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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722647/what-factors-are-associated-with-autonomous-and-controlled-motivation-for-hearing-help-seekers
#1
Jason Ridgway, Louise Hickson, Christopher Lind
BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment is prevalent in older adults. Motivation is important in people's choice to seek help for their hearing and whether to adopt or not adopt hearing aids. PURPOSE: To investigate associations between sociodemographic and audiometric characteristics and autonomous and controlled motivation among a sample of hearing help-seekers. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative approach was taken for this cross-sectional cohort study...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721655/the-impact-of-being-there-psychiatric-staff-attitudes-on-the-use-of-restraint
#2
Sagit Dahan, Galit Levi, Pnina Behrbalk, Israel Bronstein, Shmuel Hirschmann, Shaul Lev-Ran
The practice of mechanically restraining psychiatric patients is constantly under debate, and staff attitudes are considered a central factor influencing restraining practices. The aim of this study was to explore associations between psychiatric staff members' presence and participation in incidences of restraint and attitudes towards mechanical restraints. METHODS: Staff members (psychiatrists, nurses, paramedical staff; N = 143 working in a government psychiatric hospital in Israel) completed a questionnaire including personal information, participation in incidents of restraint and attitudes towards mechanical restraints...
July 19, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720904/interaction-between-trait-and-housing-condition-produces-differential-decision-making-toward-risk-choice-in-a-rat-gambling-task
#3
Wha Young Kim, Bo Ram Cho, Myung Ji Kwak, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Poor decision-making is a core problem in psychiatric disorders such as pathological gambling and substance abuse. Both trait and environmental factors are considerably important to affect decision-making. However, it has not yet been systematically shown how they interact to affect risk preference in animal models evaluating decision-making. Here, we trained rats, housed in pairs or in isolation, in a touch screen chamber to detect the association between four different light signals on the screen and accompanied reward and punishment outcomes arranged with different schedules...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716395/-it-ruined-my-life-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-on-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-rural-puerto-rico
#4
R Abadie, C Gelpi-Acosta, C Davila, A Rivera, M Welch-Lazoritz, K Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico. METHODS: This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico...
July 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715094/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning
#5
Konstantin G Iliadi, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Octopamine is a biogenic amine in invertebrates that is considered a functional homolog of vertebrate norepinephrine, acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurohormone. Octopamine regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, reproduction and different types of behaviour including learning and memory. Previous studies in insects led to the notion that acquisition of an olfactory memory depends on the octopaminergic system during appetitive (reward-based) learning, but not in the case of aversive (punishment-based) learning...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711700/the-effect-of-monetary-punishment-on-error-evaluation-in-a-go-no-go-task
#6
Yuya Maruo, Werner Sommer, Hiroaki Masaki
Little is known about the effects of the motivational significance of errors in Go/No-go tasks. We investigated the impact of monetary punishment on the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) for both overt errors and partial errors, that is, no-go trials without overt responses but with covert muscle activities. We compared high and low punishment conditions where errors were penalized with 50 or 5 yen, respectively, and a control condition without monetary consequences for errors. Because we hypothesized that the partial-error ERN might overlap with the no-go N2, we compared ERPs between correct rejections (i...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711094/the-tattoo-removal-ethical-conundrum-should-a-physician-be-part-of-a-minor-patient-s-punishment
#7
Kousanee Chheda, Breton Yates, Hanspaul S Makkar, Jane M Grant-Kels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707501/investigating-the-reliability-and-factor-structure-of-kalichman-s-survey-2-research-misconduct-questionnaire-a-post-hoc-analysis-among-biomedical-doctoral-students-in-scandinavia
#8
Søren Holm, Bjørn Hofmann
A precondition for reducing scientific misconduct is evidence about scientists' attitudes. We need reliable survey instruments, and this study investigates the reliability of Kalichman's "Survey 2: research misconduct" questionnaire. The study is a post hoc analysis of data from three surveys among biomedical doctoral students in Scandinavia (2010-2015). We perform reliability analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a split-sample design as a partial validation. The results indicate that a reliable 13-item scale can be formed (Cronbach's α = ...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706474/commentary-parsing-the-behavioral-and-brain-mechanisms-of-third-party-punishment
#9
COMMENT
Anne-Marie Nußberger, Mary Montgomery, Yingyi Luo, Hongbo Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706342/punish-the-thief-coevolution-of-defense-and-cautiousness-stabilizes-ownership
#10
Martin Hinsch, Jan Komdeur
ABSTRACT: Ownership of non-controllable resources usually has to be maintained by costly defense against competitors. Whether defense and thus ownership pays in terms of fitness depends on its effectiveness in preventing theft. We show that if the owners' willingness to defend varies in the population and information about it is available to potential thieves then the ability to react to this information and thus avoid being attacked by the owner is selected for. This can lead to a positive evolutionary feedback between cautiousness in intruders and aggressiveness in owners...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704238/perspectives-about-mental-health-illness-and-recovery
#11
Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patient and physician perspectives about mental health, illness, and recovery, which affect different aspects of help seeking and healthcare, needs to be understood and theorized. RECENT FINDINGS: People seem to simultaneously hold multiple and contradictory illness beliefs and seek help from diverse sources of cure and healing. Explanatory models elicited at baseline do not predict outcomes of illness, change over time, and are dependent on the interaction between the trajectory of individual's illness and the sociocultural milieu...
July 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696032/research-review-harnessing-the-power-of-individual-participant-data-in-a-meta-analysis-of-the-benefits-and-harms-of-the-incredible-years-parenting-program
#12
REVIEW
Patty Leijten, Frances Gardner, Sabine Landau, Victoria Harris, Joanna Mann, Judy Hutchings, Jennifer Beecham, Eva-Maria Bonin, Stephen Scott
BACKGROUND: Parenting programs aim to reduce children's conduct problems through improvement of family dynamics. To date, research on the precise benefits and possible harms of parenting programs on family well-being has been unsystematic and likely to be subject to selective outcome reporting and publication bias. Better understanding of program benefits and harms requires full disclosure by researchers of all included measures, and large enough numbers of participants to be able to detect small effects and estimate them precisely...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695573/relationships-between-self-reported-and-observed-parenting-behaviour-adolescent-disordered-eating-attitudes-and-behaviours-and-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-data-from-the-australian-temperament-project
#13
Vanja Rozenblat, Joanne Ryan, Eleanor Wertheim, Ross King, Craig A Olsson, Primrose Letcher, Isabel Krug
This study examined whether self-reported and observationally measured parental behaviours were associated with disordered eating, and investigated possible moderation by a serotonin-transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Study 1 included 650 adolescents from the Australian Temperament Project who completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Drive for Thinness and Bulimia scales at 15/16 years and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR. Parents completed an Australian Temperament Project-devised measure of parental warmth and harsh punishment...
July 10, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694774/memory-performance-for-everyday-motivational-and-neutral-objects-is-dissociable-from-attention
#14
Judith Schomaker, Bianca C Wittmann
Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690113/male-violence-and-sexual-intimidation-in-a-wild-primate-society
#15
Alice Baniel, Guy Cowlishaw, Elise Huchard
Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus)...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689625/the-preventive-approach-opcat-and-the-prevention-of-violence-and-abuse-of-persons-with-mental-disabilities-by-monitoring-places-of-detention
#16
REVIEW
Nora Sveaass, Victor Madrigal-Borloz
Adopted in December 2002, the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment establishes a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The article explores how this collaboration between national and international bodies, with independent mandates to carry out such unannounced visits, represents an important effort in the process of protecting persons with mental disabilities who are detained and who are particularly exposed to exploitation and other forms of serious human rights violations, contrary to Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682099/moral-development-in-context-associations-of-neighborhood-and-maternal-discipline-with-preschoolers-moral-judgments
#17
Courtney L Ball, Judith G Smetana, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Jennifer H Suor, Michael A Skibo
Associations among moral judgments, neighborhood risk, and maternal discipline were examined in 118 socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (Mage = 41.84 months, SD = 1.42). Children rated the severity and punishment deserved for 6 prototypical moral transgressions entailing physical and psychological harm and unfairness. They also evaluated 3 criteria for assessing maturity in moral judgments: whether acts were considered wrong regardless of rules and wrong independent of authority, as well as whether moral rules were considered unacceptable to alter (collectively called criterion judgments)...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680108/behavioral-inefficiency-on-a-risky-decision-making-task-in-adulthood-after-adolescent-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#18
Kelsey M Miller, Mary-Louise Risher, Shawn K Acheson, Matthew Darlow, Hannah G Sexton, Nicole Schramm-Sapyta, H S Swartzwelder
Adolescence is a period of development in neural circuits that are critical for adult functioning. There is a relationship between alcohol exposure and risky decision-making, though the enduring effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on risky decision-making in adulthood have not been fully explored. Studies using positive reinforcement have shown that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure results in higher levels of risky decision-making in adulthood, but the effects of AIE on punishment-mediated decision-making have not been explored...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676744/trace-conditioning-in-drosophila-induces-associative-plasticity-in-mushroom-body-kenyon-cells-and-dopaminergic-neurons
#19
Kristina V Dylla, Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Dopaminergic neurons (DANs) signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error) during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom bodies (MBs), while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661034/context-induced-relapse-to-cocaine-seeking-after-punishment-imposed-abstinence-is-associated-with-activation-of-cortical-and-subcortical-brain-regions
#20
Yann Pelloux, Jennifer K Hoots, Carlo Cifani, Sweta Adhikary, Jennifer Martin, Angelica Minier-Toribio, Jennifer M Bossert, Yavin Shaham
We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion, 6 hours/day, 12 days) in context A...
June 29, 2017: Addiction Biology
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