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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788329/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-metronidazole-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-appendicitis-a-prospective-study
#1
Jason Child, Xinhui Chen, Rakesh D Mistry, Stig Somme, Christine MacBrayne, Peter L Anderson, Ronald N Jones, Sarah K Parker
Background: Metronidazole is traditionally dosed every 6-8 hours even though in adults it has a long half-life, concentration-dependent killing, and 3-hour postantibiotic effect. Based on this logic, some pediatric hospitals adopted once-daily dosing for appendicitis, despite limited pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) in children. We studied pediatric patients with appendicitis given metronidazole once daily to determine whether this dosing would meet target area under the curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of ≥70 for Bacteroides fragilis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786025/resident-perspectives-on-communication-training-that-utilizes-immersive-virtual-reality
#2
Francis J Real, Dominick DeBlasio, Nicholas J Ollberding, David Davis, Bradley Cruse, Daniel Mclinden, Melissa D Klein
Background: Communication skills can be difficult to teach and assess in busy outpatient settings. These skills are important for effective counseling such as in cases of influenza vaccine hesitancy. It is critical to consider novel educational methods to supplement current strategies aimed at teaching relational skills. Methods: An immersive virtual reality (VR) curriculum on addressing influenza vaccine hesitancy was developed using Kern's six-step approach to curriculum design...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786021/developing-and-implementing-a-global-emergency-medicine-course-lessons-learned-from-rwanda
#3
Sojung Yi, Olivier Félix Umuhire, Doris Uwamahoro, Mindi Guptill, Giles N Cattermole
Background: There is a growing demand by medical trainees for meaningful, short-term global emergency medicine (EM) experiences. EM programs in high-income countries (HICs) have forged opportunities for their trainees to access this experience in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, few programs in LMICs have created and managed such courses. As more LMICs establish EM programs, these settings are ideal for developing courses beneficial for all participants. We describe our experience of creating and implementing a short-term global EM course in Rwanda...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780789/a-fundamentals-train-the-trainer-approach-to-building-pediatric-critical-care-expertise-in-the-developing-world
#5
Sheri S Crow, Beth A Ballinger, Mariela Rivera, David Tsibadze, Nino Gakhokidze, Nino Zavrashvili, Matthew J Ritter, Grace M Arteaga
Pediatric Fundamental Critical Care Support (PFCCS) is an educational tool for training non-intensivists, nurses, and critical care practitioners in diverse health-care settings to deal with the acute deterioration of pediatric patients. Our objective was to evaluate the PFCCS course as a tool for developing a uniform, reproducible, and sustainable model for educating local health-care workers in the optimal management of critically ill children in the Republic of Georgia. Over a period of 18 months and four visits to the country, we worked with Georgian pediatric critical care leadership to complete the following tasks: (1) survey health-care needs within the Republic of Georgia, (2) present representative PFCCS lectures and simulation scenarios to evaluate interest and obtain "buy-in" from key stakeholders throughout the Georgian educational infrastructure, and (3) identify PFCCS instructor candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777750/post-a-framework-for-set-based-association-analysis-in-high-dimensional-data
#6
Xueyuan Cao, E Olusegun George, Mingjuan Wang, Dale B Armstrong, Cheng Cheng, Susana Raimondi, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, James R Downing, Mondira Kundu, Stanley B Pounds
Evaluating the differential expression of a set of genes belonging to a common biological process or ontology has proven to be a very useful tool for biological discovery. However, existing gene-set association methods are limited to applications that evaluate differential expression across k⩾2 treatment groups or biological categories. This limitation precludes researchers from most effectively evaluating the association with other phenotypes that may be more clinically meaningful, such as quantitative variables or censored survival time variables...
May 16, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777528/state-of-the-art-review-on-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-pediatric-drug-development
#7
REVIEW
Venkata Yellepeddi, Joseph Rower, Xiaoxi Liu, Shaun Kumar, Jahidur Rashid, Catherine M T Sherwin
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation is an important tool for predicting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of drugs in pediatrics. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is applied in pediatric drug development for first-time-in-pediatric dose selection, simulation-based trial design, correlation with target organ toxicities, risk assessment by investigating possible drug-drug interactions, real-time assessment of pharmacokinetic-safety relationships, and assessment of non-systemic biodistribution targets...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775814/composite-self-expanding-bioresorbable-prototype-stents-with-reinforced-compression-performance-for-congenital-heart-disease-application-computational-and-experimental-investigation
#8
Fan Zhao, Wen Xue, Fujun Wang, Laijun Liu, Haoqin Shi, Lu Wang
Stents are vital devices to treat vascular stenosis in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Bioresorbable stents (BRSs) have been applied to reduce challenging complications caused by permanent metal stents. However, it remains almost a total lack of BRSs with satisfactory compression performance specifically for children with congenital heart disease, leading to importantly suboptimal effects. In this work, composite bioresorbable prototype stents with superior compression resistance were designed by braiding and annealing technology, incorporating poly (p-dioxanone) (PPDO) monofilaments and polycaprolactone (PCL) multifilament...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765943/juvenile-xanthogranuloma-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#9
Radha Ram, Marissa D Marolf, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Honey H Herce
Purpose: To report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma that simulated a chalazion and to discuss the association between juvenile xanthogranuloma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Method: Case report and review of literature. Results: A 13-year-old boy with a prior history of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was referred to our clinic for a possible chalazion. The patient had undergone treatment for Langerhans cell histiocytosis 10 years prior...
April 2018: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746707/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oral-propranolol-in-pediatric-patients-with-infantile-hemangioma
#10
Tomoki Takechi, Tadao Kumokawa, Rumiko Kato, Takeshi Higuchi, Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Ichiro Ieiri
This study aimed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of propranolol (Hemangiol® Syrup for Pediatric) in infants with infantile hemangioma. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with 63 pooled sets of plasma concentration-time data from 32 Japanese patients aged 35-150 days, we described the disposition of propranolol adequately by a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption. The estimated population mean apparent clearance and apparent central volume of distribution were 9...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746357/simulating-the-role-of-the-parent-promoting-family-centered-nursing-care
#11
Elizabeth Zimmermann, Celeste M Alfes
Parents of hospitalized children need support to diminish their own fear and anxiety and provide safe and loving care for the child. Baccalaureate nursing students, who are rarely parents themselves, often find it difficult to understand the needs of parents. An innovative simulation strategy was created to enhance students' understanding of the parent's role and its effect on family-centered care. This article describes the development of pediatric simulation experiences that actively incorporate the role of a parent...
May 9, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740571/hands-on-defibrillation-skills-of-pediatric-acute-care-providers-during-a-simulated-ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-scenario
#12
Utpal S Bhalala, Niveditha Balakumar, Maria Zamora, Elumalai Appachi
Introduction: Timely defibrillation in ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VFCA) is associated with good outcome. While defibrillation skills of pediatric providers have been reported to be poor, the factors related to poor hands-on defibrillation skills of pediatric providers are largely unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate delay in individual steps of the defibrillation and human and non-human factors associated with poor hands-on defibrillation skills among pediatric acute care providers during a simulated VFCA scenario...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737457/a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-to-describe-ciprofloxacin-pharmacokinetics-over-the-entire-span-of-life
#13
Jan-Frederik Schlender, Donato Teutonico, Katrin Coboeken, Katrin Schnizler, Thomas Eissing, Stefan Willmann, Ulrich Jaehde, Heino Stass
BACKGROUND: Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has received growing interest as a useful tool for the assessment of drug pharmacokinetics by continuous knowledge integration. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to build a ciprofloxacin PBPK model for intravenous and oral dosing based on a comprehensive literature review, and evaluate the predictive performance towards pediatric and geriatric patients. METHODS: The aim of this report was to establish confidence in simulations of the ciprofloxacin PBPK model along the development process to facilitate reliable predictions outside of the tested adult age range towards the extremes of ages...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736878/vancomycin-in-pediatric-patients-with-solid-or-hematological-malignant-disease-predictive-performance-of-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-and-new-optimized-dosing-regimens
#14
Amélie Marsot, F Gallais, C Galambrun, C Coze, O Blin, N Andre, R Guilhaumou
BACKGROUND: The application of population pharmacokinetic models and Bayesian methods offers the potential to develop individualized therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVES: The current study presents an external evaluation of a vancomycin pharmacokinetic model in a pediatric cancer population and proposes an easy-to-use chart for clinicians for a priori vancomycin schedule adaptation to achieve target concentration. METHODS: External evaluation of a population pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin administered via continuous infusion was realized in a new retrospective dataset of pediatric patients with cancer...
May 8, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736244/propranolol-pharmacokinetics-in-infants-treated-for-infantile-hemangiomas-requiring-systemic-therapy-modeling-and-dosing-regimen-recommendations
#15
Laurence Del Frari, Christine Léauté-Labrèze, Laurent Guibaud, Sébastien Barbarot, Jean-Philippe Lacour, Christine Chaumont, Alain Delarue, Jean-Jacques Voisard, Valérie Brunner
Propranolol has become the first choice therapy for complicated Infantile Hemangiomas (IH). The pharmacokinetics of propranolol were evaluated after repeated oral administration of a new pediatric solution of propranolol at 3 mg kg-1  day-1 given twice daily (BID) in infants (77-243 days) with IH. A population model was built to describe the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in infants and to simulate different dosing regimens. One hundred and sixty-seven plasma concentrations from 22 infants were used in the population analysis...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734136/predicting-neuroblastoma-using-developmental-signals-and-a-logic-based-model
#16
Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Santiago Schnell, Thomas Woolley, Jennifer A Spengler, Jason A Morrison, Mary C McKinney, Irina Pushel, Lauren A Wolfe, Paul M Kulesa
Genomic information from human patient samples of pediatric neuroblastoma cancers and known outcomes have led to specific gene lists put forward as high risk for disease progression. However, the reliance on gene expression correlations rather than mechanistic insight has shown limited potential and suggests a critical need for molecular network models that better predict neuroblastoma progression. In this study, we construct and simulate a molecular network of developmental genes and downstream signals in a 6-gene input logic model that predicts a favorable/unfavorable outcome based on the outcome of the four cell states including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis...
April 30, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727348/a-quality-initiative-a-system-wide-reduction-in-serious-medication-events-through-targeted-simulation-training
#17
Kiran B Hebbar, Nora Colman, Lorisa Williams, Jessica Pina, Lisa Davis, James E Bost, Halli Jones, Gary Frank
INTRODUCTION: Medication administration events (MAEs) are a great concern to the healthcare industry, because they are both common and costly. Pediatric patients pose unique challenges to healthcare systems, particularly regarding the safety of medication administration. Our objectives were to improve adherence to best practices, decrease MAEs, and decrease cost related to error reduction rates by implementing a scenario-based simulation training program for frontline nursing staff in the general care units, emergency departments, and intensive care units within our institution...
April 30, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724763/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-detection-with-proton-mr-spectroscopy-in-children-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy-on-the-ketogenic-diet
#18
J N Wright, R P Saneto, S D Friedman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ketogenic diet, including both classic and modified forms, is an alternative to antiepileptic medications used in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. We sought to evaluate the utility of proton MR spectroscopy for the detection of β-hydroxybutyrate in a cohort of children with epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet and to correlate brain parenchymal metabolite ratios obtained from spectroscopy with β-hydroxybutyrate serum concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three spectroscopic datasets acquired at a TE of 288 ms in children on the ketogenic diet were analyzed with LCModel using a modified basis set that included a simulated β-hydroxybutyrate resonance...
May 3, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720505/teaching-pediatric-peritoneal-dialysis-globally-through-virtual-simulation
#19
Aleksandra E Olszewski, Dennis A Daniel, Deborah R Stein, Mignon I McCulloch, Sharon W Su, Daniel L Hames, Traci A Wolbrink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the increasing prevalence of childhood kidney disease worldwide, there is a shortage of clinicians trained to provide peritoneal dialysis (PD). E-learning technologies may provide a solution to improve knowledge in PD. We describe the development of a virtual PD simulator and report the first 22 months of online usage. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The PD simulator was developed and released on OPENPediatrics in January of 2016...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720167/development-of-a-neonatal-curriculum-for-medical-students-in-zimbabwe-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Simbarashe Chimhuya, Bothwell Mbuwayesango, Eva M Aagaard, Kusum J Nathoo
BACKGROUND: Calls have been made to reassess the curricula of medical schools throughout the world to adopt competence-based programs that address the healthcare needs of society. Zimbabwe is a country characterized by a high neonatal mortality rate of 24 per 1000 live births. The current research sought to determine the content and appropriate teaching strategies needed to guide the development of an undergraduate neonatal curriculum map for medical students at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medical Education
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