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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332521/a-template-analysis-of-intimate-partner-violence-survivors-experiences-of-animal-maltreatment-implications-for-safety-planning-and-intervention
#1
Elizabeth A Collins, Anna M Cody, Shelby Elaine McDonald, Nicole Nicotera, Frank R Ascione, James Herbert Williams
This study explores the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal cruelty in an ethnically diverse sample of 103 pet-owning IPV survivors recruited from community-based domestic violence programs. Template analysis revealed five themes: (a) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as a Tactic of Coercive Power and Control, (b) Animal Maltreatment by Partner as Discipline or Punishment of Pet, (c) Animal Maltreatment by Children, (d) Emotional and Psychological Impact of Animal Maltreatment Exposure, and (e) Pets as an Obstacle to Effective Safety Planning...
March 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326983/detecting-reciprocity-at-a-global-scale
#2
Morgan R Frank, Nick Obradovich, Lijun Sun, Wei Lee Woon, Brad L LeVeck, Iyad Rahwan
Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324299/boys-with-conduct-problems-and-callous-unemotional-traits-neural-response-to-reward-and-punishment-and-associations-with-treatment-response
#3
Amy L Byrd, Samuel W Hawes, Jeffrey D Burke, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A Pardini
Abnormalities in reward and punishment processing are implicated in the development of conduct problems (CP), particularly among youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, no studies have examined whether CP children with high versus low CU traits exhibit differences in the neural response to reward and punishment. A clinic-referred sample of CP boys with high versus low CU traits (ages 8-11; n = 37) and healthy controls (HC; n = 27) completed a fMRI task assessing reward and punishment processing...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323286/conditional-punishment-is-a-double-edged-sword-in-promoting-cooperation
#4
Feng Huang, Xiaojie Chen, Long Wang
Punishment is widely recognized as an effective approach for averting from exploitation by free-riders in human society. However, punishment is costly, and thus rational individuals are unwilling to take the punishing action, resulting in the second-order free-rider problem. Recent experimental study evidences that individuals prefer conditional punishment, and their punishing decision depends on other members' punishing decisions. In this work, we thus propose a theoretical model for conditional punishment and investigate how such conditional punishment influences cooperation in the public goods game...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322245/interactions-between-incentive-valence-and-action-information-in-a-cued-approach-avoidance-task
#5
Vincent Hoofs, Thomas Carsten, C Nico Boehler, Ruth M Krebs
Environmental stimuli can provoke specific response tendencies depending on their incentive valence. While some studies report positive-approach and negative-avoidance biases, others find no such mappings. To further illuminate the relationship between incentive valence and action requirement, we combined a cued monetary incentive paradigm with an approach/avoidance joystick task. Incentive type was manipulated between groups: The reward group won money, while the punishment group avoided losing money for correct and fast responses to targets following incentive cues...
January 10, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316925/extending-coverage-to-informal-sector-populations-in-kenya-design-preferences-and-implications-for-financing-policy
#6
Vincent Okungu, Jane Chuma, Stephen Mulupi, Diane McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage (UHC) is important in terms of improving access to quality health care while protecting households from the risk of catastrophic health spending and impoverishment. However, progress to UHC has been hampered by the measures to increase mandatory prepaid funds especially in low- and middle-income countries where there are large populations in the informal sector. Important considerations in expanding coverage to the informal sector should include an exploration of the type of prepayment system that is acceptable to the informal sector and the features of such a design that would encourage prepayment for health care among this population group...
January 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316504/health-behind-bars-can-exploring-the-history-of-prison-health-systems-impact-future-policy
#7
Kathryn M Weston, Louella R McCarthy, Isobelle Barrett Meyering, Stephen Hampton, Tobias Mackinnon
The value of history is, indeed, not scientific but moral … it prepares us to live more humanely in the present, and to meet rather than to foretell, the future - Carl Becker. Becker's quote reminds us of the importance of revealing and understanding historical practices in order to influence actions in the future. There are compelling reasons for uncovering this history, in particular to better inform government policy makers and health advocates, and to address the impacts of growing community expectations to 'make the punishment fit the crime'...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315615/preparing-for-saliencies-emotional-expectations-under-probabilistically-and-aversively-salient-situations
#8
Mio Kamei, Yasunori Kotani, Haruo Sakuma
In humans, the expectation process in decision making has not been as thoroughly investigated as the evaluation process. The present study focused on the interaction between probabilistic saliency and motivational saliency during expectation and evaluation periods using stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and reward positivity (RewP). Twenty healthy participants performed a modified monetary-incentive delay task under reward-approach and punishment-avoidance conditions. Each condition was characterized by the likely outcome (reward only, punishment only) to manipulate motivational saliency...
January 8, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309198/mindfulness-increases-prosocial-responses-toward-ostracized-strangers-through-empathic-concern
#9
Daniel R Berry, Athena H Cairo, Robert J Goodman, Jordan T Quaglia, Jeffrey D Green, Kirk Warren Brown
Four studies tested the proposition that mindfulness and its training fostered prosociality toward ostracized strangers. In discovery Study 1, dispositional mindfulness predicted greater empathic concern for, and more helping behavior toward, an ostracized stranger. Using an experimental design, Study 2 revealed that very briefly instructed mindfulness, relative to active control instructions, also promoted prosocial responsiveness to an ostracized stranger. Study 3 ruled out alternative explanations for this effect of mindfulness, showing that it did not promote empathic anger or perpetrator punishment, nor that the control training reduced prosocial responsiveness toward an ostracized stranger rather than mindfulness increasing it...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308966/the-interaction-between-punishment-sensitivity-and-effortful-control-for-emerging-adults-substance-use-behaviors
#10
Rachel E Kahn, Pearl H Chiu, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Anna K Hochgraf, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
BACKGROUND: Within the dual systems perspective, high reward sensitivity and low punishment sensitivity in conjunction with deficits in cognitive control may contribute to high levels of risk taking, such as substance use. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether the individual components of effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional control, and activation control) serve as regulators and moderate the association between reward or punishment sensitivity and substance use behaviors...
January 8, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307949/-on-the-perimeter-of-the-lawful-enduring-illegality-in-the-irish-family-planning-movement-1972-1985
#11
Emilie Cloatre, Máiréad Enright
Between 1935 and 1985, Irish law criminalized the sale and importation of condoms. Activists established illegal markets to challenge the law and alleviate its social consequences. They distributed condoms through postal services, shops, stalls, clinics, and machines. Though they largely operated in the open, their activities attracted little direct punishment from the state, and they were able to build a stable network of medical and commercial family planning services. We use 30 interviews conducted with former activists to explore this history...
December 2017: Journal of Law and Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307556/bonobos-prefer-individuals-that-hinder-others-over-those-that-help
#12
Christopher Krupenye, Brian Hare
Humans closely monitor others' cooperative relationships [1, 2]. Children and adults willingly incur costs to reward helpers and punish non-helpers-even as bystanders [3-5]. Already by 3 months, infants favor individuals that they observe helping others [6-8]. This early-emerging prosocial preference may be a derived motivation that accounts for many human forms of cooperation that occur beyond dyadic interactions and are not exhibited by other animals [9, 10]. As the most socially tolerant nonhuman ape [11-17] (but see [18]), bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide a powerful phylogenetic test of whether this trait is derived in humans...
January 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305159/the-test-retest-model-of-anxiety-an-appraisal-of-findings-to-explain-benzodiazepine-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Michel Bourin
A test retest protocol in animal model of anxiety induces an increase of anxious behavior and a loss of benzodiazepine-induced effect. This effect, known as the "one trial tolerance", is mainly observed in the elevated plus maze, an ethological model of anxiety in mice, but also in the four plate test, a model based on punishment. A review of some hypotheses based on behavioral, pharmacological and neurochemical approaches are proposed here to explain this benzodiazepines tolerance phenomenon.
January 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304402/maternal-negative-emotional-expression-and-discipline-in-beijing-china-the-moderating-role-of-educational-attainment
#14
Feng Cheng, Yifang Wang, Xixian Wu, Zhuqing Su
The current study shows that parental punitive discipline places children at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Although some studies have analyzed the reasons for the use of discipline methods, little to no research has analyzed the moderating effects. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal negative emotional expression and mothers' use of disciplinary methods (psychological aggression, corporal punishment and physical maltreatment) and the moderating effects of educational attainment in Chinese societies...
January 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301874/locus-coeruleus-activity-strengthens-prioritized-memories-under-arousal
#15
David Clewett, Ringo Huang, Rico Velasco, Tae-Ho Lee, Mara Mather
Recent models posit that bursts of locus coeruleus (LC) activity amplify neural gain, such that limited attention and encoding resources focus even more on prioritized mental representations under arousal. Here, we tested this hypothesis in human males and females using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neuromelanin MRI, and pupil dilation, a biomarker of arousal and LC activity. During scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive encoding task in which threat of punishment motivated participants to prioritize encoding of scene images over superimposed objects...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298908/opposite-effects-of-basolateral-amygdala-inactivation-on-context-induced-relapse-to-cocaine-seeking-after-extinction-versus-punishment
#16
Yann Pelloux, Angelica Minier-Toribio, Jennifer K Hoots, Jennifer M Bossert, Yavin Shaham
Studies using the renewal procedure showed that basolateral amygdala (BLA) inactivation inhibits context-induced relapse to cocaine-seeking after extinction. Here, we determined whether BLA inactivation would also inhibit context-induced relapse after drug-reinforced responding is suppressed by punishment, an animal model of human relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. We also determined the effect of central amygdala (CeA) inactivation on context-induced relapse.We trained rats to self-administer cocaine for 12 d (6 h/d) in Context A and then exposed them to either extinction or punishment training for 8 d in Context B...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298185/a-multivariate-validity-analysis-of-the-pain-related-cognitive-processes-questionnaire
#17
Melissa A Day, L Charles Ward, Mark P Jensen
BACKGROUND: The Pain-Related Cognitive Processes Questionnaire (PCPQ) provides a multifaceted assessment of different styles of pain-related attentional processing. The present study examined the construct validity of the 4 PCPQ composite scales. METHODS: Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was applied to data from two college student samples (N=544) to derive reference variable factors which provided the context for drawing inferences regarding the construct validity of the PCPQ scales...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295032/for-whom-does-hate-crime-hurt-more-a-comparison-of-consequences-of-victimization-across-motives-and-crime-types
#18
Caroline Mellgren, Mika Andersson, Anna-Karin Ivert
Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders' hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294983/attitudes-of-turkish-academics-regarding-violence-against-women-in-the-name-of-honor
#19
Kıymet Yeşilçiçek Çalik
Honor is an important concept that has a vital value in Turkey and affects many women's lives and even causes death. It is of utmost importance to know and scientifically demonstrate the value judgments of the academics that lead and pioneer the society in our country where honor culture is adopted. Therefore, in Turkey, where thousands of women are exposed to violence every year, 877 academics participated in this descriptive study to determine the attitudes of academics toward violence against women in the name of honor...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294980/cycle-of-violence-in-schools-longitudinal-reciprocal-relationship-between-student-s-aggression-and-teacher-s-use-of-corporal-punishment
#20
Boungho Choi
The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between student's aggression and teacher's use of corporal punishment. An autoregressive cross-lagged model was analyzed with the data drawn from 4,051 Korean secondary students (male = 2,084, female = 1,967), in Gyeonggi Education Panel Study for three waves (seventh-ninth grades). Results revealed that student's aggression provoke teacher's use of corporal punishment and also teacher's use of corporal punishment provokes student's aggression...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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