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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792443/sympathy-and-responses-to-suffering-similarity-and-variation-in-china-and-the-united-states
#1
Jennifer L Goetz, Kaiping Peng
Feeling sympathy in response to suffering appears to be a universal human experience, but we know very little about how it is experienced in non-Western cultures. In the present studies, we show that sympathy is a complex emotion that has a distinct appraisal theme of wanting to alleviate suffering and that cultural variation occurs in interpretations of suffering and behavioral responses. In particular, the present studies show that sympathy is conceptualized similarly in both the United States and China (Studies 1 and 2), and that it is elicited by undeserved suffering in both cultures (Study 2), is experienced as unpleasant (Study 2), and motivates a desire to help others (Studies 2, 3, and 4)...
May 24, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790868/altered-prefrontal-correlates-of-monetary-anticipation-and-outcome-in-chronic-pain
#2
Katherine T Martucci, Nicholas Borg, Kelly H MacNiven, Brian Knutson, Sean C Mackey
Chronic pain may alter both affect- and value-related behaviors, which represents a potentially treatable aspect of chronic pain experience. Current understanding of how chronic pain influences the function of brain reward systems, however, is limited. Using a monetary incentive delay task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured neural correlates of reward anticipation and outcomes in female participants with the chronic pain condition of fibromyalgia (N = 17) and age-matched, pain-free, female controls (N = 15)...
April 4, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787829/social-reward-and-social-punishment-sensitivity-in-relation-to-dietary-restraint-and-binge-purge-symptoms
#3
Lauren M Fussner, Aaron M Luebbe, April R Smith
Disordered eating symptoms are associated with disrupted sensitivity to reward and punishment, broadly assessed. However, it is unknown how eating pathology is related to sensitivity to social reward and social punishment specifically. Drawing on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study utilized a multi-method design to test whether disordered eating symptoms, specifically dietary restraint (DR) and binge/purge (BP), were similarly or uniquely related to sensitivity to social punishment and social reward...
May 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787325/barriers-to-self-reporting-patient-safety-incidents-by-paramedics-a-mixed-methods-study
#4
Julie E Sinclair, Michael A Austin, Christopher Bourque, Jennifer Kortko, Justin Maloney, Richard Dionne, Andrew Reed, Penny Price, Lisa A Calder
BACKGROUND: A minimal amount of research exists examining the extent to which patient safety events occur within paramedicine and even fewer studies investigating patient safety systems for self-reporting by paramedics. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to paramedic self-reporting of patient safety incidents (PSIs). METHODS: We randomly distributed paper-based surveys among 1,153 paramedics in an Ontario region in Canada. The survey described one of 5 different PSI clinical scenarios (near miss, adverse event, and minor, major or critical patient care variances) and listed 18 potential barriers to self-reporting PSIs as statements presented for rating on a 5-point Likert scale (very significant = 1 - very insignificant = 5)...
May 22, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786160/aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurocomputational-study-on-bradykinesia
#5
Mauro Ursino, Chiara Baston
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784222/psychiatric-patients-and-nurses-opinions-about-limit-setting-technique-in-port-said-city
#6
Sonia M El-Sayad
BACKGROUND: Limit setting facilitates the development of a therapeutic, caring and supportive relationships, it can also decrease patients' feelings of anxiety and uncertainty. It is a two-way process that should be delivered professionally by the nurse and perceived therapeutically by the patient, so patient considered a vital participant of the technique. AIM: The present study aimed at exploring psychiatric patients' and nurses' opinions as well as their information about limit setting...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778803/age-affects-reinforcement-learning-through-dopamine-based-learning-imbalance-and-high-decision-noise-not-through-parkinsonian-mechanisms
#7
Ravi B Sojitra, Itamar Lerner, Jessica R Petok, Mark A Gluck
Probabilistic reinforcement learning declines in healthy cognitive aging. While some findings suggest impairments are especially conspicuous in learning from rewards, resembling deficits in Parkinson's disease, others also show impairments in learning from punishments. To reconcile these findings, we tested 252 adults from 3 age groups on a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, analyzed trial-by-trial performance with a Q-reinforcement learning model, and correlated both fitted model parameters and behavior to polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes...
April 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772455/are-young-children-s-preferences-and-evaluations-of-moral-and-conventional-transgressors-associated-with-domain-distinctions-in-judgments
#8
Judith G Smetana, Courtney L Ball, Marc Jambon, Ha Na Yoo
The current study investigated associations between children's preferences and evaluations of moral and social-conventional transgressors in a novel puppet task and their links with explicit judgments in a standard interview. Children aged 2-3.25 years (M = 2.53 years, SD = 0.35) and 3.5-5 years (M = 4.38 years, SD = 0.52) watched two pairs of live puppet shows depicting actors committing a moral transgression and a conventional transgression and chose which transgressor they liked more, preferred more as a friend, thought was more wrong, and should get in more trouble; they also distributed resources to the transgressors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771674/multisource-transfer-double-dqn-based-on-actor-learning
#9
Jie Pan, Xuesong Wang, Yuhu Cheng, Qiang Yu
Deep reinforcement learning (RL) comprehensively uses the psychological mechanisms of "trial and error" and "reward and punishment" in RL as well as powerful feature expression and nonlinear mapping in deep learning. Currently, it plays an essential role in the fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Since an RL agent needs to constantly interact with its surroundings, the deep Q network (DQN) is inevitably faced with the need to learn numerous network parameters, which results in low learning efficiency...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770268/do-natural-disasters-affect-voting-behavior-evidence-from-croatian-floods
#10
Kosta Bovan, Benjamin Banai, Irena Pavela Banai
Introduction: Studies show that natural disasters influence voters' perception of incumbent politicians. To investigate whether voters are prone to punish politicians for events that are out of their control, this study was conducted in the previously unstudied context of Croatia, and by considering some of the methodological issues of previous studies. Method: Matching method technique was used, which ensures that affected and non-affected areas are matched on several control variables...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768992/the-effect-of-sex-and-perpetrator-victim-relationship-on-perceptions-of-domestic-homicide
#11
Linda C Karlsson, Tuulia Malén, Johanna K Kaakinen, Jan Antfolk
Previous research on how stereotypes affect perceptions of intimate partner violence and domestic homicide has found that violence committed by men is perceived as more severe and judged more harshly than violence committed by women. The present mock jury study investigated how perpetrator sex (male or female), crime type (familicide or filicide), and relatedness between perpetrator and child victims (biological or step) affect laypeople's perceptions of the appropriate consequence of the crime, the reason for the offense, responsibility of the perpetrator, the likelihood of certain background factors being present, and the risk of future violence...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764970/reinforcement-signaling-of-punishment-versus-relief-in-fruit-flies
#12
Christian König, Afshin Khalili, Mathangi Ganesan, Amrita P Nishu, Alejandra P Garza, Thomas Niewalda, Bertram Gerber, Yoshinori Aso, Ayse Yarali
Painful events establish opponent memories: cues that precede pain are remembered negatively, whereas cues that follow pain, thus coinciding with relief are recalled positively. How do individual reinforcement-signaling neurons contribute to this "timing-dependent valence-reversal?" We addressed this question using an optogenetic approach in the fruit fly. Two types of fly dopaminergic neuron, each comprising just one paired cell, indeed established learned avoidance of odors that preceded their photostimulation during training, and learned approach to odors that followed the photostimulation...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763610/sequential-interactions-in-which-one-player-plays-first-and-another-responds-promote-cooperation-in-evolutionary-dynamical-simulations-of-single-shot-prisoner-s-dilemma-and-snowdrift-games
#13
Robert A Laird
Cooperation is a central topic in evolutionary biology because (a) it is difficult to reconcile why individuals would act in a way that benefits others if such action is costly to themselves, and (b) it underpins many of the 'major transitions of evolution', making it essential for explaining the origins of successively higher levels of biological organization. Within evolutionary game theory, the Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games are the main theoretical constructs used to study the evolution of cooperation in dyadic interactions...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763275/general-parenting-strategies-practical-suggestions-for-common-child-behavior-issues
#14
Michael G Kavan, Shailendra K Saxena, Naureen Rafiq
Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors...
May 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761854/parenting-adolescents-with-asd-a-multimethod-study
#15
Lotte van Esch, Steven Vanmarcke, Eva Ceulemans, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ilse Noens
A number of studies have concluded that parents of children with ASD experience high levels of parenting stress. However, little is known about their parenting behaviors. Especially few studies investigated parenting in adolescence, although this period is associated with additional challenges for both adolescents and their parents. In the present study, a multi-method approach was used, combining data from a self-report questionnaire and observation of mother-child interactions during different semi-structured (e...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761060/loss-anticipation-and-outcome-during-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task-a-neuroimaging-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Jules R Dugré, Alexandre Dumais, Nathalie Bitar, Stéphane Potvin
Background: Reward seeking and avoidance of punishment are key motivational processes. Brain-imaging studies often use the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) to evaluate motivational processes involved in maladaptive behavior. Although the bulk of research has been done on the MIDT reward events, little is known about the neural basis of avoidance of punishment. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain activations during anticipation and receipt of monetary losses in healthy controls...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757071/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-an-appeasing-pheromone-diffuser-product-vs-placebo-for-management-of-feline-aggression-in-multi-cat-households-a-pilot-study
#17
Theresa L DePorter, David L Bledsoe, Alexandra Beck, Elodie Ollivier
Objectives Aggression and social tension among housemate cats is common and puts cats at risk of injury or relinquishment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pheromone product in reducing aggression between housemate cats. Methods A new pheromone product (Feliway Friends) containing a proprietary cat-appeasing pheromone was evaluated for efficacy in reducing aggression between housemate cats via a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 45 multi-cat households (pheromone [n = 20], placebo [n = 25]) reporting aggression for at least 2 weeks...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737363/dissociable-roles-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-d1-and-d2-receptors-in-regulating-cue-elicited-approach-avoidance-conflict-decision-making
#18
David Nguyen, Victoria Fugariu, Suzanne Erb, Rutsuko Ito
RATIONALE: Approach and avoidance decisions are made when an animal experiences a state of motivational conflict inflicted by stimuli imbued with both positive and negative valences. The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a site where valenced information and action selection converge, has recently been found to be critically involved in the resolution of approach-avoidance conflict. However, the individual roles of the region's dopamine receptor D1 (D1R)- and D2 (D2R)-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in regulating conflict resolution have not been well established...
May 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731170/corticoamygdala-transfer-of-socially-derived-information-gates-observational-learning
#19
Stephen A Allsop, Romy Wichmann, Fergil Mills, Anthony Burgos-Robles, Chia-Jung Chang, Ada C Felix-Ortiz, Alienor Vienne, Anna Beyeler, Ehsan M Izadmehr, Gordon Glober, Meghan I Cum, Johanna Stergiadou, Kavitha K Anandalingam, Kathryn Farris, Praneeth Namburi, Christopher A Leppla, Javier C Weddington, Edward H Nieh, Anne C Smith, Demba Ba, Emery N Brown, Kay M Tye
Observational learning is a powerful survival tool allowing individuals to learn about threat-predictive stimuli without directly experiencing the pairing of the predictive cue and punishment. This ability has been linked to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). To investigate how information is encoded and transmitted through this circuit, we performed electrophysiological recordings in mice observing a demonstrator mouse undergo associative fear conditioning and found that BLA-projecting ACC (ACC→BLA) neurons preferentially encode socially derived aversive cue information...
April 27, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729537/effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-learning-from-errors-in-smokers
#20
Leonie Duehlmeyer, Bianca Levis, Robert Hester
BACKGROUND: Punishing errors facilitates adaptation in healthy individuals, while aberrant reward and punishment sensitivity in drug-dependent individuals may change this impact. Many societies have institutions that use the concept of punishing drug use behavior, making it important to understand how drug dependency mediates the effects of negative feedback for influencing adaptive behavior. METHODS: Using an associative learning task, we investigated differences in error correction rates of dependent smokers, compared with controls...
April 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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