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Nicholas W Caira, David R Smith
We demonstrate a computer-generated metasurface hologram in which four distinct images are encoded at four different W-band (75-110 GHz) frequencies. The metasurface hologram consists of a planar array of resonant metamaterial elements excited by a collimated reference beam incident on the hologram at an oblique angle. Each of the images is encoded by a subset of metamaterial elements that are resonant at the specific excitation frequency and are spatially positioned to achieve a desired phase distribution in the plane in conjunction with the reference wave...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Peng Wang, Rajesh Menon
Multispectral imagers reveal information unperceivable to humans and conventional cameras. Here, we demonstrate a compact single-shot multispectral video-imaging camera by placing a micro-structured diffractive filter in close proximity to the image sensor. The diffractive filter converts spectral information to a spatial code on the sensor pixels. Following a calibration step, this code can be inverted via regularization-based linear algebra to compute the multispectral image. We experimentally demonstrated spectral resolution of 9...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
David Perez-Guaita, Kamila Kochan, Mitchell Batty, Christian Doerig, Jose Garcia-Bustos, Shirley Josefina Espinoza Herrera, Don McNaughton, Philip Heraud, Bayden R Wood
Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopy is a powerful new technique that can be applied to study molecular composition of cells and tissues at the nano-scale. AFM-IR maps are acquired using single wavenumber value: they show either the absorbance plotted against a single wavenumber value, or a ratio of two absorbance values. Here we implement multivariate image analysis to generate multivariate AFM-IR maps, and use this approach to resolve subcellular structural information in red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum at different stages of development...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ting-Ting Shi, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Ke Zhang, Lan-Ping Guo, Lu-Qi Huang
The herbs used as the material for traditional Chinese medicine are always planted in the mountainous area where the natural environment is suitable. As the mountain terrain is complex and the distribution of planting plots is scattered, the traditional survey method is difficult to obtain accurate planting area. It is of great significance to provide decision support for the conservation and utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources by studying the method of extraction of Chinese herbal medicine planting area based on remote sensing and realizing the dynamic monitoring and reserve estimation of Chinese herbal medicines...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mary P Hall, Carolyn C Woodroofe, Monika G Wood, Ivo Que, Moniek Van't Root, Yanto Ridwan, Ce Shi, Thomas A Kirkland, Lance P Encell, Keith V Wood, Clemens Löwik, Laura Mezzanotte
The sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging in animals is primarily dependent on the amount of photons emitted by the luciferase enzyme at wavelengths greater than 620 nm where tissue penetration is high. This area of work has been dominated by firefly luciferase and its substrate, D-luciferin, due to the system's peak emission (~ 600 nm), high signal to noise ratio, and generally favorable biodistribution of D-luciferin in mice. Here we report on the development of a codon optimized mutant of click beetle red luciferase that produces substantially more light output than firefly luciferase when the two enzymes are compared in transplanted cells within the skin of black fur mice or in deep brain...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Jordi Castellví, Adriano Camps, Jordi Corbera, Ramon Alamús
The ³Cat-3/MOTS (3: Cube, Cat: Catalunya, 3: 3rd CubeSat mission/Missió Observació Terra Satèl·lit) mission is a joint initiative between the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (UPC) to foster innovative Earth Observation (EO) techniques based on data fusion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) and optical payloads. It is based on a 6U CubeSat platform, roughly a 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm parallelepiped...
January 6, 2018: Sensors
Maurício R Veronez, Lucas S Kupssinskü, Tainá T Guimarães, Emilie C Koste, Juarez M da Silva, Laís V de Souza, William F M Oliverio, Rogélio S Jardim, Ismael É Koch, Jonas G de Souza, Luiz Gonzaga, Frederico F Mauad, Leonardo C Inocencio, Fabiane Bordin
Water quality monitoring through remote sensing with UAVs is best conducted using multispectral sensors; however, these sensors are expensive. We aimed to predict multispectral bands from a low-cost sensor (R, G, B bands) using artificial neural networks (ANN). We studied a lake located on the campus of Unisinos University, Brazil, using a low-cost sensor mounted on a UAV. Simultaneously, we collected water samples during the UAV flight to determine total suspended solids (TSS) and dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
Mahmood Reza Golzarian, Narges Ghanei Ghooshkhaneh, Mojtaba Mamarabadi
BACKGROUND: Fungal decay is a prevalent condition that mainly occurs during transportation of products to consumers (from harvest to consumption) and adversely affect post-harvest operations and sales of citrus fruit. There are a variety of methods to control pathogenic fungi including UV-assisted removal of fruit with suspected infection before storage, which is a time-taking task coupled with human health risks. Therefore, it is essential to adopt efficient dependable alternatives for early decay detection...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Thomas Wells Cronin, Missael Garcia, Viktor Gruev
Multispectral, hyperspectral, polarimetric, and other types of multichannel imaging spectrometers are coming into common use for a variety of applications, including remote sensing, material identification, forensics, and medical diagnosis. These instruments are often bulky and intolerant of field abuse, so designing compact, reliable, portable, and robust devices is a priority. In contrast to most engineering designs, animals have been building compact and robust multichannel imaging systems for millennia - their eyes...
January 9, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Jakob Unger, Tianchen Sun, Yi-Ling Chen, Jennifer E Phipps, Richard J Bold, Morgan A Darrow, Kwan-Liu Ma, Laura Marcu
An important step in establishing the diagnostic potential for emerging optical imaging techniques is accurate registration between imaging data and the corresponding tissue histopathology typically used as gold standard in clinical diagnostics. We present a method to precisely register data acquired with a point-scanning spectroscopic imaging technique from fresh surgical tissue specimen blocks with corresponding histological sections. Using a visible aiming beam to augment point-scanning multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on video images, we evaluate two different markers for the registration with histology: fiducial markers using a 405-nm CW laser and the tissue block's outer shape characteristics...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Robert H Wilson, Christian Crouzet, Mohammad Torabzadeh, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Babak Jamasian, Dishant Donga, Juan Alcocer, Shuhab M Zaher, Bernard Choi, Yama Akbari, Bruce J Tromberg
Quantifying rapidly varying perturbations in cerebral tissue absorption and scattering can potentially help to characterize changes in brain function caused by ischemic trauma. We have developed a platform for rapid intrinsic signal brain optical imaging using macroscopically structured light. The device performs fast, multispectral, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), detecting backscattered light from three-phase binary square-wave projected patterns, which have a much higher refresh rate than sinusoidal patterns used in conventional SFDI...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
Hans Weber, Brian A Hargreaves, Bruce L Daniel
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance (MR) guidance for biopsy procedures requires high intrinsic soft-tissue contrast. However, artifacts induced by the metallic needle can reduce its localization and require low-susceptibility needle materials with poorer cutting performance. In a proof of concept, we demonstrate the feasibility of 2D multispectral imaging (2DMSI) for both needle tracking and for needle artifact reduction for more precise needle localization and to enable the usage of needle materials with higher susceptibility...
December 29, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Artur Mezheyeuski, Christian Holst Bergsland, Max Backman, Dijana Djureinovic, Tobias Sjöblom, Jarle Bruun, Patrick Micke
Semiquantitative assessment of immune markers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has significant limitations for describing the diversity of the immune response in cancer. Therefore we evaluated a fluorescence-based multiplexed IHC method in combination with a multispectral imaging system to quantify immune infiltrates in situ in the environment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A tissue microarray including 57 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases was stained with antibodies to CD8, CD20, CD4, FOXP3, CD45RO and for pan-cytokeratin and immune cells were quantified in epithelial and stroma compartments...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Pathology
Ann-Christin Peter, Matthias Schnaubelt, Michael Gente
Purpose: Dual-energy X-ray imaging is widely used today in various areas of medicine and in other applications. However, no similar technique exists for dental applications. In this study, we propose a dual-energy technique for dental diagnoses based on voltage-switching. Materials and Methods: The method presented in this study allowed different groups of materials to be classified based on atomic number, thereby enabling two-dimensional images to be colorized...
December 2017: Imaging Science in Dentistry
Chao-Hui Feng, Yoshio Makino, Masatoshi Yoshimura, Dang Quoc Thuyet, Juan Francisco García-Martín
The potential of hyperspectral imaging with wavelengths of 380 to 1000 nm was used to determine the pH of cooked sausages after different storage conditions (4 °C for 1 d, 35 °C for 1, 3, and 5 d). The mean spectra of the sausages were extracted from the hyperspectral images and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to relate spectral profiles with the pH of the cooked sausages. Eleven important wavelengths were selected based on the regression coefficient values. The PLSR model established using the optimal wavelengths showed good precision being the prediction coefficient of determination (Rp2 ) 0...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Joanna Napp, Marieke A Stammes, Jing Claussen, Hendrica A J M Prevoo, Cornelis F M Sier, Freek J M Hoeben, Marc S Robillard, Alexander L Vahrmeijer, Tim Devling, Alan B Chan, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Frauke Alves
A crucial point for the management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the decrease of R1 resections. Our aim was to evaluate the combination of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) with fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) for diagnosis and perioperative detection of tumour nodules and resection margins in a xenotransplant mouse model of human pancreatic cancer. The peptide cRGD, conjugated with the near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye IRDye800CW and with a trans-cyclooctene (TCO) tag for future click chemistry (cRGD-800CW-TCO), was applied to PDAC bearing immunodeficient nude mice...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Shruti Upadhyaya, Raaj Ramsankaran
The main objective of this study is to validate and inter-compare two Near-Real-Time Satellite Rainfall Estimates (NRT-SREs): INSAT Multispectral Rainfall Algorithm (IMSRA, simple blended product) and TMPA 3B42-RT V7 (3B42-RT, multisatellite product) across India. This study aims to provide some insight into the error characteristics of both the NRT-SREs to the algorithm developers and end users by inter-comparing the daily rainfall estimates during the southwest monsoon period of 2010-2013. This study utilizes various volumetric statistics and categorical statistics to understand and evaluate the performance of NRT-SREs in terms of both spatial and volumetric error characteristics (hit, miss, and false error) at different rainfall thresholds across different Köppen-Geiger climate regions of India using the gridded gauge data provided by Indian Meteorological Department as reference dataset...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sunil Munakomi, Binod Bhattarai, Iype Cherian
Background: In developing nations like Nepal, spinal cord injury has multispectral consequences for both the patient and their family members. It has the tendency to cripple and handicap the patients, and burn out their caretakers, both physically and mentally. Furthermore, the centralization of health care with only a handful of dedicated rehabilitation centers throughout Nepal further places patients into disarray. This study was carried out as a pilot study to determine the modes of injury, age groups affected, clinical profiles and patterns of injury sustained, as well as the efficacy of managing a subset of patients, who have sustained cervical spine and cord injuries...
2017: F1000Research
Xiaowei Li, Min Zhao, Yan Xing, Lei Li, Seok-Tae Kim, Xin Zhou, Qiong-Hua Wang
Optical integral imaging (II) uses a lenslet array and CCD sensor as the 3D acquisition device, in which the multispectral information is acquired by a color filter array (CFA). However, color crosstalk exists in CFA that diminishes color gamut, resulting in the reduced resolution. In this paper, we present a monospectral II encryption approach with a monospectral camera array (MCA). The monospectral II system captures images with the MCA that can eliminate color crosstalk among the adjacent spectral channels...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
Jihun Kim, Anna Seo, Jun-Young Kim, Sung Hyouk Choi, Hyung-Jin Yoon, Eunjoo Kim, Jae Youn Hwang
We report a multimodal biomicroscopic system which offers high-frequency ultrasound B-mode, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), and multispectral imaging for qualitative tumor characterization ex vivo. Examinations of resected tissues from diseased regions such as tumors are crucial procedures during surgical operations to treat cancer. Particularly, if tiny tumors remain at surgical sites after tumor resection, such tumors can result in unwanted outcomes, such as cancer recurrence or metastasis to other organs...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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