Vancouver using respondent driven sampling...
July 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532735/-in-the-north-you-can-t-be-openly-gay-contextualising-sexual-practices-among-sexually-and-gender-diverse-persons-in-northern-canada
#15
Carmen H Logie, Candice L Lys, Nicole Schott, Lisa Dias, Makenzie R Zouboules, Kayley Mackay
Scant research has addressed health and well-being among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons in the Arctic. The Northwest Territories (NWT) has among Canada's highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). LGBTQ persons in NWT are at the nexus of LGBTQ and Arctic health disparities. Yet little is known of their sexual health needs. This qualitative study explored the sexual health needs of LGBTQ persons in the NWT. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 51 participants, including 16 LGBTQ youth aged 15-24, 21 LGBTQ adults aged 25 and above, and 14 key informants who worked with LGBTQ persons...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530543/nurse-led-hiv-pep-program-used-by-men-at-high-risk-for-hiv-seroconversion
#16
Patrick O'Byrne, Paul MacPherson, Lauren Orser
We trialed a nurse-led HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) program in two sexually transmitted infection clinics in Ottawa, Canada. From September 5, 2013 to September 4, 2015, 112 persons sought PEP: 103 were male, of whom 84 were men who have sex with men (MSM). Seventy-two patients (59 MSM) initiated PEP; 11 were diagnosed with HIV: 6 diagnoses occurred during initial assessment (all MSM; 1 also shared injection equipment); 5 MSM were diagnosed with HIV within 1 year of seeking PEP. This level of positivity indicated that, when access is facilitated, individuals at high risk of HIV seek PEP...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526113/-there-is-a-chain-of-connections-using-syndemics-theory-to-understand-hiv-treatment-side-effects
#17
Marilou Gagnon
Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects...
July 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499626/resilience-as-a-moderator-between-syndemics-and-depression-in-mothers-living-with-hiv
#18
Idia B Thurston, Kathryn H Howell, Rebecca C Kamody, Courtney Maclin-Akinyemi, Jessica Mandell
Physical and emotional adversities in mothers have rippling effects across the family system. While an association between individual maternal adversities and problematic mental health outcomes has been established, less is known about co-existing adversities in mothers. Consistent with the syndemic conceptual framework, we examined the co-occurrence of Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS/HIV (i.e., SAVA), which are three adversities that uniquely affect racial/ethnic minorities, individuals living in poverty, and people in urban communities...
March 2, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486737/high-hiv-risk-and-syndemic-burden-regardless-of-referral-source-among-msm-screening-for-a-prep-demonstration-project-in-toronto-canada
#19
James Wilton, Syed W Noor, Alexandre Schnubb, James Lawless, Trevor A Hart, Troy Grennan, Shawn Fowler, John Maxwell, Darrell H S Tan
BACKGROUND: To maximize public health impact and cost-effectiveness, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) must reach individuals at high HIV risk. Referrals for PrEP can be self- or provider-initiated, but there are several challenges to both. We assessed whether HIV risk differed by referral source among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex (gbMSM) screening for an HIV PrEP demonstration project. METHODS: PREPARATORY-5 was an open-label PrEP demonstration project enrolling gbMSM at high risk of HIV acquisition in Toronto, Canada...
February 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478406/an-exploration-of-syndemic-factors-that-influence-engagement-in-hiv-care-among-black-men
#20
Katherine G Quinn, Sarah J Reed, Julia Dickson-Gomez, Jeffrey A Kelly
Syndemic theory seeks to understand the interactions and clustering of disease and social conditions and explain racial disparities in HIV. Traditionally applied to HIV risk, this study characterizes the syndemic challenges of engagement in care among Black men living with HIV and provides insight into potential HIV treatment interventions to retain vulnerable individuals in care. Interviews were conducted with 23 HIV-positive men who were either out-of-care or nonadherent to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using MAXQDA qualitative software...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
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