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Sabrina Fréchette, Elisa Romano
The lack of consensus about the definition of corporal punishment (CP) contributes to the varying research findings and fuels the debate surrounding its use. Related to the problem of definitional variability is also the possibility that some parents may not be aware that their physical disciplinary strategies (PDS) are forms of CP. As a first step to move beyond the debate and to tailor educational efforts to change cultural norms and parents' behaviors, the objective of the current study was to clarify what parents self-label as CP...
February 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Ivo Buttinoni, Mathias Steinacher, Hendrik Th Spanke, Juho Pokki, Severin Bahmann, Bradley Nelson, Giuseppe Foffi, Lucio Isa
In this paper we probe the structural response to oscillatory shear deformations of polycrystalline monolayers of soft repulsive colloids with varying area fraction over a broad range of frequencies and amplitudes. The particles are confined at a fluid interface, sheared using a magnetic microdisk, and imaged through optical microscopy. The structural and mechanical response of soft materials is highly dependent on their microstructure. If crystals are well understood and deform through the creation and mobilization of specific defects, the situation is much more complex for disordered jammed materials, where identifying structural motifs defining plastically rearranging regions remains an elusive task...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
John P Hoffmann, Christopher G Ellison, John P Bartkowski
Research indicates that conservative Protestants are highly supportive of corporal punishment. Yet, Americans' support for this practice has waned during the past several decades. This study aggregates repeated cross-sectional data from the General Social Surveys (GSS) to consider three models that address whether attitudes toward spanking among conservative Protestants shifted relative to those of other Americans from 1986 to 2014. Although initial results reveal a growing gap between conservative Protestants and the broader American public, we find that average levels of support have remained most robust among less educated conservative Protestants, with some erosion among more highly educated conservative Protestants...
March 2017: Social Science Research
Tracie O Afifi, Derek Ford, Elizabeth T Gershoff, Melissa Merrick, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Katie A Ports, Harriet L MacMillan, George W Holden, Catherine A Taylor, Shawna J Lee, Robbyn Peters Bennett
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse are related to poor health outcomes. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE. Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1): the grouping of spanking with physical and emotional abuse; and 2) if spanking has similar associations with poor adult health problems and accounts for additional model variance...
January 23, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rebecca M Ryan, Ariel Kalil, Kathleen M Ziol-Guest, Christina Padilla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic differences in the use of nonphysical discipline have also changed over time. METHODS: Data are drawn from 4 national studies conducted between 1988 and 2011...
December 2016: Pediatrics
Daniel Berry, Michael T Willoughby
Reciprocal feedback processes between experience and development are central to contemporary developmental theory. Autoregressive cross-lagged panel (ARCL) models represent a common analytic approach intended to test such dynamics. The authors demonstrate that-despite the ARCL model's intuitive appeal-it typically (a) fails to align with the theoretical processes that it is intended to test and (b) yields estimates that are difficult to interpret meaningfully. Specifically, using a Monte Carlo simulation and two empirical examples concerning the reciprocal relation between spanking and child aggression, it is shown that the cross-lagged estimates derived from the ARCL model reflect a weighted-and typically uninterpretable-amalgam of between- and within-person associations...
November 23, 2016: Child Development
Arya Ansari, Kelly Purtell, Elizabeth T Gershoff
Using data from the Head Start Impact Study (n = 3,696), this article examines whether one year of Head Start differentially benefited parents as a function of their initial parenting behaviors. Four outcomes are examined, namely parents' rates of engaging in cognitive stimulation, reading to their child, and spanking, as well as their depressive symptoms. In general, most parents demonstrated improvements in their reading practices and cognitive stimulation, regardless of their parenting behaviors at baseline...
October 2016: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Scott Mintzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Epilepsy Currents
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Sarah A Font, Catherine A Taylor, Rebecca H Foster, Ann Budzak Garza, Denyse Olson-Dorff, Amy Terreros, Monica Nielsen-Parker, Lisa Spector
Several medical professional organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend that parents avoid hitting children for disciplinary purposes (e.g., spanking) and that medical professionals advise parents to use alternative methods. The extent to which medical professionals continue to endorse spanking is unknown. This study is the first to examine attitudes about spanking among staff throughout medical settings, including non-direct care staff. A total of 2580 staff at a large general medical center and 733 staff at a children's hospital completed an online survey; respondents were roughly divided between staff who provide direct care to patients (e...
November 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kimberly Burkhart, Michele Knox, Kimberly Hunter
Twenty-two pediatric residents and 31 medical students viewed the Play Nicely program. The Play Nicely program is a multimedia program that teaches health care professionals how to counsel parents to use positive parenting and disciplining strategies in response to early childhood aggression. Health care professionals completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires to assess changes in comfort with counseling, parenting knowledge, and attitudes toward spanking. Results indicated at posttraining that health care professionals were significantly more comfortable with counseling parents, had increased parenting knowledge, and decreased positive attitudes toward spanking...
October 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
C A Taylor, R Al-Hiyari, S J Lee, A Priebe, L W Guerrero, A Bales
This study employs a novel strategy for identifying points of resistance to education efforts aimed at reducing rates of child physical abuse and use of corporal punishment (CP). We analyzed online comments (n = 581) generated in response to media coverage of a study linking CP with increased child aggression. Most comments (71%) reflected approval of hitting children for disciplinary purposes. Reasons for this approval were rooted in beliefs linking the use of CP with positive or neutral outcomes such as: 'I was spanked and I am okay', spanking improves child behavior, spanking is more effective than other forms of discipline and spanking is not abuse...
August 2016: Health Education Research
Jean-François Chenot, Jost Steinhäuser, Antje Bergmann, Maren Ehrhardt, Johannes Spanke, Anne Simmenroth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor
Whether spanking is helpful or harmful to children continues to be the source of considerable debate among both researchers and the public. This article addresses 2 persistent issues, namely whether effect sizes for spanking are distinct from those for physical abuse, and whether effect sizes for spanking are robust to study design differences. Meta-analyses focused specifically on spanking were conducted on a total of 111 unique effect sizes representing 160,927 children. Thirteen of 17 mean effect sizes were significantly different from zero and all indicated a link between spanking and increased risk for detrimental child outcomes...
June 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Arya Ansari, Elizabeth Gershoff
The authors examined the extent to which parent involvement in Head Start programs predicted changes in both parent and child outcomes over time, using a nationally representative sample of 1,020 three-year-old children over 3 waves of the Family and Child Experiences Survey. Center policies that promote involvement predicted greater parent involvement, and parents who were more involved in Head Start centers demonstrated increased cognitive stimulation and decreased spanking and controlling behaviors. In turn, these changes in parenting behaviors were associated with gains in children's academic and behavioral skills...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Takeo Fujiwara, Yui Yamaoka, Ichiro Kawachi
PURPOSE: We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of "social capital") as well as the availability of support from their personal social networks...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Kenneth J Kardash, Geoffroy P Noel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Michiel M ten Brinke, Henk-Jan Boele, Jochen K Spanke, Jan-Willem Potters, Katja Kornysheva, Peer Wulff, Anna C H G IJpelaar, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw
Three decades of electrophysiological research on cerebellar cortical activity underlying Pavlovian conditioning have expanded our understanding of motor learning in the brain. Purkinje cell simple spike suppression is considered to be crucial in the expression of conditional blink responses (CRs). However, trial-by-trial quantification of this link in awake behaving animals is lacking, and current hypotheses regarding the underlying plasticity mechanisms have diverged from the classical parallel fiber one to the Purkinje cell synapse LTD hypothesis...
December 1, 2015: Cell Reports
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Arya Ansari, Kelly M Purtell, Holly R Sexton
This study examined whether Head Start, the nation's main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents' use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small, indirect effects on children's spelling ability at Age 4 and their aggression at Age 4 through an increase in parents' reading to their children...
June 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Michael Friedson
Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised...
January 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Akiko Maruyama, Eiko Suzuki, Yuko Takayama
AIM: This prospective cohort study aims to clarify the factors affecting burnout in female nurses who have preschool-age children. METHODS: The subjects were 2151 female nurses who have preschool-age children and work at 70 city hospitals across Japan. The questionnaires were completed by 1644 female nurses with preschool-age children in October 2010, and they were divided into a cohort to observe the incidence of burnout, which was investigated in October 2011...
January 2016: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
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