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Elizabeth T Gershoff, Sarah A Font, Catherine A Taylor, Rebecca H Foster, Ann Budzak Garza, Denyse Olson-Dorff, Amy Terreros, Monica Nielsen-Parker, Lisa Spector
Several medical professional organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend that parents avoid hitting children for disciplinary purposes (e.g., spanking) and that medical professionals advise parents to use alternative methods. The extent to which medical professionals continue to endorse spanking is unknown. This study is the first to examine attitudes about spanking among staff throughout medical settings, including non-direct care staff. A total of 2580 staff at a large general medical center and 733 staff at a children's hospital completed an online survey; respondents were roughly divided between staff who provide direct care to patients (e...
October 13, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kimberly Burkhart, Michele Knox, Kimberly Hunter
Twenty-two pediatric residents and 31 medical students viewed the Play Nicely program. The Play Nicely program is a multimedia program that teaches health care professionals how to counsel parents to use positive parenting and disciplining strategies in response to early childhood aggression. Health care professionals completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires to assess changes in comfort with counseling, parenting knowledge, and attitudes toward spanking. Results indicated at posttraining that health care professionals were significantly more comfortable with counseling parents, had increased parenting knowledge, and decreased positive attitudes toward spanking...
October 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
C A Taylor, R Al-Hiyari, S J Lee, A Priebe, L W Guerrero, A Bales
This study employs a novel strategy for identifying points of resistance to education efforts aimed at reducing rates of child physical abuse and use of corporal punishment (CP). We analyzed online comments (n = 581) generated in response to media coverage of a study linking CP with increased child aggression. Most comments (71%) reflected approval of hitting children for disciplinary purposes. Reasons for this approval were rooted in beliefs linking the use of CP with positive or neutral outcomes such as: 'I was spanked and I am okay', spanking improves child behavior, spanking is more effective than other forms of discipline and spanking is not abuse...
August 2016: Health Education Research
Jean-François Chenot, Jost Steinhäuser, Antje Bergmann, Maren Ehrhardt, Johannes Spanke, Anne Simmenroth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor
Whether spanking is helpful or harmful to children continues to be the source of considerable debate among both researchers and the public. This article addresses 2 persistent issues, namely whether effect sizes for spanking are distinct from those for physical abuse, and whether effect sizes for spanking are robust to study design differences. Meta-analyses focused specifically on spanking were conducted on a total of 111 unique effect sizes representing 160,927 children. Thirteen of 17 mean effect sizes were significantly different from zero and all indicated a link between spanking and increased risk for detrimental child outcomes...
June 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Arya Ansari, Elizabeth Gershoff
The authors examined the extent to which parent involvement in Head Start programs predicted changes in both parent and child outcomes over time, using a nationally representative sample of 1,020 three-year-old children over 3 waves of the Family and Child Experiences Survey. Center policies that promote involvement predicted greater parent involvement, and parents who were more involved in Head Start centers demonstrated increased cognitive stimulation and decreased spanking and controlling behaviors. In turn, these changes in parenting behaviors were associated with gains in children's academic and behavioral skills...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Takeo Fujiwara, Yui Yamaoka, Ichiro Kawachi
PURPOSE: We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of "social capital") as well as the availability of support from their personal social networks...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Kenneth J Kardash, Geoffroy P Noel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Michiel M ten Brinke, Henk-Jan Boele, Jochen K Spanke, Jan-Willem Potters, Katja Kornysheva, Peer Wulff, Anna C H G IJpelaar, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw
Three decades of electrophysiological research on cerebellar cortical activity underlying Pavlovian conditioning have expanded our understanding of motor learning in the brain. Purkinje cell simple spike suppression is considered to be crucial in the expression of conditional blink responses (CRs). However, trial-by-trial quantification of this link in awake behaving animals is lacking, and current hypotheses regarding the underlying plasticity mechanisms have diverged from the classical parallel fiber one to the Purkinje cell synapse LTD hypothesis...
December 1, 2015: Cell Reports
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Arya Ansari, Kelly M Purtell, Holly R Sexton
This study examined whether Head Start, the nation's main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents' use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small, indirect effects on children's spelling ability at Age 4 and their aggression at Age 4 through an increase in parents' reading to their children...
June 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Michael Friedson
Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised...
January 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Akiko Maruyama, Eiko Suzuki, Yuko Takayama
AIM: This prospective cohort study aims to clarify the factors affecting burnout in female nurses who have preschool-age children. METHODS: The subjects were 2151 female nurses who have preschool-age children and work at 70 city hospitals across Japan. The questionnaires were completed by 1644 female nurses with preschool-age children in October 2010, and they were divided into a cohort to observe the incidence of burnout, which was investigated in October 2011...
January 2016: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
Michele Knox, Ryan Rosenberger, Sajjad Sarwar, Vikas Mangewala, Natalie Klag
INTRODUCTION: Corporal punishment is closely related to physical abuse of children and is associated with several negative characteristics and experiences in children and youths. This study examined the relative unique contribution of 6 variables (social support, socioeconomic status, depression, self-efficacy, knowledge of child development, and history of postpartum depression) to maternal corporal punishment of children. METHOD: A sample of 76 mothers was dichotomized into those who never spanked or hit with an object and those who have spanked or hit with an object...
December 2015: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Paul L Morgan, Hui Li, Michael Cook, George Farkas, Marianne M Hillemeier, Yu-chu Lin
We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant ratings by the end of middle school of a population-based, longitudinal sample of children followed from kindergarten to eighth grade (N = 7,456). Kindergarten children from low SES households, those raised by mothers with depressive symptoms or experiencing emotional problems or substance abuse, or those who were punished by spanking were significantly more likely to later display severe levels of ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade...
March 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
Arya Ansari, Robert Crosnoe
Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting-in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking-when their children were very young (M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms...
2015: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Robert E Larzelere, Ronald B Cox, Taren M Swindle
Although direct replications are ideal for randomized studies, areas of psychological science that lack randomized studies should incorporate Rosenbaum's (2001) distinction between trivial and nontrivial replications, relabeled herein as exact and critical replications. If exact replications merely repeat systematic biases, they cannot enhance cumulative progress in psychological science. In contrast, critical replications distinguish between competing explanations by using crucial tests to clarify the underlying causal influences...
May 2015: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Gail Hornor, Deborah Bretl, Evelyn Chapman, Ellen Chiocca, Carrie Donnell, Katharine Doughty, Susan Houser, Bridget Marshall, Kristen Morris, Saribel Garcia Quinones
INTRODUCTION: Corporal punishment (CP) is defined as the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain but not injury for the purpose of correction or control of the child's behavior. CP has been linked to a variety of negative consequences for children, including physical abuse, eternalizing behavioral problems, and slowed cognitive development. Many American children continue to experience CP at the hands of their parents and other caregivers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learner attitude toward CP before and after implementation of a pediatric nurse practitioner-designed educational intervention and influences upon learner attitude and beliefs about CP...
November 2015: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Lieke Kros, Oscar H J Eelkman Rooda, Jochen K Spanke, Parimala Alva, Marijn N van Dongen, Athanasios Karapatis, Else A Tolner, Christos Strydis, Neil Davey, Beerend H J Winkelman, Mario Negrello, Wouter A Serdijn, Volker Steuber, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Chris I De Zeeuw, Freek E Hoebeek
OBJECTIVE: Disrupting thalamocortical activity patterns has proven to be a promising approach to stop generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs) characteristic of absence seizures. Here, we investigated to what extent modulation of neuronal firing in cerebellar nuclei (CN), which are anatomically in an advantageous position to disrupt cortical oscillations through their innervation of a wide variety of thalamic nuclei, is effective in controlling absence seizures. METHODS: Two unrelated mouse models of generalized absence seizures were used: the natural mutant tottering, which is characterized by a missense mutation in Cacna1a, and inbred C3H/HeOuJ...
June 2015: Annals of Neurology
Imke von Koschitzky, Heike Gerhardt, Michael Lämmerhofer, Michal Kohout, Matthias Gehringer, Stefan Laufer, Mario Pink, Simone Schmitz-Spanke, Christina Strube, Annette Kaiser
Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) is a dinuclear iron enzyme required for hydroxylation of the aminobutyl side chain of deoxyhypusine in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A), the second step in hypusine biosynthesis. DOHH has been recently identified in P. falciparum and P. vivax. Both enzymes have very peculiar features including E-Z type HEAT-like repeats and a diiron centre in their active site. Both proteins share only 26 % amino acid identity to the human paralogue. Hitherto, no X-ray structure exists from either enzyme...
June 2015: Amino Acids
Meinou H C Theunissen, Anton G C Vogels, Sijmen A Reijneveld
OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits provided to the entire population. A total of 1630 children participated (response rate, 84%). Before the visit, parents completed a questionnaire with questions about their approach to discipline (punishment and rewards)...
January 2015: Academic Pediatrics
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