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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915428/influential-impacts-of-combined-government-policies-for-safe-disposal-of-dead-pigs-on-farmer-behavior
#1
Xiujuan Chen, Guangqian Qiu, Linhai Wu, Guoyan Xu, Jianhua Wang, Wuyang Hu
Improper disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers may have an adverse impact on the ecological environment and food safety. In this paper, disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in four main pig production provinces in China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei, and Hunan) was empirically investigated. Then, pig farmers' awareness and evaluation of current combined government policies for the safe disposal of dead pigs were analyzed. Furthermore, the influential effects of combined government policies on the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers were examined using Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL)...
December 3, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909789/factors-influencing-aversive-learning-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#2
J L Liu, H L Chen, X Y Chen, R K Cui, A Guerrero, X N Zeng
Parameters such as the intensity of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, the inter-trial interval, and starvation time can influence learning. In this study, the parameters that govern aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of fruits and vegetables, were examined. Male flies were trained to associate the attractive odorant methyl eugenol, a male lure, with a food punishment, sodium chloride solution, and the conditioned suppression of the proboscis-extension response was investigated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904984/parenting-behaviors-parent-heart-rate-variability-and-their-associations-with-adolescent-heart-rate-variability
#3
Rebecca A Graham, Brandon G Scott, Carl F Weems
Adolescence is a potentially important time in the development of emotion regulation and parenting behaviors may play a role. We examined associations among parenting behaviors, parent resting heart rate variability, adolescent resting heart rate variability and parenting behaviors as moderators of the association between parent and adolescent resting heart rate variability. Ninety-seven youth (11-17 years; 49.5 % female; 34 % African American, 37.1 % Euro-American, 22.6 % other/mixed ethnic background, and 7...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893759/the-condition-for-generous-trust
#4
Obayashi Shinya, Inagaki Yusuke, Takikawa Hiroki
Trust has been considered the "cement" of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another's failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as "generous trust" and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892808/self-reported-impulsivity-in-huntington-s-disease-patients-and-relationship-to-executive-dysfunction-and-reward-responsiveness
#5
Patricia L Johnson, Geoffrey F Potts, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Cynthia R Cimino
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have directly investigated impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) despite known changes in dopaminergic and frontal functioning, changes that have been associated with impulsivity in other disorders and in the normal population. This study sought to further categorize impulsivity in HD through examining differences in self-reported impulsivity between community controls and HD patients, the relationship between executive dysfunction and impulsivity, and the relationship of a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task in relation to these self-report measures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888468/reinforcement-sensitivity-and-restrained-eating-the-moderating-role-of-executive-control
#6
Nienke C Jonker, Elise C Bennik, Peter J de Jong
PURPOSE: As the prevalence of overweight and obesity are still increasing, it is important to help individuals who encounter difficulty with losing weight. The current study was set out to further investigate characteristics of individuals who are highly motivated to restrict their food intake to lose weight, but fail to do so (i.e., restrained eaters). The motivation to lose weight might stem from high punishment sensitivity, whereas the failure to succeed in restricting food intake might be the result of high reward sensitivity...
November 25, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888354/effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-the-interaction-between-going-and-stopping-in-a-selective-stop-change-task
#7
Frederick Verbruggen, Rosamund McLaren
Inhibition of no-longer relevant go responses supports flexible and goal-directed behavior. The present study explored if the interaction between going and stopping is influenced by monetary incentives. Subjects (N = 108) performed a selective stop-change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the planned go response if invalid signals or no signals occurred. There were two incentive groups: the punishment group lost points for unsuccessful valid-signal trials, whereas the reward group gained points for successful valid-signal trials...
November 25, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888020/neural-correlates-of-affective-empathy-and-reinforcement-learning-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-fmri-evidence-from-a-gambling-task
#8
Christina Schwenck, Angela Ciaramidaro, Marina Selivanova, Jennifer Tournay, Christine M Freitag, Michael Siniatchkin
BACKGROUND: Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. METHODS: Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition)...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887034/epicurus-and-b-f-skinner-in-search-of-the-good-life
#9
Allen Neuringer, Walter Englert
This paper examines similarities in the works of Epicurus, an ancient Greek philosopher, and B. F. Skinner, a behavioral psychologist. They both were empiricists who argued in favor of the lawfulness of behavior while maintaining that random events were included within those laws. They both devoted much effort to describing how individuals could live effective, rewarding and pleasurable lives. They both emphasized simple and natural pleasures (or reinforcers) and the importance of combining personal pleasures with actions that benefit friends and community...
November 25, 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881752/female-monkeys-use-both-the-carrot-and-the-stick-to-promote-male-participation-in-intergroup-fights
#10
T Jean Marie Arseneau-Robar, Anouk Lisa Taucher, Eliane Müller, Carel van Schaik, Redouan Bshary, Erik P Willems
Group-level cooperation often poses a social dilemma in which joint action may be difficult to achieve. Theoretical models and experimental work on humans show that social incentives, such as punishment of defectors and rewarding of cooperators, can promote cooperation in groups of unrelated individuals. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can operate in a non-human animal species, and be used to effectively promote the production of a public good. We took advantage of the fact that intergroup fights in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) are characterized by episodes of intergroup aggression with pauses in-between...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880875/stable-polymorphism-of-cooperators-and-punishers-in-a-public-goods-game
#11
Gaku Oya, Hisashi Ohtsuki
The role of punishment in the maintenance of cooperation has been emphasized recently. However, the maintenance of punishment is not an obvious consequence because punishment itself is also a public good; it is costly to perform and hence vulnerable to exploitation. For example, cooperative punishers, who help others and punish free riders, are disadvantageous in competition against pure cooperators, who cooperate but do not punish free riders. In addition, pure punishers, who do not help others but punish free riders, have been considered to be selfish in conventional models, because they do not perform cooperation...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878826/a-multifaceted-risk-analysis-of-fathers-self-reported-physical-violence-toward-their-children
#12
Noora Ellonen, Kirsi Peltonen, Tarja Pösö, Staffan Janson
Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers' violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child-, parent-, and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers' severe violent behavior toward their children...
November 23, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878691/can-patent-duration-hinder-medical-innovation
#13
Patrick Leoni, Alvaro Sandroni
We argue that, in the pharmaceutical industry, excessive patent duration can deter investments in innovative treatments in favor of me-too drugs. The point is that too-long durations foster incentives to collude to delay investments in R&D for innovative treatments. We give a set of sufficient conditions for which collusion is a subgame-perfect equilibrium; that is, the threat of punishing any deviator is credible. We then show that reducing current duration always breaks down market discipline, and so does an increase in duration for innovative treatments...
December 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872341/amygdala-circuits-for-fear-memory-a-key-role-for-dopamine-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Joo Han Lee, Seungho Lee, Joung-Hun Kim
In addition to modulating a number of cognitive functions including reward, punishment, motivation, and salience, dopamine (DA) plays a pivotal role in regulating threat-related emotional memory. Changes in neural circuits of the amygdala nuclei are also critically involved in the acquisition and expression of emotional memory. In this review, we summarize the regulation of amygdala circuits by DA. Specifically, we describe DA signaling in the amygdala, and DA regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of the amygdala neurons...
November 20, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870866/investigating-the-predictive-value-of-functional-mri-to-appetitive-and-aversive-stimuli-a-pattern-classification-approach
#15
Ciara McCabe, Vanessa Rocha-Rego
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC) analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain. METHOD: 25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868442/-hiv-aids-and-law-in-hungary
#16
Máté Julesz
INTRODUCTION: The legal aspects of HIV/AIDS are mirrored by the statistical data. AIM: The aim of the author is to show the effect of HIV/AIDS on today's Hungarian society. METHOD: Analysis of data issued by the National Center for Epidemiology in Hungary and those to be found in the professional literature, as well as analysis of the Hungarian legal practice. RESULTS: Hungarian courts tend to impose a lighter punishment on a perpetrator diagnosed with AIDS than on a healthy perpetrator...
November 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865584/cooperation-and-deception-in-primates
#17
Katie Hall, Sarah F Brosnan
Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates...
November 16, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863914/cultural-aspects-and-mythologies-surrounding-menstruation-and-abnormal-uterine-bleeding
#18
REVIEW
Delfin A Tan, Rohana Haththotuwa, Ian S Fraser
The objective of this chapter is to present an overview of how menstruation, a normal bodily function, was and is perceived in various ethnic groups and cultures in the world, from ancient mythology, historical, or traditional practices to contemporary belief systems. Mythical tales about menstruation abound in the legends and prehistory of ancient cultures. These tales characterize menstrual blood variously as sacred, a gift from the gods, or a punishment for sin, but it is almost always magical and powerful...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859936/mortality-salience-reduces-the-discrimination-between-in-group-and-out-group-interactions-a-functional-mri-investigation-using-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#19
Chunliang Feng, Bobby Azarian, Yina Ma, Xue Feng, Lili Wang, Yue-Jia Luo, Frank Krueger
As a fundamental concern of human beings, mortality salience impacts various human social behaviors including intergroup interactions; however, the underlying neural signature remains obscure. Here, we examined the neural signatures underlying the impact of mortality reminders on in-group bias in costly punishment combining a second-party punishment task with multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data. After mortality salience (MS) priming or general negative affect priming, participants received offers from racial in-group and out-group proposers and decided how to punish proposers by reducing their payoffs...
November 10, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856747/preferential-interactions-promote-blind-cooperation-and-informed-defection
#20
Alfonso Pérez-Escudero, Jonathan Friedman, Jeff Gore
It is common sense that costs and benefits should be carefully weighed before deciding on a course of action. However, we often disapprove of people who do so, even when their actual decision benefits us. For example, we prefer people who directly agree to do us a favor over those who agree only after securing enough information to ensure that the favor will not be too costly. Why should we care about how people make their decisions, rather than just focus on the decisions themselves? Current models show that punishment of information gathering can be beneficial because it forces blind decisions, which under some circumstances enhances cooperation...
November 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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