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James W Dearing
The ability of non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and corporations to deliver and support the availability and use of interventions for improved global public health depends on their readiness to do so. Yet readiness has proven to be a rather fluid concept in global public health, perhaps due to its multidimensional nature and because scholars and practitioners have applied the concept at different levels such as the individual, organization, and community. This review concerns 30 publically available tools created for the purpose of organizational readiness assessment in order to carry out global public health objectives...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Pamela Kaufman, Julie Kang, Ryan David Kennedy, Pippa Beck, Roberta Ferrence
This paper investigates the impacts of smoke-free housing policies on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior. From 2012 to 2014, we studied two affordable housing providers in Canada with comprehensive smoke-free policies: Waterloo Regional Housing that required new leases to be non-smoking and exempted existing leases, and Yukon Housing Corporation that required all leases (existing and new) to be non-smoking. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 31 housing and public health staff involved in policy development and implementation, and qualitative interviews with 56 tenants...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Monica G Ferrini, Eduardo Garcia, Andrea Abraham, Jorge N Artaza, Sabine Nguyen, Jacob Rajfer
INTRODUCTION: COMP-4 is a natural compound-based dietary supplement consisting of the combination of ginger, Paullinia cupana, muira puama and l-citrulline, which when given long-term has been shown in the aged rat to a) upregulate iNOS in the penile smooth muscle cells (SMC), b) reverse the corporal SMC apoptosis and fibrosis associated with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), and c) improve resulting erectile function. To elucidate the mechanism of how COMP-4 and its individual components modulate the iNOS-cGMP pathway, an in vitro study was conducted using a rat corporal primary SMC culture to determine its effect on NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), cGMP and the phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme (PDE5)...
March 15, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Joceline S Fuchs, Nabeel Shakir, Maxim J McKibben, Shawn Mathur, Sloan Teeple, Jeremy M Scott, Allen F Morey
BACKGROUND: For prolonged ischemic priapism, outcomes after distal shunt are poor, with only 30% success for priapic episodes lasting longer than 48 hours. AIM: To present a novel, glans-sparing approach of corporal decompression through a penoscrotal approach for cases of refractory ischemic priapism (RIP) after failed distal shunt procedures. METHODS: We describe the technique and present our initial experience with penoscrotal decompression (PSD) for treatment of RIP after failed distal shunt...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Xiaoming Zhang, Boran Zhou, Andre Miranda, Landon W Trost
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition that is characterized by progressive corporal smooth muscle fibrosis. There is currently no widely accepted methods to characterize the extent and severity of penile fibrosis. AIM: The purpose of this study is to translate a novel ultrasound vibro-elastography (UVE) technique for noninvasively measuring viscoelasticity of the penis. METHODS: A pilot study was performed of UVE in men with ED and/or Peyronie's disease (PD)...
March 13, 2018: Urology
Simon Deeming, Penny Reeves, Shanthi Ramanathan, John Attia, Michael Nilsson, Andrew Searles
BACKGROUND: The question of how to measure, assess and optimise the returns from investment in health and medical research (HMR) is a highly policy-relevant issue. Research Impact Assessment Frameworks (RIAFs) provide a conceptual measurement framework to assess the impact from HMR. The aims of this study were (1) to elicit the views of Medical Research Institutes (MRIs) regarding objectives, definitions, methods, barriers, potential scope and attitudes towards RIAFs, and (2) to investigate whether an assessment framework should represent a retrospective reflection of research impact or a prospective approach integrated into the research process...
March 16, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Rolando Saavedra O, Fresia Solís F, Carmina Domic C
INTRODUCTION: Children scalded by the tearing of hot-water bottles presented a sudden and significa tive increase around 2000 in Chile. For this reason the Aid to Burned Children Corporation (COA-NIQUEM) publicized prevention concepts concerning the careful use of this device and raised a voice of alarm to authorities. Later, the National Normalization Institute introduced quality certification standards for hot water bottles sold in the country. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of preventive measures and quality certification for hot water bottles in burns caused by tearing of the device on children...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Susan Greig, Sharareh Hekmat, Alicia C Garcia
PURPOSE: Patient satisfaction with hospital food enhances consumption and adequate intake of nutrients required for recovery from illness/injury and maintenance of health; accordingly, the nutrient content of the menu must balance patient preferences. This study of Ontario hospital foodservice departments collected data on current practices of analyzing the nutritional adequacy and assessing patient satisfaction with menus, and it explored perceptions of priority issues. METHODS: Foodservice managers/directors from 57 of 140 (41%) hospitals responded to cross-sectional in-depth telephone interviews...
March 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Gregory Fant, Lisa Backus
Introduction: It is important to monitor the use of optometric services by Veterans and consider the implications for other optometric and vision rehabilitation services. We did not find public health reports documenting the recent utilization of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) optometric eye exam services. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in this secondary data analysis report. We were interested in reporting on the number of Veterans using the VHA system with at least one VHA optometric eye exam service in 2014, 2015, or 2016 within a VHA optometry clinic...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Lauren K Lempert, Stanton A Glantz
Introduction: American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Claire de Brie, Emmanuelle Piet, Patrick Chariot
BACKGROUND: Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners...
March 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Emily J Gach, Ka I Ip, Arnold J Sameroff, Sheryl L Olson
Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Klaus Griesar, John Bessant, Sabine Bernschneider-Reif
The elephant is in the room-a metaphorical idiom for an obvious problem or risk that nobody wants to discuss. This abstract is not intended to be a summary, to reveal major findings, or unveil conclusions. On the contrary, it is aimed to provoke curiosity as to the question of corporate survival. Is there any recipe to be followed for companies to achieve this? The answer comes neither from the modest and traditional study rooms of philosophers nor the recent fact-based studies from the offices (and well-paid opinions) of business consultants...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Evgeny A Kuzmin
The article presents data on the corporate survival rate in Russia in 1991-2014. The empirical survey was based on a random sample with the average number of non-repeated observations (number of companies) for the survey each year equal to 75,958 (24,236 minimum and 126,953 maximum). The actual limiting mean error ∆ p was 2.24% with 99% integrity. The survey methodology was based on a cross joining of various formal periods in the corporate life cycles (legal and business), which makes it possible to talk about a conventionally active time life of companies' existence with a number of assumptions...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Kishore P Madhwani, P K Nag
Background: Use of laptops and hand-held devices increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). More time spent on this activity adopting faulty postures, higher the risk of developing such injuries. This study addresses training on office ergonomics with emphasis on sustainable behavior change among employees to work in safe postures, as this is a top priority in the corporate environment, today. Aim: To explore training intervention methods that ensure wider coverage of awareness on office ergonomics, thereby promoting safer working and suggesting sustainable programs for behavior change and job enrichment...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Shao-Hsi Chung, Kuo-Chih Cheng
Background: The sunk cost effect is the scenario when individuals are willing to continue to invest capital in a failing project. The purpose of this study was to explain such irrational behavior by exploring how sunk costs affect individuals' willingness to continue investing in an unfavorable project and to understand the role of cognitive dissonance on the sunk cost effect. Methods: This study used an experimental questionnaire survey on managers of firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and Over-The-Counter...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Doug King, Patria A Hume, Natalie Hardaker, Cloe Cummins, Conor Gissane, Trevor Clark
OBJECTIVES: To provide epidemiological data and related costs for sport-related injuries of five sporting codes (cricket, netball, rugby league, rugby union and football) in New Zealand for moderate-to-serious and serious injury claims. METHODS: A retrospective analytical review using detailed descriptive epidemiological data obtained from the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) for 2012-2016. RESULTS: Over the 5 years of study data, rugby union recorded the most moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claims (25 226) and costs (New Zealand dollars (NZD$)267 359 440 (£139 084 749)) resulting in the highest mean cost (NZD$10 484 (£5454)) per moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claim...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Alison M Bauer, David N Hackney, Sherif El-Nashar, David Sheyn
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta in pregnancies after endometrial ablation. STUDY DESIGN:  We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using a large, multiinstitutional deidentified clinical database, IBM EPM: Explore (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY). We identified women who underwent endometrial ablation and had a subsequent delivery between 1999 and 2016. Patients with a delivery and no prior ablation were used as controls...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Louise Curran, Jappe Eckhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Business and Politics
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