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Yan Searcy
Market-based approaches to addressing racial disparities have essentially re-commodified Blackness. Utilizing Hartford, which contains the largest percentage of Blacks per capita in Connecticut, this article examines market-based approaches to address racial disparities while discussing Blackness as an enduring commodity that is tied to private sector profit. The study argues that market based approaches incentivize punitive approaches to social problems associated with Blackness. The study concludes by suggesting that addressing disparities utilizing markets requires reimagining policy incentives to focus on prevention and treatment of social problems associated with Blackness...
May 14, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
Xiao Ping Xu, Dong Ning Deng, Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan
Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong's patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China...
2018: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Hamza Kandoussi, Jianing Zeng, Kumar Shah, Patricia Paterson, Rasa Santockyte, Pathanjali Kadiyala, Hong Shen, Petia Shipkova, Robert Langish, Richard Burrrell, John Easter, Thomas Mariannino, Punit Marathe, Yurong Lai, Yan Zhang, Renuka Pillutla
AIM: Coproporphyrins (CP-I and CP-III) have been identified as possible biomarkers to predict human hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides-mediated-drug-interactions for a new drug entering clinical development. RESULTS: The method is applicable to quantify plasma CP-I and CP-III within 0.078-15.0 nM. The results identify and address a number of challenges encountered with porphyrin assays such as photodegradation and interferences. To overcome interferences from ubiquitous porphyrins, a surrogate matrix was used to prepare calibration standards...
May 11, 2018: Bioanalysis
Anthony Fenton, Mark D Jesky, Rachel Webster, Stephanie J Stringer, Punit Yadav, Iain Chapple, Indranil Dasgupta, Stephen J Harding, Charles J Ferro, Paul Cockwell
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We assessed for the first time whether urinary free light chains (FLC) are independently associated with risk of ESRD in patients with CKD, and whether they offer incremental value in risk stratification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured urinary FLCs in 556 patients with CKD from a prospective cohort study. The association between urinary kappa/creatinine (KCR) and lambda/creatinine (LCR) ratios and development of ESRD was assessed by competing-risks regression (to account for the competing risk of death)...
2018: PloS One
Yingwei Hu, Punit Shah, David J Clark, Minghui Ao, Hui Zhang
Protein glycosylation plays fundamental roles in many cellular processes, and previous reports have shown dysregulation to be associated with several human diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the vital role of glycosylation for proper protein function, the analysis of glycoproteins has been lagged behind to other protein modifications. In this study, we describe the re-analysis of global proteomic data from breast cancer xenograft tissues using recently developed software package GPQuest 2...
May 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
David H Cloud, Tessie Castillo, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Manisha Dubey, Robert Childs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Syringe access programs (SAPs) are cornerstone harm reduction interventions for combatting the national opioid epidemic. The goal of this paper is to describe effective advocacy strategies for enacting syringe decriminalization legislation to foster the expansion of SAPs in high-need areas amidst political opposition. RECENT FINDINGS: Decades or research shows that SAPs prevent the transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) and are a cost-effective tool for linking PWID to medical care, health education, and social services...
May 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Scott J Cameron, Doran S Mix, Sara K Ture, Rachel A Schmidt, Amy Mohan, Daphne Pariser, Michael C Stoner, Punit Shah, Lijun Chen, Hui Zhang, David J Field, Kristina L Modjeski, Sandra Toth, Craig N Morrell
OBJECTIVE: Reduced blood flow and tissue oxygen tension conditions result from thrombotic and vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. It is largely assumed that while platelet activation is increased by an acute vascular event, chronic vascular inflammation, and ischemia, the platelet activation pathways and responses are not themselves changed by the disease process. We, therefore, sought to determine whether the platelet phenotype is altered by hypoxic and ischemic conditions...
May 3, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
David J Clark, Yingwei Hu, William Bocik, Lijun Chen, Michael Schnaubelt, Rhonda Roberts, Punit Shah, Gordon Whiteley, Hui Zhang
Reference materials are vital to benchmarking the reproducibility of clinical tests and essential for monitoring laboratory performance for clinical proteomics. The reference material utilized for mass spectrometric analysis of the human proteome would ideally contain enough proteins to be suitably representative of the human proteome, as well as exhibit a stable protein composition in different batches of sample regeneration. Previously, The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) utilized a PDX-derived comparative reference (CompRef) materials for the longitudinal assessment of proteomic performance; however, inherent drawbacks of PDX-derived material, including extended time needed to grow tumors and high level of expertise needed, have resulted in efforts to identify a new source of CompRef material...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Rohan D Jeremiah, Camille R Quinn, Jicinta M Alexis
To date, there have been a plethora of punitive and diversion programs to address domestic violence around the world. However, the evaluative scholarship of such programs overwhelmingly reflects studies in developed countries while barely showcasing the realities of addressing domestic violence in developing countries. This paper features a multi-year (2008-2011) evaluation study that measured the fidelity of the United Nations Partnership for Peace (PfP) domestic violence diversion program in the Eastern Caribbean country of Grenada...
April 3, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Virimchi Pillutla, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom (UK), a number of National Health Service (NHS) Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG) have proposed controversial measures to restrict elective surgery for patients who either smoke or are obese. Whilst the nature of these measures varies between NHS authorities, typically, patients above a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and smokers are required to lose weight and quit smoking prior to being considered eligible for elective surgery. Patients will be supported and monitored throughout this mandatory period to ensure their clinical needs are appropriately met...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Matthew M Stevenson, Brenda L Volling, Richard Gonzalez
Fathers are a crucial source of support for children following the birth of an infant sibling. This study examined whether fathers were more vulnerable to the effects of interparental conflict than mothers, and whether there was a subsequent spillover cascade from interparental conflict to children's externalizing behavior problems. We followed 241 families after the birth of a second child. Mothers and fathers reported on interparental conflict and parental efficacy at 1 and 4 months postpartum and punitive discipline and firstborn children's externalizing behavior problems across a longitudinal investigation (prenatal and 4, 8, and 12 months postpartum)...
April 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Lyndon Bauer, Jeff Smith, Nicole Kajons, Doug Tutt
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Australian surveys indicate that a large proportion of packaged liquor outlets do not check identification for young people before selling alcohol to them. There are a substantial number of presentations to Emergency Departments from young people aged 15 to 17 years. This subgroup is second only to those aged 18 to 24 years of age. In the 15 to 17 age group supply from direct purchase or underage friends who have purchased alcohol, represent substantial sources of alcohol that is more likely to be consumed without parental supervision...
April 24, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Kainat Khan, Shikha Tewari, Namrata Punit Awasthi, Surendra Prasad Mishra, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Madhup Rastogi, Nuzhat Husain
INTRODUCTION: γH2AX assay has been used for DNA damage assessment at higher doses of radiation exposure. Its expression has not been studied in cases with diagnostic low dose radiation exposure. Concerns have been raised about the after-effects of radiation in diagnostic procedures like Computed Tomography (CT) scan, Angiography etc especially when such scans are repeated within short span of time. The purpose of the present study was to assess immediate DNA damage after exposure to low level of ionizing radiation by the flow cytometric method of gamma-H2AX...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Jonathan R I Coleman, Eva Krapohl, Thalia C Eley, Gerome Breen
Juvenile obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes. Understanding genetic and environmental influences on body mass index (BMI) during adolescence could inform interventions. We investigated independent and interactive effects of parenting, socioeconomic status (SES) and polygenic risk on BMI pre-adolescence, and on the rate of change in BMI across adolescence. Genome-wide genotype data, BMI and child perceptions of parental warmth and punitive discipline were available at 11 years old, and parental SES was available from birth on 3,414 unrelated participants...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shisheng Sun, Yingwei Hu, Li Jia, Shadi Toghi Eshghi, Yang Liu, Punit Shah, Hui Zhang
Most serum proteins are N-linked glycosylated and therefore the glycoproteomic profiling of serum is essential for characterization of serum proteins. In this study, we profiled serum N-glycoproteome by our recently developed N-glycoproteomic method using solid-phase extraction of N-linked Glycans And Glycosite-containing peptides (NGAG) coupled with LC-MS/MS and site-specific glycosylation analysis using GPQuest software. Our data indicated that half of identified N-glycosites were modified by at least two glycans, with a majority of them were sialylated...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Marc T Edwards
In pursuit of high reliability, numerous organizations have promoted Just Culture, but its impact has never been assessed. This report combines data from a longitudinal survey-based study of clinical peer review practices in a cohort of 457 acute care hospitals with 43 measures from the Hospital Compare database and interprets them in relation to the long-term trends of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) data on the Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture. In all, 211 of 270 respondents (79%) indicated that their hospital has adopted Just Culture...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
Janina Ribeliene, Aurelija Blazeviciene, Ruta Jolanta Nadisauskiene, Rasa Tameliene, Ausrele Kudreviciene, Irena Nedzelskiene, Jurate Macijauskiene
BACKGROUND: Patients treated in healthcare facilities that provide services in the fields of obstetrics, gynecology, and neonatology are especially vulnerable. Large multidisciplinary teams of physicians, multiple invasive and noninvasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and the use of advanced technologies increase the probability of adverse events.The evaluation of knowledge about patient safety culture among nurses and midwives working in such units and the identification of critical areas at a healthcare institution would reduce the number of adverse events and improve patient safety...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yuval R Zelnik, Punit Gandhi, Edgar Knobloch, Ehud Meron
Many ecosystems show both self-organized spatial patterns and multistability of possible states. The combination of these two phenomena in different forms has a significant impact on the behavior of ecosystems in changing environments. One notable case is connected to tristability of two distinct uniform states together with patterned states, which has recently been found in model studies of dryland ecosystems. Using a simple model, we determine the extent of tristability in parameter space, explore its effects on the system dynamics, and consider its implications for state transitions or regime shifts...
March 2018: Chaos
Hans Gaus, Colton M Miller, Punit P Seth, Edward N Harris
The Stabilin receptors are systemic clearance receptors for some classes of chemically modified nucleic acid therapeutics. In this study, the recombinant human secreted ecto-domain of the small isoform of Stabilin-2 (s190) was purified from cell culture and evaluated for direct binding with a multitude of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) using a fluorescence polarization-based assay. The ASOs tested varied in their backbone composition, modification of the ribose 2' position, overall length of the oligo, and sequence of the nucleotide bases...
March 28, 2018: Biochemistry
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Punit Agrawal, Barbara K Changizi, Eric Bourekas, Michael V Knopp, Ali Rezai
BACKGROUND: Focused ultrasound thalamotomy (FUS-T) was recently approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor (ET). Despite its noninvasive approach, FUS-T reinitiated concerns about the adverse effects and long-term efficacy after lesioning. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the outcomes of FUS-T in 10 ET patients using tractography-based targeting of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM). METHODS: VIM was identified at the intercommissural plane based on its neighboring tracts: the pyramidal tract and medial lemniscus...
March 21, 2018: Neurosurgery
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