keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Punishment

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165617/selective-activation-of-striatal-ngf-trka-p75ntr-mapk-intracellular-signaling-in-rats-that-show-suppression-of-methamphetamine-intake-30-days-following-drug-abstinence
#1
Oscar V Torres, Subramanian Jayanthi, Michael T McCoy, Jean Lud Cadet
Background: The continuing epidemic of methamphetamine (METH) addiction has prompted research aimed at understanding striatal dysfunctions potentially associated with long-term METH use. Methods: Here, we investigated transcriptional and translational alterations in the expression of neurotrophic factors in the rat striatum at 30 days following METH SA and footshock punishment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer METH (0.1 mg/kg/injection, i...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163004/cardiac-concomitants-of-feedback-and-prediction-error-processing-in-reinforcement-learning
#2
Lucas Kastner, Jana Kube, Arno Villringer, Jane Neumann
Successful learning hinges on the evaluation of positive and negative feedback. We assessed differential learning from reward and punishment in a monetary reinforcement learning paradigm, together with cardiac concomitants of positive and negative feedback processing. On the behavioral level, learning from reward resulted in more advantageous behavior than learning from punishment, suggesting a differential impact of reward and punishment on successful feedback-based learning. On the autonomic level, learning and feedback processing were closely mirrored by phasic cardiac responses on a trial-by-trial basis: (1) Negative feedback was accompanied by faster and prolonged heart rate deceleration compared to positive feedback...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162175/reward-sensitivity-impulse-control-and-social-cognition-as-mediators-of-the-link-between-childhood-family-adversity-and-externalizing-behavior-in-eight-countries
#3
Jennifer E Lansford, Jennifer Godwin, Marc H Bornstein, Lei Chang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A Dodge, Patrick S Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Laurence Steinberg, Sombat Tapanya, Liane Peña Alampay, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Suha M Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini
Using data from 1,177 families in eight countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), we tested a conceptual model of direct effects of childhood family adversity on subsequent externalizing behaviors as well as indirect effects through psychological mediators. When children were 9 years old, mothers and fathers reported on financial difficulties and their use of corporal punishment, and children reported perceptions of their parents' rejection. When children were 10 years old, they completed a computerized battery of tasks assessing reward sensitivity and impulse control and responded to questions about hypothetical social provocations to assess their hostile attributions and proclivity for aggressive responding...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161190/using-video-stimuli-to-examine-judgments-of-non-offending-and-offending-pedophiles-a-brief-communication
#4
Katie A Boardman, Ross M Bartels
In this experimental study, 89 participants were allocated to an offending pedophile; non-offending pedophile; or control video condition. They then watched two short help-seeking video-clips of an older male and a younger male (counterbalanced). Judgments about each male were assessed, as were general attitudes towards pedophiles and sexual offenders. Offending pedophiles were judged as more deserving of punishment than the non-offending pedophiles and controls. Age of the male was found to have an effect on judgments of dangerousness...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159755/emotions-and-cognitions-associated-with-the-stigma-of-non-offending-pedophilia-a-vignette-experiment
#5
Sara Jahnke
Cognitive and affective antecedents of the desire to avoid or punish non-offending pedophilic individuals are not well understood. In this article, we examined the effects of non-offending motivation (internal vs. external) and sexual orientation (pedophilic vs. teleiophilic) on cognitive apprehensions (amorality, dangerousness, abnormality), emotions (fear, anger, disgust), punitive attitudes, and social distance toward a man experiencing a sexually transgressive impulse. A total of 205 U.S.-based MTurk workers were randomly assigned to one of four groups in this 2 × 2 factorial vignette study...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157751/preliminary-evidence-that-digit-length-ratio-2d-4d-predicts-neural-response-to-delivery-of-motivational-stimuli
#6
Troy A Webber, Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts, Marina A Bornovalova
Reduced relative length of the 2nd to 4th digits (2D:4D) is thought to partially reflect fetal testosterone (FT) exposure, a process suspected to promote relatively permanent effects on the brain and behavior via structural and functional neuroadaptations. We examined the effect of 2D:4D on neural response - assessed by P2a and feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potentials (ERPs) - to motivational stimuli (reward or punishment) using two counterbalanced conditions of a passive S1/S2 outcome prediction design...
November 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157117/honor-and-harmed-social-image-muslims-anger-and-shame-about-the-cartoon-controversy
#7
Patricia M Rodriguez Mosquera
Two studies examined anger and shame, and their associated appraisals and behavioral intentions, in response to harm to an in-group's social-image. In Study 1, 37 British Muslims (18 men, 19 women) reported incidents in which they were devalued as Muslims. In Study 2, 108 British Muslims (57 females, 50 males, 1 undisclosed) were presented with objective evidence of their in-group's devaluation: the controversial cartoons about Prophet Muhammad The appraisal of harm to social-image predicted anger and shame (Studies 1 and 2), whereas the appraisal of offense only predicted anger (Study 2)...
November 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155278/mecp2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-risky-decision-making
#8
Jay V Deng, Caitlin A Orsini, Kristy G Shimp, Barry Setlow
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context of risk-taking behaviors using the Risky Decision-making Task (RDT), in which rats make discrete choices between a small "safe" food reward and a large "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of punishment...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153983/perceptions-intentions-and-behavioral-norms-that-affect-pre-license-driving-among-arab-youth-in-israel
#9
Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Mina Zemach, Tsippy Lotan, Wafa Elias, Einat Grimberg
The present study examines reported pre-license driving among youth from the population of Arab citizens of Israel. The purpose of the present study is to examine which sociodemographic variables, attitudes and perceptions about safe driving and individual and societal behavioral norms are associated with pre-license driving. The research distinguished between the factors that actually contribute to pre-license driving (reported behavior, peer norms, gender and parents' messages) and the factors that explain the intention (parental authority, social norms, parents' messages and fear of road crashes)...
November 15, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153459/-intrafamilial-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-present-data-and-treatment-prospects
#10
E Bousquet, N Franc, C Ha, D Purper-Ouakil
Child-to-parent violence is a form of family violence that is still a well-kept secret. Abused parents can be victims of different types of abuse. Children can use both physical and psychological violence such as financial threats to take control of the home. In this situation, parents often no longer dare to contradict their children by fear of triggering uncontrollable violence. Although the phenomenon recently drew the attention of the media, there is still little knowledge about its prevalence and clinical characteristics...
November 16, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153074/is-being-punished-at-school-an-indicator-of-psychosocial-risk
#11
Ana Isabel Corchado, María José Díaz-Aguado Jalón, Rosario Martínez-Arias
Research carried out in different cultural contexts shows that the use of exclusively coercive disciplinary measures does not improve the behavior of those punished, and may even increase the risks underpinning those behaviors. The aim of this research was to study whether there is a link between repeatedly suffering punishment at school and psychosocial risks in adolescence. A non-experimental design was implemented with selected groups. The participants were 507 adolescents from four groups with different risk levels: in social protection (n = 189); subject to court measures (n = 104); in treatment for drug abuse (n = 25); and comparison group (n = 189)...
November 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151147/the-relationship-of-five-boarding-school-experiences-and-physical-health-status-among-northern-plains-tribes
#12
Ursula Running Bear, Calvin D Croy, Carol E Kaufman, Zaneta M Thayer, Spero M Manson
PURPOSE: American Indian (AI) boarding school attendance is related to poor physical health status; however, little is known about how specific aspects of this experience contribute to poor health. Five experiences (age of first attendance, limited family visits, forced church attendance, prohibition on practicing AI culture and traditions, and punishment for use of AI language) may be independently associated with physical health status in adulthood. We expected the effect to be greater for those who began boarding school at older ages...
November 18, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151097/the-dancing-manias-psychogenic-illness-as-a-social-phenomenon
#13
Douglas J Lanska
The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied and sometimes erotic, dancing...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148066/predicting-the-use-of-corporal-punishment-child-aggression-parent-religiosity-and-the-bdnf-gene
#14
Reut Avinun, Maayan Davidov, David Mankuta, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Corporal punishment (CP) has been associated with deleterious child outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding its underpinnings. Although several factors have been linked with parents' CP use, genetic influences on CP have rarely been studied, and an integrative view examining the interplay between different predictors of CP is missing. We focused on the separate and joint effects of religiosity, child aggression, parent's gender, and a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene...
November 17, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140846/punishment-eliminates-directed-forgetting-an-event-related-potential-study
#15
Zhi Ren, Xia Zou, Chuzhi You, Junlong Luo, Wei Liu
This study investigated motivational effect of reward and punishment on directed forgetting using the event-related potential technique. Participants were instructed to encode two-character words in Chinese, followed by the indicator of 'remember' or 'forget'. Then, participants were required accomplishing the judgment task of old and new words. The results suggest that (i) directed forgetting effect is significant in the punishment condition but not in the reward condition, and (ii) a positive amplitude is induced in the punishment condition but not in the reward condition...
November 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136100/ghrelin-is-related-to-personality-differences-in-reward-sensitivity-and-impulsivity
#16
Elizabeth Ralevski, Marya Shanabrough, Jenelle Newcomb, Erin Gandelman, Ryan Hayden, Tamas L Horvath, Ismene Petrakis
Aims: Ghrelin, a feeding-related peptide mainly produced in the stomach, has been linked to reward mechanisms for food and drugs of abuse in addition to traits of impulsivity. This study is a secondary analysis of an existing data set designed to examine the direct relationships between fasting ghrelin levels and reward sensitivity/impulsivity in healthy social drinkers. Methods: Participants (n = 20) were recruited from an original study examining the subjective effects of alcohol among social drinkers...
November 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130029/turking-overtime-how-participant-characteristics-and-behavior-vary-over-time-and-day-on-amazon-mechanical-turk
#17
Antonio A Arechar, Gordon Kraft-Todd, David G Rand
Online experiments allow researchers to collect datasets at times not typical of laboratory studies. We recruit 2,336 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk to examine if participant characteristics and behaviors differ depending on whether the experiment is conducted during the day versus night, and on weekdays versus weekends. Participants make incentivized decisions involving prosociality, punishment, and discounting, and complete a demographic and personality survey. We find no time or day differences in behavior, but do find that participants at nights and on weekends are less experienced with online studies; on weekends are less reflective; and at night are less conscientious and more neurotic...
July 2017: Journal of the Economic Science Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122454/ayurveda-formulations-a-roadmap-to-address-the-safety-concerns
#18
Kishor Patwardhan, Jigyasa Pathak, Rabinarayan Acharya
It is a matter of serious concern that the number of case reports pointing at a possible association between the clinical toxicity and the use of Ayurveda formulations is increasing significantly over the years in scientific medical literature. Though most of these cases are connected with the presence of heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic in these formulations, there are also reports suggesting toxicity due to the presence of toxic chemicals of herbal origin. In the year 2008, the Government of India took an initiative of establishing the National Pharmacovigilance Programme for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs in a structured way...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116134/behavioural-differences-and-neural-substrates-of-altruistic-and-spiteful-punishment
#19
Toshio Yamagishi, Yang Li, Alan S R Fermin, Ryota Kanai, Haruto Takagishi, Yoshie Matsumoto, Toko Kiyonari, Masamichi Sakagami
Altruistic punishment following social norm violations promotes human cooperation. However, experimental evidence indicates that some forms of punishment are spiteful rather than altruistic. Using two types of punishment games and seven non-strategic games, we identified strong behavioural differences between altruistic and spiteful punishers. Altruistic punishers who rejected unfair offers in the ultimatum game and punished norm violators in the third-party punishment game behaved pro-socially in various non-strategic games...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114214/commentary-the-emerging-neuroscience-of-third-party-punishment
#20
COMMENT
Oksana Zinchenko, Vasily Klucharev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
26478
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"