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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805961/reducing-branded-prescription-drug-prices-a-review-of-policy-options
#1
G Caleb Alexander, Jeromie Ballreich, Mariana P Socal, Taruja Karmarkar, Antonio Trujillo, Jeremy Greene, Joshua Sharfstein, Gerard Anderson
The high prices of specialty pharmaceuticals are causing some public programs to ration care and many private insurers, including Medicare drug plans, to place specialty drugs on high cost sharing tiers. As a result, access to these drugs is severely restricted, and only a small portion of the population with the disease is receiving treatment. This concern has generated a wide range of proposed solutions. We conducted a literature review and identified fifty-two solutions in the peer reviewed literature that we classified into five broad categories: revising the patent system; encouraging research to increase development of new drugs; altering pharmaceutical regulation; decreasing market demand; and developing innovative pricing strategies...
August 14, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805468/long-term-persistence-with-single-pill-fixed-dose-combination-therapy-versus-two-pills-of-amlodipine-and-perindopril-for-hypertension-australian-experience
#2
Leon A Simons, Eric Chung, Michael Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: To study treatment persistence and mortality using a single-pill, fixed-dose combination tablet compared with a two-pill combination for hypertension. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed Australian Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme records 2011-2014 in a 10% random sample of concessional patients prescribed concomitant amlodipine and perindopril - either as a single-pill, fixed-dose combination tablet (n = 9340) or as two-pill combination therapy (n = 3093)...
August 14, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803645/liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-method-for-selected-pharmaceuticals-in-water-samples
#3
Jalal T Althakafy, Chadin Kulsing, Michael R Grace, Philip J Marriott
This study developed an analytical approach for sub-ppb level detection and confirmation of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water samples using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography hyphenated with a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC- Q-Orbitrap-MS). Sample preparation was performed by using solid phase extraction (SPE) employing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges, with elution of sorbed analytes using methanol. Acceptable automatic gain control (AGC) target and maximum injection time (IT) were 1×10(6) and 200ms, respectively, resulting in a mass accuracy <2ppm...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803117/phenolics-from-rubus-fairholmianus-induces-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-in-human-breast-adenocarcinoma-cells
#4
Blassan P George, Heidi Abrahamse, Nanjundaswamy M Hemmaragala
Herbal medicine is an important part of health care system in most of the countries. Rubus fairholmianus is an unexplored berry in folkloric medicine. In this study, we aimed to understand the importance of R. fairholmianus in pharmaceutical industry for the development of cost-effective cancer therapeutic drugs using in vivo and in vitro analysis. Chemical characterisation, antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties of R. fairholmianus root methanolic column subfraction (RFM) were investigated...
August 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802657/occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-uv-filters-in-riverine-run-offs-and-waters-of-the-german-baltic-sea
#5
Kathrin Fisch, Joanna J Waniek, Detlef E Schulz-Bull
The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the marine environment is of great concern. This study was done to determine the emergence of eight pharmaceuticals and eleven ultraviolet filters (UV-Filters) in 5 rivers/streams discharging into the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, a focus was put on the influence of wastewater treatment plant as indirect source and the occurrence of the PPCPs in close beach proximity. Two pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, salicylic acid) and two UV-filters (2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid, octocrylene) were detected in all analyzed water samples, with concentration ranging from 0...
August 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801131/health-care-demand-elasticities-by-type-of-service
#6
Randall P Ellis, Bruno Martins, Wenjia Zhu
We estimate within-year price elasticities of demand for detailed health care services using an instrumental variable strategy, in which individual monthly cost shares are instrumented by employer-year-plan-month average cost shares. A specification using backward myopic prices gives more plausible and stable results than using forward myopic prices. Using 171 million person-months spanning 73 employers from 2008 to 2014, we estimate that the overall demand elasticity by backward myopic consumers is -0.44, with higher elasticities of demand for pharmaceuticals (-0...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799499/orally-administrated-small-molecule-drugs-with-intestine-targeted-profile-recent-development-and-prospects
#7
Hua Cao, Kai Wang, Yang-Liang Ye, Jian-Hua Shen
Intestine targeted drugs are orally administered compounds exerting their therapeutic effects locally in the intestinal tract, thus avoiding side effects related to systemic exposure. Both academic and pharmaceutical research has, therefore, focused on such agents, but the systematic methodology needed for their design and evaluation has been unclear. Medicinal chemists have pursued design of intestine targeted compounds outside the "rule of five". This review summarized six categories of intestine targeted drugs, based on various design strategies, with careful analysis of recent examples from each category...
August 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799370/nucleation-in-food-colloids
#8
Malcolm J W Povey
Nucleation in food colloids has been studied in detail using ultrasound spectroscopy. Our data show that classical nucleation theory (CNT) remains a sound basis from which to understand nucleation in food colloids and analogous model systems using n-alkanes. Various interpretations and modifications of CNT are discussed with regard to their relevance to food colloids. Much of the evidence presented is based on the ultrasound velocity spectrometry measurements which has many advantages for the study of nucleating systems compared to light scattering and NMR due to its sensitivity at low solid contents and its ability to measure true solid contents in the nucleation and early crystal growth stages...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799017/ecotoxicological-risk-assessment-and-seasonal-variation-of-some-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-the-sewage-treatment-plant-and-surface-water-bodies-lakes
#9
G Archana, Rita Dhodapkar, Anupama Kumar
This paper reports the seasonal variation and environmental quality control data for five fingerprint pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (acetaminophen ciprofloxacin, caffeine, irgasan and benzophenone) in the influent and the effluent of the sewage treatment plant (STP) and surface water bodies (six major lakes) in and around Nagpur, one of the "A class city" in the central India over a period of 1 year. The target compounds were analysed using developed offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-PDA) method...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797863/palliative-care-development-in-mongolia
#10
Odontuya Davaasuren, Frank Ferris
CONTEXT: Since the year 2000, Mongolia has established the foundation measures for a national palliative care program and has made several significant achievements. METHODS: Systematic reviews and observational studieson palliative care development in Mongolia have taken place overthe past 16 years. RESULTS: Mongolia began palliative care development in 2000 with the creation of the Mongolian Palliative Care Society and the Palliative Care Department...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797664/investigation-of-zinc-oxide-particles-in-cosmetic-products-by-means-of-centrifugal-and-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation
#11
Vanessa Sogne, Florian Meier, Thorsten Klein, Catia Contado
The dimensional characterization of insoluble, inorganic particles, such as zinc oxide ZnO, dispersed in cosmetic or pharmaceutical formulations, is of great interest considering the current need of declaring the possible presence of nanomaterials on the label of commercial products. This work compares the separation abilities of Centrifugal- and Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation techniques (CF3 and AF4, respectively), equipped with UV-vis, MALS and DLS detectors, in size sorting ZnO particles, both as pristine powders and after their extraction from cosmetic matrices...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793077/prevalence-of-medicine-use-among-brazilian-adults-a-systematic-review
#12
Vanessa Pereira Gomes, Marcus Tolentino Silva, Taís Freire Galvão
The use of medicine in adults has been assessed by some population-based studies in Brazil, but to date there has been no overall estimate of the prevalence of drug consumption. We therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence of medicine use as measured in previously reported cross-sectional studies among Brazilian adults. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, searching in MEDLINE, Embase among others to a date ending January 2017. Two researchers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of those chosen for inclusion...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793076/national-medicines-policy-in-retrospective-a-review-of-almost-20-years-of-implementation
#13
Daniela Moulin Maciel de Vasconcelos, Gabriela Costa Chaves, Thiago Botelho Azeredo, Rondineli Mendes da Silva
Pharmaceutical services and the formulation of a medicines policy are SUS areas ensured by the organic health care law 8,080/90. Thus, after a widely participative process, involving stakeholders, the National Medicines Policy (NMP) was approved in 1998 by Ordinance 3,916.The NMP presents directives and priorities, aligned with organic health care law, which should guide the federal, states and municipals entities actions to achieve the policy goals. Considering almost 20 years of the NMP, this paper took stock discussed some of the directives in light of the SUS principles...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793075/-coordination-between-pharmaceutical-services-for-integrated-pharmacotherapy-the-case-of-catalonia
#14
Karen Sarmento Costa, Moisés Goldbaum, Rafel Guayta-Escolies, Pilar Modamio, Eduardo Luis Mariño, José Luis Segú Tolsá
Pharmaceutical policies have been considered strategies to contribute to the guarantee of care coordination and clinical integration. This study sought to describe the pharmaceutical services developed at different levels of care in the health network in Catalonia, as well as to identify and analyze the mechanisms and instruments that act as facilitators and/or barriers to the coordination of pharmacotherapy. This is a descriptive study of 12 cases of hospital pharmacy services, primary care and community pharmacies...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793064/pharmaceutical-services-in-primary-health-care-are-pharmacists-and-users-on-the-same-page
#15
Tatiana Chama Borges Luz, Maria Emília Silva de Souza Costa, Daniela Santana Portes, Lucas Barbi Costa E Santos, Samuel Rodrigues Almeida E Sousa, Vera Lucia Luiza
This study investigated structural and organizational characteristics of the Pharmaceutical Services based on Primary Health Care (PHCPS) from the viewpoints of users and pharmacists. A mixed method design was applied, combining one-to-one semi-structured interviews with four pharmacists in charge of five public dispensing facilities and 69 users, with a secondary database analysis. Data were collected from February to August 2014 in Divinópolis, a municipality in Minas Gerais State. PHCPS were similar in terms of general activities performed and staff profile and background...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793063/investment-of-financial-resources-for-the-procurement-of-medicines-for-primary-care-in-brazilian-municipalities
#16
Marcela Amaral Pontes, Noemia Uruth Leão Tavares, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco, Janeth de Oliveira Silva Naves
This study shows a descriptive data analysis related to the procurement of medicines for primary care in Brazilian municipalities, as recorded in the National database of Pharmaceutical Service Actions and Services for the period July 2013 - June 2014, by geographic region and population size. Nine hundred and sixty municipalities were analyzed, of which 27% invested monetary value equal to or greater than the minimum statutory recommendations and 43% of these are located in the Southeast. The North region has the highest number of municipalities with less investment...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792110/toxicity-of-extracts-from-municipal-wastewater-to-early-life-stages-of-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes-to-evaluate-removals-of-micropollutants-by-wastewater-treatment
#17
Nicholas Maya, Calvin Crispo, Victoria McFarland, Deniz Nasuhoglu, Siavash Isazadeh, Viviane Yargeau, Chris D Metcalfe
Treatment of municipal wastewater reduces the concentrations of some pharmaceuticals and personal care products, hormones and drugs of abuse. However, reduced concentrations of these micropollutants in wastewater may not correlate with reduced toxicity, as transformations of micropollutants and/or the formation of disinfection by-products may generate toxic compounds. In this study, we prepared extracts by solid phase extraction of samples collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) at various stages of treatment and tested these extracts for toxicity to early life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789923/geographical-accessibility-to-community-pharmacies-by-the-elderly-in-metropolitan-lisbon
#18
Miguel Padeiro
BACKGROUND: In ageing societies, community pharmacies play an important role in delivering medicines, responsible advising, and other targeted services. Elderly people are among their main consumers, as they use more prescription drugs, need more specific health care, and experience more mobility issues than other age groups. This makes geographical accessibility a relevant concern for them. OBJECTIVES: To measure geographical pedestrian accessibility to community pharmacies by elderly people in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA)...
August 2, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789808/visible-light-driven-n-tio2-sio2-fe3o4-magnetic-nanophotocatalysts-synthesis-characterization-and-photocatalytic-degradation-of-ppcps
#19
Ashutosh Kumar, Musharib Khan, Liping Fang, Irene M C Lo
TiO2-based photocatalysis offers certain advantages like rapid degradation and mineralization of organic compounds. However, the practical applicability of photocatalysts in degradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is still restricted by challenges including their limited photocatalytic activity under visible light and difficulty in their separation from suspension. To overcome these challenges, a visible-light-driven magnetic N-TiO2@SiO2@Fe3O4 nanophotocatalyst was developed through fine-tuning the pertinent factors (calcination temperature, Fe3O4 loading, and nitrogen doping) involved during synthesis process, on the basis of degradation of ibuprofen (a typical PPCP)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782335/elimination-of-hcv-as-a-public-health-concern-among-people-who-inject-drugs-by-2030-what-will-it-take-to-get-there
#20
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Sébastien Morin, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Marina B Klein
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there is a considerable burden of HCV and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and transmission of both infections continues. Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) coverage remains low, despite evidence demonstrating their prevention benefit. Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) with HCV cure >95% among PWID provide an opportunity to reverse rising trends in HCV-related morbidity and mortality and reduce incidence...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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