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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921582/retribution-as-hierarchy-regulation-hierarchy-preferences-moderate-the-effect-of-offender-socioeconomic-status-on-support-for-retribution
#1
Liz Redford, Kate A Ratliff
People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#2
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914163/truth-or-punishment-secrecy-and-punishing-the-self
#3
Michael L Slepian, Brock Bastian
We live in a world that values justice; when a crime is committed, just punishment is expected to follow. Keeping one's misdeed secret therefore appears to be a strategic way to avoid (just) consequences. Yet, people may engage in self-punishment to right their own wrongs to balance their personal sense of justice. Thus, those who seek an escape from justice by keeping secrets may in fact end up serving that same justice on themselves (through self-punishment). Six studies demonstrate that thinking about secret (vs...
July 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913835/retributive-justifications-for-jail-diversion-of-individuals-with-mental-disorder
#4
E Lea Johnston
Jail diversion programs have proliferated across the United States as a means to decrease the incarceration of individuals with mental illnesses. These programs include pre-adjudication initiatives, such as crisis intervention teams, as well as post-adjudication programs, such as mental health courts and specialized probationary services. Post-adjudication programs often operate at the point of sentencing, so their comportment with criminal justice norms is crucial. This article investigates whether and under what circumstances post-adjudication diversion for offenders with serious mental illnesses may cohere with principles of retributive justice...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912969/migration-related-stressors-and-their-effect-on-the-severity-level-and-symptom-pattern-of-depression-among-vietnamese-in-germany
#5
Simon Wolf, Eric Hahn, Michael Dettling, Main Huong Nguyen, Katja Wingenfeld, Markus Stingl, Bernd Hanewald, Thi Minh Tam Ta
OBJECTIVES: Vietnamese in Germany represent a scarcely researched and vulnerable group for mental health problems, especially under exposure to migration-related stressors (MRS). This study analyzes the effect of those MRS on the severity level and symptom pattern of depression. DESIGN: We analyzed the data of 137 depressed Vietnamese patients utilizing Germany's first Vietnamese psychiatric outpatient clinic. Hierarchical linear regression models were applied to investigate how the quantity of MRS influenced (1) the overall severity of self-reported depression symptoms; (2) the cognitive, affective, and somatic BDI-II subscale; and (3) the single BDI-II items of these subscales...
2017: Depression Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905734/swift-and-certain-proportionate-and-consistent-key-values-of-urine-drug-test-consequences-for-probationers
#6
Amy B Cadwallader
Traditionally, urine drug testing (UDT) in the correctional population (both prison and community corrections) has been infrequent, is scheduled, and has a high possibility of delayed results. Of practical relevance is that scheduled testing is ineffective for identifying drug misuse. Of ethical relevance is that consequences of positive scheduled tests can be unpredictable-in the form of overly severe punishment or a lack of treatment options-and that the scheduled testing paradigm is a poor way to change behaviors...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903700/motivational-differences-in-seeking-out-evaluative-categorization-information
#7
Rachel Smallman, Brittney Becker
Previous research shows that people draw finer evaluative distinctions when rating liked versus disliked objects (e.g., wanting a 5-point scale to evaluate liked cuisines and a 3-point scale to rate disliked cuisines). Known as the preference-categorization effect, this pattern may exist not only in how individuals form evaluative distinctions but also in how individuals seek out evaluative information. The current research presents three experiments that examine motivational differences in evaluative information seeking (rating scales and attributes)...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903691/sadism-the-intuitive-system-and-antisocial-punishment-in-the-public-goods-game
#8
Stefan Pfattheicher, Johannes Keller, Goran Knezevic
In public goods situations, a specific destructive behavior emerges when individuals face the possibility of punishing others: antisocial punishment, that is, costly punishing cooperative individuals. So far, little is known about the (intuitive or reflective) processes underlying antisocial punishment. Building on the Social Heuristics Hypothesis and arguing that antisocial punishment reflects the basic characteristics of sadism, namely, aggressive behavior to dominate and to harm other individuals it is assumed that everyday sadists intuitively engage in antisocial punishment...
March 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901244/inter-caste-lovers-suicide-pact-case-report-from-nepal
#9
Alok Atreya, Milan Shrestha, Jenash Acharya
Discrimination on cultural and ethnic grounds is a crime in Nepal. [Caste Based Discrimination and Untouchability (Offence and Punishment) Act, 2068 (2011) * * There are two different dates which reflect the Bikram Sambat which is the official Hindu calendar in Nepal. This calendar is 57 years ahead of Gregorian calendar. For example, 19 August 2017 AD is 03 Bhadra 2074 Bikram Sambat. Thus, the date 2068 is in Bikram Sambat, 2011 is per Gregorian calendar which is unofficial so kept in parenthesis. This text is available online from: http://www...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895792/rash-impulsiveness-and-negative-mood-but-not-alexithymia-or-reward-sensitivity-differentiate-young-to-middle-aged-chronic-daily-smokers-from-never-smokers
#10
Michael Lyvers, Monique Bremner, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
Given the well-established associations of the personality traits alexithymia, impulsivity, and reward sensitivity with problematic use of a variety of substances, including alcohol and cannabis, the present study sought to determine whether daily tobacco smoking is similarly linked to these traits. Male and female adults aged 18 to 40 years were recruited from the local Australian community, allowing comparison of demographically similar samples of current daily smokers (n = 47) to never-smokers (n = 59) on the relevant self-report measures...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895128/transitional-justice-as-social-control-political-transitions-human-rights-norms-and-the-reclassification-of-the-past
#11
Ron Dudai
This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895078/the-growth-scope-and-spatial-distribution-of-people-with-felony-records-in-the-united-states-1948-2010
#12
Sarah K S Shannon, Christopher Uggen, Jason Schnittker, Melissa Thompson, Sara Wakefield, Michael Massoglia
The steep rise in U.S. criminal punishment in recent decades has spurred scholarship on the collateral consequences of imprisonment for individuals, families, and communities. Several excellent studies have estimated the number of people who have been incarcerated and the collateral consequences they face, but far less is known about the size and scope of the total U.S. population with felony convictions beyond prison walls, including those who serve their sentences on probation or in jail. This article develops state-level estimates based on demographic life tables and extends previous national estimates of the number of people with felony convictions to 2010...
September 11, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894206/caring-cooperators-and-powerful-punishers-differential-effects-of-induced-care-and-power-motivation-on-different-types-of-economic-decision-making
#13
G Chierchia, F H Parianen Lesemann, D Snower, M Vogel, T Singer
Standard economic theory postulates that decisions are driven by stable context-insensitive preferences, while motivation psychology suggests they are driven by distinct context-sensitive motives with distinct evolutionary goals and characteristic psycho-physiological and behavioral patterns. To link these fields and test how distinct motives could differentially predict different types of economic decisions, we experimentally induced participants with either a Care or a Power motive, before having them take part in a suite of classic game theoretical paradigms involving monetary exchange...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893996/evolution-of-flexibility-and-rigidity-in-retaliatory-punishment
#14
Adam Morris, James MacGlashan, Michael L Littman, Fiery Cushman
Natural selection designs some social behaviors to depend on flexible learning processes, whereas others are relatively rigid or reflexive. What determines the balance between these two approaches? We offer a detailed case study in the context of a two-player game with antisocial behavior and retaliatory punishment. We show that each player in this game-a "thief" and a "victim"-must balance two competing strategic interests. Flexibility is valuable because it allows adaptive differentiation in the face of diverse opponents...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891781/occipital-alpha-and-gamma-oscillations-support-complementary-mechanisms-for-processing-stimulus-value-associations
#15
Tom R Marshall, Sebastiaan den Boer, Roshan Cools, Ole Jensen, Sean James Fallon, Johanna M Zumer
Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous information going unnoticed. Neural systems are also in place for processing rewarding and punishing information. Here, we examine the interaction between selective attention (left vs. right) and stimulus's learned value associations (neutral, punished, or rewarded) and how they compete for control of posterior neural oscillations...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891657/the-role-of-a-common-is-moral-heuristic-in-the-stability-and-change-of-moral-norms
#16
Björn Lindström, Simon Jangard, Ida Selbing, Andreas Olsson
Moral norms are fundamental for virtually all social interactions, including cooperation. Moral norms develop and change, but the mechanisms underlying when, and how, such changes occur are not well-described by theories of moral psychology. We tested, and confirmed, the hypothesis that the commonness of an observed behavior consistently influences its moral status, which we refer to as the common is moral (CIM) heuristic. In 9 experiments, we used an experimental model of dynamic social interaction that manipulated the commonness of altruistic and selfish behaviors to examine the change of peoples' moral judgments...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888394/three-cases-of-feet-and-hand-amputation-from-medieval-estremoz-portugal
#17
Teresa Fernandes, Marco Liberato, Carina Marques, Eugénia Cunha
Peri-mortem limb amputations are rarely reported in the paleopathological literature. The cases reported here concern severing of both hands and feet observed in three adult male skeletons, exhumed from the medieval Portuguese necropolis of Rossio do Marquês de Pombal, Estremoz, Portugal. The fact that they were found in the same site, in graves placed side by side, that all are young males, and that the three skeletons show similar perimortem injuries, make this a unique case meriting detailed analysis. Considering the lesions' location and pattern, as well as historical data, we hypothesize that this is a case of amputation as a consequence of judicial punishment...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887626/probability-differently-modulating-the-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-visuomotor-adaptation
#18
Yanlong Song, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
Recent human motor learning studies revealed that punishment seemingly accelerated motor learning but reward enhanced consolidation of motor memory. It is not evident how intrinsic properties of reward and punishment modulate the potentially dissociable effects of reward and punishment on motor learning and motor memory. It is also not clear what causes the dissociation of the effects of reward and punishment. By manipulating probability of distribution, a critical property of reward and punishment, the present study demonstrated that probability had distinct modulation on the effects of reward and punishment in adapting to a sudden visual rotation and consolidation of the adaptation memory...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887182/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-underlying-habitual-and-compulsive-drug-seeking
#19
REVIEW
Rachel J Smith, Lillian S Laiks
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Here we review studies that indicate that compulsive drug use, and in particular punishment resistance in animal models of addiction, is related to impaired cortical control over habitual behavior. In humans and animals, instrumental behavior is supported by goal-directed and habitual systems that rely on distinct corticostriatal networks. Chronic exposure to addictive drugs or stress has been shown to bias instrumental response strategies toward habit learning, and impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) control over responding...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881042/nature-nurture-and-capital-punishment-how-evidence-of-a-genetic-environment-interaction-future-dangerousness-and-deliberation-affect-sentencing-decisions
#20
Natalie Gordon, Edie Greene
Research has shown that the low-activity MAOA genotype in conjunction with a history of childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of violent behaviors. This genetic-environment (G × E) interaction has been introduced as mitigation during the sentencing phase of capital trials, yet there is scant data on its effectiveness. This study addressed that issue. In a factorial design that varied mitigating evidence offered by the defense [environmental (i.e., childhood maltreatment), genetic, G × E, or none] and the likelihood of the defendant's future dangerousness (low or high), 600 mock jurors read sentencing phase evidence in a capital murder trial, rendered individual verdicts, and half deliberated as members of a jury to decide a sentence of death or life imprisonment...
September 7, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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