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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338664/characteristics-of-non-vitreoretinal-ocular-injury-in-child-maltreatment-a-systematic-review
#1
T Betts, S Ahmed, S Maguire, P Watts
PurposeTo identify the spectrum of non-vitreoretinal ocular injury due to child maltreatment.MethodsAll language search of MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases, 1950-2015, was conducted. INCLUSION CRITERIA: explicit confirmation of injury aetiology, age <18 years, examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. Exclusion: post-mortem data, organic diseases, review articles. Standardised critical appraisal and narrative synthesis was conducted of included publications by two independent reviewers...
March 24, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336791/faultless-responsibility-on-the-nature-and-allocation-of-moral-responsibility-for-distributed-moral-actions
#2
Luciano Floridi
The concept of distributed moral responsibility (DMR) has a long history. When it is understood as being entirely reducible to the sum of (some) human, individual and already morally loaded actions, then the allocation of DMR, and hence of praise and reward or blame and punishment, may be pragmatically difficult, but not conceptually problematic. However, in distributed environments, it is increasingly possible that a network of agents, some human, some artificial (e.g. a program) and some hybrid (e.g. a group of people working as a team thanks to a software platform), may cause distributed moral actions (DMAs)...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334960/neural-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-in-unmedicated-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Marcus Rothkirch, Jonas Tonn, Stephan Köhler, Philipp Sterzer
According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332112/perspectives-on-exertional-rhabdomyolysis
#4
REVIEW
Eric S Rawson, Priscilla M Clarkson, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Exertional (exercise-induced) rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition that has been the subject of research, intense discussion, and media attention. The causes of rhabdomyolysis are numerous and can include direct muscle injury, unaccustomed exercise, ischemia, extreme temperatures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrinologic conditions, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, infections, drugs, toxins, and venoms. The objective of this article is to review the literature on exertional rhabdomyolysis, identify precipitating factors, and examine the role of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326056/child-negative-emotionality-and-parental-harsh-discipline-in-chinese-preschoolers-the-different-mediating-roles-of-maternal-and-paternal-anxiety
#5
Xiaopei Xing, Hongli Zhang, Shuhui Shao, Meifang Wang
Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323159/functional-changes-in-the-reward-circuit-in-response-to-gaming-related-cues-after-training-with-a-commercial-video-game
#6
Tobias Gleich, Robert C Lorenz, Jürgen Gallinat, Simone Kühn
In the present longitudinal study, we aimed to investigate video game training associated neuronal changes in reward processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We recruited 48 healthy young participants which were assigned to one of 2 groups: A group in which participants were instructed to play a commercial video game ("Super Mario 64 DS") on a portable Nintendo DS handheld console at least 30minutes a day over a period of two months (video gaming group; VG) or to a matched passive control group (CG)...
March 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320289/cancer-bad-luck-or-punishment
#7
REVIEW
A V Lichtenstein
Contrasting opinions on the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in cancer etiology (Tomasetti, C., and Vogelstein, B. (2015) Science, 347, 78-81; Wu, S., et al. (2016) Nature, 529, 43-47) variously define priorities in the war on cancer. The correlation between the lifetime risk of several types of cancer and the total number of divisions of normal self-renewing cells revealed by the authors has given them grounds to put forward the "bad luck" hypothesis. It assumes that ~70% of cancer variability is attributed to random errors arising during DNA replication in normal, noncancerous stem cells, i...
January 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318480/supervision-in-motivational-interviewing-an-exploratory-study
#8
Maria Beckman, Benjamin Bohman, Lars Forsberg, Finn Rasmussen, Ata Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: Although supervision is believed to be an important strategy for training practitioners in evidence-based practice, little is known about how it should be organized and conducted to promote implementation fidelity. AIMS: To explore supervisor behaviours that might facilitate supervisees' proficiency in motivational interviewing. METHOD: In this exploratory study, ten supervisors from a primary prevention intervention of childhood obesity responded to semi-structured interviews about their supervision behaviours...
March 20, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318429/shame-as-a-compromise-for-humiliation-and-rage-in-the-internal-representation-of-abuse-by-loved-ones-processes-motivations-and-the-role-of-dissociation
#9
Martin J Dorahy
This paper examines one particular way a person abused may come to internally position themselves and the abuser to understand their abuse experience. It is based on a differentiation and exploration of the dynamic relationship between shame and humiliation associated with complex feelings the abused has to the abuser. Humiliation is described as denoting the naked self exposed by another, while shame is described as denoting the naked self exposed to another. From this lens, abusive events are conceived as humiliating experiences that come to be represented as shame experiences...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316265/drift-diffusion-model-of-reward-and-punishment-learning-in-rare-alpha-synuclein-gene-carriers
#10
Ahmed A Moustafa, Szabolcs Kéri, Bertalan Polner, Corey White
To understand the cognitive effects of alpha-synuclein polymorphism, we employed a drift diffusion model (DDM) to analyze reward- and punishment-guided probabilistic learning task data of participants with the rare alpha-synuclein gene duplication and age- and education-matched controls. Overall, the DDM analysis showed that, relative to controls, asymptomatic alpha-synuclein gene duplication carriers had significantly increased learning from negative feedback, while they tended to show impaired learning from positive feedback...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314229/how-did-the-good-school-toolkit-reduce-the-risk-of-past-week-physical-violence-from-teachers-to-students-qualitative-findings-on-pathways-of-change-in-schools-in-luwero-uganda
#11
N Kyegombe, S Namakula, J Mulindwa, J Lwanyaaga, D Naker, S Namy, J Nakuti, J Parkes, L Knight, E Walakira, K M Devries
Violence against children is a serious violation of children's rights with significant impacts on current and future health and well-being. The Good School Toolkit (GST) is designed to prevent violence against children in primary schools through changing schools' operational cultures. Conducted in the Luwero District in Uganda between 2012 and 2014, findings from previous research indicate that the Toolkit reduced the odds of past week physical violence from school staff (OR = 0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.64, p < 0...
March 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292771/margaret-mccartney-punishing-individuals-won-t-prevent-errors
#12
Margaret McCartney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290269/trajectories-of-child-externalizing-problems-between-ages-3-and-10-years-contributions-of-children-s-early-effortful-control-theory-of-mind-and-parenting-experiences
#13
Sheryl L Olson, Daniel Ewon Choe, Arnold J Sameroff
Preventing problem behavior requires an understanding of earlier factors that are amenable to intervention. The main goals of our prospective longitudinal study were to trace trajectories of child externalizing behavior between ages 3 and 10 years, and to identify patterns of developmentally significant child and parenting risk factors that differentiated pathways of problem behavior. Participants were 218 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (age 5-6 years) and during the late school-age years (age 10)...
March 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289225/predicting-the-knowledge-recklessness-distinction-in-the-human-brain
#14
Iris Vilares, Michael J Wesley, Woo-Young Ahn, Richard J Bonnie, Morris Hoffman, Owen D Jones, Stephen J Morse, Gideon Yaffe, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
Criminal convictions require proof that a prohibited act was performed in a statutorily specified mental state. Different legal consequences, including greater punishments, are mandated for those who act in a state of knowledge, compared with a state of recklessness. Existing research, however, suggests people have trouble classifying defendants as knowing, rather than reckless, even when instructed on the relevant legal criteria. We used a machine-learning technique on brain imaging data to predict, with high accuracy, which mental state our participants were in...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284989/punishment-in-the-form-of-shared-cost-promotes-altruism-in-the-cooperative-dilemma-games
#15
Chunyan Zhang, Yuying Zhu, Zengqiang Chen, Jianlei Zhang
One phenomenon or social institution often observed in multi-agent interactions is the altruistic punishment, i.e. the punishment of unfair behavior by others at a personal cost. Inspired by the works focusing on punishment and the intricate mechanism behind it, we theoretically study the strategy evolution in the framework of two-strategy game models with the punishment on defectors, moreover, the cost of punishing will be evenly shared among the cooperators. Theoretical computations suggest that larger punishment on defectors or smaller punishment cost incurred by cooperators will enhance the fixation of altruistic cooperation in the population...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284948/compulsive-methamphetamine-taking-under-punishment-is-associated-with-greater-cue-induced-drug-seeking-in-rats
#16
Oscar V Torres, Subramanian Jayanthi, Bruce Ladenheim, Michael T McCoy, Irina N Krasnova, Jean Lud Cadet
Methamphetamine (METH) addicts lose control over drug consumption despite suffering multiple adverse medicolegal consequences. To mimic the negative events associated with drug addiction in humans, we recently introduced a rat model of self-administration (SA) with response-contingent punishment on METH intake. These procedures allowed us to distinguish between two addiction-like phenotypes in rats, those that sustained METH taking despite negative consequences (shock-resistant, SR) and rats that significantly reduced their METH intake (shock-sensitive, SS)...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281156/questionable-objectionable-or-criminal-public-opinion-on-data-fraud-and-selective-reporting-in-science
#17
Justin T Pickett, Sean Patrick Roche
Data fraud and selective reporting both present serious threats to the credibility of science. However, there remains considerable disagreement among scientists about how best to sanction data fraud, and about the ethicality of selective reporting. The public is arguably the largest stakeholder in the reproducibility of science; research is primarily paid for with public funds, and flawed science threatens the public's welfare. Members of the public are able to make meaningful judgments about the morality of different behaviors using moral intuitions...
March 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280279/behavioural-phenotypes-and-the-structure-of-human-cognition
#18
Dana Bentzen-Bilkvist, Andrea Migliano, Lucio Vinicius
Human cognitive uniqueness is often defined in terms of cognitive abilities such as introspection, imitation and cooperativeness. However, little is known about how those traits vary in populations or correlate across individuals. Here we test whether those three cognitive domains are correlated manifestations of an underlying factor, analogous to the psychometric 'g' factor, or independent 'behavioural phenotypes', analogous to the 'Big-Five' personality components. We selected eight variables measuring introspection and extraversion, verbal and physical imitation, cooperation and punishment, and evaluated their individual variability, domain-consistency and sub-structuring in a sample of 84 individuals...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277271/change-over-time-in-parents-beliefs-about-and-reported-use-of-corporal-punishment-in-eight-countries-with-and-without-legal-bans
#19
Jennifer E Lansford, Claudia Cappa, Diane L Putnick, Marc H Bornstein, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Robert H Bradley
Stopping violence against children is prioritized in goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. All forms of child corporal punishment have been outlawed in 50 countries as of October 2016. Using data from 56,371 caregivers in eight countries that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, we examined change from Time 1 (2005-6) to Time 2 (2008-13) in national rates of corporal punishment of 2- to 14-year-old children and in caregivers' beliefs regarding the necessity of using corporal punishment...
October 27, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276919/-they-say-god-punishes-people-with-hiv-experiences-of-stigma-and-discrimination-among-adults-with-hiv-in-dili-timor-leste
#20
Kate Williams, Bridget G Haire, Sally Nathan
Little is known about the experiences of people with HIV in the small island nation of Timor-Leste. This study explored the HIV-related stigma experiences of adults aged between 18 and 40 living with HIV in Dili, Timor-Leste. Participants were interviewed on topics related to living with HIV, both as key informants describing the experience of others with HIV known to them, and also with respect to their own personal experiences. Findings suggest that people with HIV in Timor-Leste face stigma and discrimination in various contexts...
February 22, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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