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Autism behavioral therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147630/sulforaphane-from-broccoli-reduces-symptoms-of-autism-a-follow-up-case-series-from-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#1
Rhoda Lynch, Eileen L Diggins, Susan L Connors, Andrew W Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Hua Liu, Paul Talalay, Jed W Fahey
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 children, is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted or repetitive behaviors, and varies widely with respect to its causes and presentations. There are no validated pharmacologic treatments for the core symptoms of ASD. The social, medical, and economic burdens of ASD on families and caregivers are profound. We recently showed in a small clinical trial that sulforaphane (SF) from broccoli sprouts could significantly reduce the behavioral symptoms of ASD...
2017: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133852/nitrosynapsin-therapy-for-a-mouse-mef2c-haploinsufficiency-model-of-human-autism
#2
Shichun Tu, Mohd Waseem Akhtar, Rosa Maria Escorihuela, Alejandro Amador-Arjona, Vivek Swarup, James Parker, Jeffrey D Zaremba, Timothy Holland, Neha Bansal, Daniel R Holohan, Kevin Lopez, Scott D Ryan, Shing Fai Chan, Li Yan, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiayu Huang, Abdullah Sultan, Scott R McKercher, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Huaxi Xu, Yuqiang Wang, Daniel H Geschwind, Amanda J Roberts, Alexey V Terskikh, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah, Stuart A Lipton, Nobuki Nakanishi
Transcription factor MEF2C regulates multiple genes linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and human MEF2C haploinsufficiency results in ASD, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MEF2C haploinsufficiency syndrome remain poorly understood. Here we report that Mef2c (+/-)(Mef2c-het) mice exhibit behavioral deficits resembling those of human patients. Gene expression analyses on brains from these mice show changes in genes associated with neurogenesis, synapse formation, and neuronal cell death...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082426/anxiety-disorders-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Valentina Postorino, Connor M Kerns, Giacomo Vivanti, Jessica Bradshaw, Martina Siracusano, Luigi Mazzone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to synthesize the most recent research on anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the relationship between these conditions and challenges for assessment. Furthermore, implications for treatment and future directions are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Research suggests that anxiety disorders and OCD are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. However, the significant overlap of ASD features with anxiety and OCD symptomology makes differential diagnosis of these disorders particularly challenging...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027815/l-carnosine-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-risperidone-in-children-with-autistic-disorder-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Reihaneh Hajizadeh-Zaker, Alireza Ghajar, Bita Mesgarpour, Mohsen Afarideh, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the efficacy and tolerability of l-carnosine as an add-on to risperidone in the management of children with autism. METHODS: This was a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy drug-free children aged 4-12 years old with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. (DSM-5) who had an Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) scale irritability subscale score of ≥12, entered the study...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979165/validation-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnoses-recorded-in-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink-1990-2014
#5
Katrina Wilcox Hagberg, Susan S Jick
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have reported that the validity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses recorded in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) was high; however, diagnostic criteria and screening practices have changed since the last study was published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: 1) To calculate the positive predictive value (PPV) of ASD diagnoses recorded in the CPRD compared to original medical records and 2) to describe characteristics of cases and use of clinical codes that support the ASD diagnosis as recorded in the electronic data by general practitioners over time...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971687/animal-models-for-autism-in-2017-and-the-consequential-implications-to-drug-discovery
#6
Kathryn K Chadman
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors, for which there are currently no approved drug treatments. The core symptoms of ASD vary widely in severity and are often accompanied by other neuropsychiatric disorders. Drug discovery has been challenging because of the lack of understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of ASD as well as the heterogeneity of symptoms and symptom severity. Areas covered: In this review, the author discusses animal models of ASD used as targets for drug discovery, focusing primarily on non-syndromic models, primarily rodents...
October 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963874/predictors-of-longitudinal-aba-treatment-outcomes-for-children-with-autism-a-growth-curve-analysis
#7
Michael Tiura, Jinho Kim, Deanne Detmers, Hilary Baldi
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that causes lifelong disability. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is one of the most empirically studied and validated approaches for treating children diagnosed with ASD. Due to the heterogeneity of ASD, it is important to ascertain who will most benefit from treatment. METHODS: In this study, 35 participants, with a mean entry age of 3 years, received ABA therapy. Children were assessed at intake and every 6 months thereafter using the Developmental Profile-3 (DP-3) to measure their communication, social-emotional, adaptive behavior, and physical development (2-6 measures per participant)...
September 27, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963040/beta-carotene-as-a-novel-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-autistic-like-behavior-in-animal-models-of-autism
#8
Yosefa Avraham, Elliot M Berry, Marina Donskoy, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Lia Vorobiev, Amnon Albeck, David Mankuta
Autism-affected individuals are characterized by lower plasma oxytocin and its ectoenzyme regulator CD38. Oxytocin, a hypothalamic hormone secreted upon the release of CD38, plays a role in social behavior and bonding. All-trans retinoic acid is a potent inducer of CD38 and can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy in autism. We investigated the role of beta-carotene in rescuing autistic-like behavior in BALB/c and BTBR mice. Beta-carotene derivatives are preferred as they are neither toxic nor teratogenic...
September 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948967/corticostriatal-circuit-defects-in-hoxb8-mutant-mice
#9
N Nagarajan, B W Jones, P J West, R E Marc, M R Capecchi
Hoxb8 mutant mice exhibit compulsive grooming and hair removal dysfunction similar to humans with the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-spectrum disorder, trichotillomania. As, in the mouse brain, the only detectable cells that label with Hoxb8 cell lineage appear to be microglia, we suggested that defective microglia cause the neuropsychiatric disorder. Does the Hoxb8 mutation in microglia lead to neural circuit dysfunctions? We demonstrate that Hoxb8 mutants contain corticostriatal circuit defects. Golgi staining, ultra-structural and electrophysiological studies of mutants reveal excess dendritic spines, pre- and postsynaptic structural defects, long-term potentiation and miniature postsynaptic current defects...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940224/therapy-access-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cerebral-palsy-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-population-based-study
#10
Teal W Benevides, Henry J Carretta, Carole K Ivey, Shelly J Lane
AIM: This study examined cross-sectional population-based rates in reported need and unmet need for occupational, physical, and speech therapy services in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: The 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 (USA) National Survey of Children with Special Health Care data sets were used to compare therapy need and unmet need among children younger than 18 years with ASD (n=5178), ADHD (n=20 566), and CP (n=1183)...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935269/randomized-trial-of-omega-3-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-effect-on-cell-membrane-composition-and-behavior
#11
Mara Parellada, Cloe Llorente, Rosa Calvo, Silvia Gutierrez, Luisa Lázaro, Montserrat Graell, Maria Guisasola, Maria Luisa Dorado, Leticia Boada, Jose Romo, Elena Dulin, Inmaculada Sanz, Celso Arango, Carmen Moreno
A high ω6/ω3 ratio [fatty acid (FA) index] in the cell membrane has been associated with inadequate brain development. It has started to be used as a biomarker of treatment efficacy in human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if omega-3 supplementation improves erythrocyte membrane ω6/ω3, plasma antioxidant status (TAS) and autistic behaviors. A randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with ω3 (962mg/d and 1155mg/d for children and adolescents, respectively)...
September 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928645/auditory-motor-mapping-training-in-a-more-verbal-child-with-autism
#12
Karen V Chenausky, Andrea C Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We tested the effect of Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT), a novel, intonation-based treatment for spoken language originally developed for minimally verbal (MV) children with autism, on a more-verbal child with autism. We compared this child's performance after 25 therapy sessions with that of: (1) a child matched on age, autism severity, and expressive language level who received 25 sessions of a non-intonation-based control treatment Speech Repetition Therapy (SRT); and (2) a matched pair of MV children (one of whom received AMMT; the other, SRT)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923933/longitudinal-identification-of-clinically-distinct-neurophenotypes-in-young-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#13
Jennifer L Bruno, David Romano, Paul Mazaika, Amy A Lightbody, Heather Cody Hazlett, Joseph Piven, Allan L Reiss
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), due to mutations of the FMR1 gene, is the most common known inherited cause of developmental disability. The cognitive, behavioral, and neurological phenotypes observed in affected individuals can vary considerably, making it difficult to predict outcomes and determine the need for interventions. We sought to examine early structural brain growth as a potential marker for identification of clinically meaningful subgroups. Participants included 42 very young boys with FXS who completed a T1-weighted anatomical MRI and cognitive/behavioral assessment at two longitudinal time points, with mean ages of 2...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867943/oxytocin-and-social-functioning
#14
Candace Jones, Ingrid Barrera, Shaun Brothers, Robert Ring, Claes Wahlestedt
Social anxiety is a form of anxiety characterized by continuous fear of one or more social or performance situations. Although multiple treatment modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines) exist for social anxiety, they are effective for only 60% to 70% of patients. Thus, researchers have looked for other candidates for social anxiety treatment. Our review focuses on the peptide oxytocin as a potential therapeutic option for individuals with social anxiety...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861007/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-gray-matter-differences-associated-with-poor-outcome
#15
Aki Tsuchiyagaito, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is also applicable to patients with both OCD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have reported that CBT for patients with both OCD and ASD might be less effective than for patients with OCD alone. In addition, there is no evidence as to why autistic traits might be risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether comorbidity between ASD and OCD may significantly affect treatment outcome and discovered predictors of CBT outcomes using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838582/cost-offset-associated-with-early-start-denver-model-for-children-with-autism
#16
Zuleyha Cidav, Jeff Munson, Annette Estes, Geraldine Dawson, Sally Rogers, David Mandell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) for treatment of young children with autism on health care service use and costs. METHOD: We used data from a randomized trial that tested the efficacy of the ESDM, which is based on developmental and applied behavioral analytic principles and delivered by trained therapists and parents, for 2 years. Parents were interviewed about their children's service use every 6 months from the onset of the intervention to follow-up (age 6 years)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835516/an-rna-interference-screen-identifies-druggable-regulators-of-mecp2-stability
#17
Laura M Lombardi, Manar Zaghlula, Yehezkel Sztainberg, Steven A Baker, Tiemo J Klisch, Amy A Tang, Eric J Huang, Huda Y Zoghbi
Alterations in gene dosage due to copy number variation are associated with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability (ID), and other psychiatric disorders. The nervous system is so acutely sensitive to the dose of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) that even a twofold change in MeCP2 protein-either increased or decreased-results in distinct disorders with overlapping features including ID, autistic behavior, and severe motor dysfunction. Rett syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, whereas duplications spanning the MECP2 locus result in MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS), which accounts for ~1% of X-linked ID...
August 23, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812273/a-precision-medicine-approach-to-oxytocin%C3%A2-trials
#18
Elissar Andari, Rene Hurlemann, Larry J Young
In this chapter, we introduce a new area of social pharmacology that encompasses the study of the role of neuromodulators in modulating a wide range of social behaviors and brain function, with the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors. There are increasing evidences for the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in modulating a wide range of social behaviors, in reducing anxiety, and in impacting the social brain network. Oxytocin also promotes social functions in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and reduces anxiety and fear in anxiety disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801470/litigation-provides-clues-to-ongoing-challenges-in-implementing-insurance-parity
#19
Kelsey N Berry, Haiden A Huskamp, Howard H Goldman, Lainie Rutkow, Colleen L Barry
Over the past twenty-five years, thirty-seven states and the US Congress have passed mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) parity laws to secure nondiscriminatory insurance coverage for MH/SUD services in the private health insurance market and through certain public insurance programs. However, in the intervening years, litigation has been brought by numerous parties alleging violations of insurance parity. We examine the critical issues underlying these legal challenges as a framework for understanding the areas in which parity enforcement is lacking, as well as ongoing areas of ambiguity in the interpretation of these laws...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762160/parental-outcomes-following-participation-in-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Andrea L Maughan, Jonathan A Weiss
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) benefit from parent involvement in their therapy, and there is evidence that this involvement may improve parent functioning as well. We examined changes in parent mental health, parenting, and expressed emotion, following participation in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for 57 children with ASD. Post-intervention, improvements occurred in the treatment group in parent depression and emotion regulation, compared to waitlisted parents. Treatment effects also occurred across all parents in depression, emotion regulation, perceptions of their children and mindful parenting...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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