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Dissociative Identity Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199427/-attachment-trauma-and-dissociation-the-genesis-of-the-dissociated-personality
#1
Ricardo E Cortese
In the present work we will deepen on the dissociative identity disorder (DID) and in the main current explanatory theory doomed to elucidate its genesis. The latter implies the interweaving of the notions of trauma, dissociation and attachment, relying on the psychoanalytic traditions and cognitive behavioral, generating an integrated perspective that transfigures the way how it was dealt with clinically and therapeutically this disorder. Under the perspective of the latter, the DID appears insert in the framework of the dissociative disorders of the personality, the same as the borderline organization, and in turn related to those dissociative disorders acquired in adulthood, which includes the post-traumatic stress disorder and some somatization disorders and conversion, which suggests the existence of an extended spectrum of dissociative disorders...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138924/dissociation-and-alterations-in-brain-function-and-structure-implications-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Annegret Krause-Utz, Rachel Frost, Dorina Winter, Bernet M Elzinga
Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131724/insights-in-spatio-temporal-characterization-of-human-fetal-neural-stem-cells
#3
Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Inés Guardia, Mónica Pardo, Cristina Herranz, Rike Zietlow, Ngoc-Nga Vinh, Anne Rosser, Josep M Canals
Primary human fetal cells have been used in clinical trials of cell replacement therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). However, human fetal primary cells are scarce and difficult to work with and so a renewable source of cells is sought. Human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) can be generated from human fetal tissue, but little is known about the differences between hfNSCs obtained from different developmental stages and brain areas. In the present work we characterized hfNSCs, grown as neurospheres, obtained from three developmental stages: 4-5, 6-7 and 8-9weeks post conception (wpc) and four brain areas: forebrain, cortex, whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and cerebellum...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077328/dissociation-between-working-memory-performance-and-proactive-interference-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Diane Swick, Julien Cayton, Victoria Ashley, And U Turken
Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068498/adapting-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-dissociative-identity-disorder
#5
Brad Foote, Kim Van Orden
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918876/awareness-of-identity-alteration-and-diagnostic-preference-between-borderline-personality-disorder-and-dissociative-disorders
#6
Vedat Sar, Firdevs Alioğlu, Gamze Akyuz, Emre Tayakısı, Ezgi F Öğülmüş, Doğuş Sönmez
AIM: This study inquires into identity alteration among college students and its relationship to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs). METHODS: Steinberg Identity Alteration Questionnaire (SIAQ), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and self-report screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1301 college students. Participants who fit the diagnostic criteria of BPD (n = 80) according to the clinician-administered SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV DDs (SCID-D) by two psychiatrists blind to the group membership and scale scores...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812338/systemic-case-formulation-individualized-process-monitoring-and-state-dynamics-in-a-case-of-dissociative-identity-disorder
#7
Günter K Schiepek, Barbara Stöger-Schmidinger, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Helmut Schöller, Benjamin Aas
Objective: The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management) including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative identity disorder. Methods: A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client's dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770748/trauma-related-self-defining-memories-and-future-goals-in-dissociative-identity-disorder
#8
Rafaële J C Huntjens, Ineke Wessel, Brian D Ostafin, Paul A Boelen, Friederike Behrens, Agnes van Minnen
This study examined the content of self-defining autobiographical memories in different identities in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and comparison groups of patients with PTSD, healthy controls, and DID simulators. Consistent with the DID trauma model, analyses of objective ratings showed that DID patients in trauma identities retrieved more negative and trauma-related self-defining memories than DID patients in avoidant identities. Inconsistent with the DID trauma model, DID patients' self-rated trauma-relatedness of self-defining memories and future life goals did not differ between trauma identities and trauma avoidant identities...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689689/evidence-for-phase-based-psychotherapy-as-a-treatment-for-dissociative-identity-disorder-comorbid-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-alcohol-dependence
#9
Brianna E Pollock, Jenny Macfie, L Christian Elledge
We report on the treatment and successful outcome of a 58-year-old Native American male with a history of complex trauma presenting with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and major depressive disorder. The treatment included a trauma-informed phase-based psychotherapy as recommended by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation for treating DID. We assessed symptoms at baseline and at three additional time points over the course of 14 months. We utilized the Reliable Change Index to examine statistically significant change in symptoms over the course of treatment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467405/opposite-structural-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-dopamine-binding-to-%C3%AE-synuclein
#10
Albert Konijnenberg, Simona Ranica, Joanna Narkiewicz, Giuseppe Legname, Rita Grandori, Frank Sobott, Antonino Natalello
The intrinsically disordered and amyloidogenic protein α-synuclein (AS) has been linked to several neurodegenerative states, including Parkinson's disease. Here, nanoelectrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS), ion mobility (IM), and native top-down electron transfer dissociation (ETD) techniques are employed to study AS interaction with small molecules known to modulate its aggregation, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and dopamine (DA). The complexes formed by the two ligands under identical conditions reveal peculiar differences...
September 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404447/voice-identity-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Stefanie Schelinski, Claudia Roswandowitz, Katharina von Kriegstein
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in identifying another person by face and voice. This might contribute considerably to the development of social cognition and interaction difficulties. The characteristics of the voice recognition deficit in ASD are unknown. Here, we used a comprehensive behavioral test battery to systematically investigate voice processing in high-functioning ASD (n = 16) and typically developed pair-wise matched controls (n = 16). The ASD group had particular difficulties with discriminating, learning, and recognizing unfamiliar voices, while recognizing famous voices was relatively intact...
July 12, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399352/vitamin-d-dependent-rickets-type-1-caused-by-mutations-in-cyp27b1-affecting-protein-interactions-with-adrenodoxin
#12
Adam Zalewski, Nina S Ma, Balazs Legeza, Nora Renthal, Christa E Flück, Amit V Pandey
CONTEXT: CYP27B1 converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, playing a vital role in calcium homeostasis and bone growth. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1 (VDDR-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in CYP27B1. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was an enzymatic and structural analysis of mutations in a patient with calcipenic rickets. Design, Setting, Patient, and Intervention: Two siblings presented with calcipenic rickets and normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395050/psychospiritual-resiliency-enhancing-mental-health-and-ecclesiastical-collaboration-in-caring-for-those-experiencing-dissociative-phenomena
#13
Christopher J Howard
Trauma can oftentimes be a catalyst for changes in an individual's religious and spiritual beliefs. Beliefs about the cause of the trauma, for instance, may include attributions of possessing spirits, and are to be found in an increasingly pluralistic and multicultural society. Such preternatural explanations may be referred to as dissociative identity disorder, possession form. Unwittingly, an overreliance on neurobiological explanations and relegation of cultural idioms of distress may diminish effective collaboration with ecclesiastical authorities...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384396/separating-fact-from-fiction-an-empirical-examination-of-six-myths-about-dissociative-identity-disorder
#14
Bethany L Brand, Vedat Sar, Pam Stavropoulos, Christa Krüger, Marilyn Korzekwa, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Warwick Middleton
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex, posttraumatic, developmental disorder for which we now, after four decades of research, have an authoritative research base, but a number of misconceptualizations and myths about the disorder remain, compromising both patient care and research. This article examines the empirical literature pertaining to recurrently expressed beliefs regarding DID: (1) belief that DID is a fad, (2) belief that DID is primarily diagnosed in North America by DID experts who overdiagnose the disorder, (3) belief that DID is rare, (4) belief that DID is an iatrogenic, rather than trauma-based, disorder, (5) belief that DID is the same entity as borderline personality disorder, and (6) belief that DID treatment is harmful to patients...
July 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336217/comparing-shame-in-clinical-and-nonclinical-populations-preliminary-findings
#15
Kevin F W Dyer, Martin J Dorahy, Mary Corry, Rebecca Black, Laura Matheson, Holly Coles, David Curran, Lenaire Seager, Warwick Middleton
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a preliminary study comparing different trauma and clinical populations on types of shame coping style and levels of state shame and guilt. METHODS: A mixed independent groups/correlational design was employed. Participants were recruited by convenience sampling of 3 clinical populations-complex trauma (n = 65), dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 20), and general mental health (n = 41)-and a control group of healthy volunteers (n = 125)...
June 23, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245196/comparing-the-symptoms-and-mechanisms-of-dissociation-in-dissociative-identity-disorder-and-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Andreas Laddis, Paul F Dell, Marilyn Korzekwa
A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45)...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225185/is-it-trauma-or-fantasy-based-comparing-dissociative-identity-disorder-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-simulators-and-controls
#17
E M Vissia, M E Giesen, S Chalavi, E R S Nijenhuis, N Draijer, B L Brand, A A T S Reinders
OBJECTIVE: The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences. To date, these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner. METHOD: This study included matched groups [patients (n = 33) and controls (n = 32)] that were compared on psychological Trauma and Fantasy measures: diagnosed genuine DID (DID-G, n = 17), DID-simulating healthy controls (DID-S, n = 16), individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 16)...
August 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216366/is-high-hypnotizability-a-necessary-diathesis-for-pathological-dissociation
#18
Paul F Dell
During the 19th century, high hypnotizability was considered to be a form of psychopathology that was inseparable from hysteria. Today, hypnotizability is considered to be a normal trait that has no meaningful relationship with psychopathology. Psychiatric patients generally manifest medium to low hypnotizability. Nevertheless, several psychiatric diagnoses are marked by an unexpectedly large proportion of patients with high hypnotizability. This is especially true of the diagnostic categories that were subsumed by the 19th-century concept of hysteria: dissociative identity disorder, somatization disorder, and complex conversion disorders...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124478/-transsexualism-a-brain-disorder-that-begins-to-known
#19
Natalia López Moratalla, Amparo Calleja Canela
Transsexualism describes the condition when a person's psychological gender differs from his or her biological sex. People with gender identity disorder suffer persistently from this incongruence and they search hormonal and surgical sex reassignment to the desired anatomical sex. This review, from an ethical perspective, intends to give an overview of structural and functional neurobiological correlations of transsexualism and their course under cross-sex hormonal administration. Several studies demonstrate an increased functional connectivity between cortex regions reaffirming psychosocial distress of psychologicalbiological sex incongruity...
January 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120718/the-psychobiology-of-authentic-and-simulated-dissociative-personality-states-the-full-monty
#20
Antje A T S Reinders, Antoon T M Willemsen, Eline M Vissia, Herry P J Vos, Johan A den Boer, Ellert R S Nijenhuis
The etiology of dissociative identity disorder (DID) remains a topic of debate. Proponents of the fantasy model and the trauma model of DID have both called for more empirical research. To this end, the current study presents new and extended data analyses of a previously published H2O positron emission tomography imaging study. This study included 29 subjects: 11 patients with DID and 10 high- and 8 low-fantasy-prone DID-simulating mentally healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent an autobiographical memory script-driven (neutral and trauma related) imagery paradigm in 2 (simulated) dissociative personality states (neutral and trauma related)...
June 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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