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Xuan Wang, Zu-Jun Sun, Jun-Lu Wu, Wen-Qiang Quan, Wei-Dong Xiao, Helen Chew, Cui-Min Jiang, Dong Li
Although naloxone has been documented to exert neuroprotection in animal model of cerebral ischemia, the mechanism is not well understood. In this present study we investigated whether naloxone affected the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in ischemic brain injury of rats. SD rats were subjected to a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery, and received naloxone (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, i.v.) immediately after ischemia. Neurological deficits were evaluated 24 h after ischemia using the McGraw Stroke Index, and then the rats were killed, and the brains were collected for further analyses...
June 14, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Katarzyna Kuczyńska, Piotr Grzonkowski, Łukasz Kacprzak, Jolanta B Zawilska
Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid used as a narcotic analgesic supplement in general and regional anesthesia as well as in management of persistent, severe chronic pain. Alarming epidemiological and forensic medicine reports, accumulated mainly during the last two decades, point to a growing increase in illicit use of fentanyl, mainly in North America and Europe. Toxicological data indicates that fentanyl use is inextricably linked with polydrug use. There are two main sources of fentanyl on the "recreational" drug market...
June 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
Viola Andresen, Peter Layer
Chronic constipation is a very common medical problem with relevant impact on the patients' quality of life. Modern definitions recognize constipation as a polysymptomatic disorder, including various aspects of disturbed defecation. Current guidelines recommend a stepwise approach in the management of chronic constipation. Isolated or concomitant evacuation disorders should be identified and may need differential/additional treatment. Baseline measures include lifestyle components and bulking agents. The next step recommends treatment with conventional laxatives...
April 2018: Visceral Medicine
Benjamin J Pieters, John T Anderson, Nigel Price, Lynn M Anson, Richard M Schwend
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective randomized clinical trial was to compare low (0.5 μg/kg/h) and high (2.5 μg/kg/h) dose naloxone infusion on the time to tolerate liquids and meals after surgery, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) opioid requirements, nausea and pruritus ratings, and hospital length of stay. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion often receive PCA after surgery and may experience common opioid-associated side effects, including nausea and pruritus...
July 2018: Spine Deformity
Akira Shinohara, Tsugunobu Andoh, Ikuo Saiki, Yasushi Kuraishi
Fentanyl is an opioid commonly prescribed for cancer pain. Using melanoma-bearing mice, we investigated whether peripheral action would contribute to fentanyl analgesia in cancer pain. Intravenous injection of fentanyl inhibited mechanical nociception in healthy mice, which was markedly inhibited by the opioid antagonist naloxone, but not naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting opioid antagonist. Melanoma-bearing mice showed mechanical allodynia and spontaneous licking, a pain-related behavior, which were suppressed by intravenous and local injections of fentanyl...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Samantha Schiavon, Kathleen Hodgin, Aaron Sellers, Margaret Word, James W Galbraith, John Dantzler, Karen L Cropsey
INTRODUCTION: Drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. It is imperative to explore predictors of opioid overdose in order to facilitate targeted treatment and prevention efforts. The present study was conducted as an exploratory examination of the factors associated with having a past opioid overdose. METHODS: Participants (N = 244) from substance treatment facilities, inpatient services following ER admittance, or involved within the drug court system and who reported opioid use in the past 6 months were recruited in this study...
May 30, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Misbah, Nishat Ahmed, Mohammed Arifuddin, Abdullah Rehman, Mok Pooi Ling
Flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br., (Apocynaceae) are used in traditional medicine for analgesic property. The present study was performed to isolate the active principles and investigate the mechanisms involved in the anti-nociception caused by T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME). The extract in the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o was subjected to various assays in acetic acid induced abdominal writhing and formalin induced paw licking test models. Naloxone, L-Arginine, Glibenclamide and Glutamate were used as inducers while Morphine, L-NAME, Methylene blue and Aspirin served as standard drugs...
June 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ying Zeng, Di Hu, Wei Yang, Emi Hayashinaka, Yasuhiro Wada, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Qunli Zeng, Yilong Cui
Placebo analgesia is the beneficial effect that follows despite a pharmacologically inert treatment. Modern neuroimaging studies in humans have delineated the hierarchical brain regions involved in placebo analgesia. However, because of the lack of proper approaches to perform molecular and cellular manipulations, the detailed molecular processes behind it have not been clarified. To address this issue, we developed an animal model of placebo analgesia in rats and analyzed the placebo analgesia related brain activity using small-animal neuroimaging method...
June 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Joe S Smith, Jonathan P Mochel, David J Borts, Kerrie A Lewis, Johann F Coetzee
OBJECTIVE: To describe adverse reactions and measure plasma fentanyl concentrations in calves following administration of a fentanyl transdermal patch (FTP). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental clinical study. ANIMALS: Six female Holstein calves and one male Angus calf. Four calves were healthy experimental animals and three calves were clinical patients. METHODS: Plasma fentanyl concentrations were measured in blood collected from a jugular vein...
April 11, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Nathan C Stam, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Olaf H Drummer, Karen Smith, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the management of non-fatal heroin overdose in the out-of-hospital environment; irrespective of whether or not naloxone had been administered. Heroin toxicity-related deaths as well as heroin intoxication-related traumatic deaths following patient-initiated refusal of transport were investigated. METHODS: Heroin-related deaths in the state of Victoria, Australia between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013 were investigated and data linkage to pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services performed, in order to identify whether the death was related to the last episode of care by paramedics...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Baijuan Xia, Yixin Li, Rongrong Li, Dan Yin, Xingqiang Chen, Jie Li, Wenmei Liang
BACKGROUND Synaptic plasticity plays an important role in the process of addiction. This study investigated the relationship between synaptic plasticity and changes in addictive behavior and examined the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins and genes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) region in different rat models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Heroin addiction, SIRT1-overexpression, and SIRT1-silenced rat models were established. Polymerase chain reaction gene chip technology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect changes in synaptic plasticity-related gene and protein expression, and changes in the ultrastructure of synapses, in the NAc...
June 5, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Bridget Candy, Louise Jones, Victoria Vickerstaff, Philip J Larkin, Patrick Stone
BACKGROUND: Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is characterised by constipation, incomplete evacuation, bloating, and gastric reflux. It is one of the major adverse events of treatment for pain in cancer and in palliative care, resulting in increased morbidity and reduced quality of life.This is an update of two Cochrane reviews. One was published in 2011, Issue 1 on laxatives and methylnaltrexone for the management of constipation in people receiving palliative care; this was updated in 2015 and excluded methylnaltrexone...
June 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sara Ferraz, Telma Caria, Aline Vaz Da Silva, Maria Jose Candeias, Teresa Cenicante
Introduction: Opioids are used intrathecally to manage surgical pain. There are few reports of hypothermia after spinal morphine injection, none in the pediatric population. We present a teenager's case of mild hypothermia. Case Presentation: A 15-year-old boy was scheduled for elective abdominal laparotomy. General anesthesia was combined with spinal anesthesia, using levobupivacaine and morphine. In the recovery room, he presented a decreased tympanic temperature (34...
February 2018: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Allison J Ober, Katherine E Watkins, Colleen M McCullough, Claude M Setodji, Karen Osilla, Sarah B Hunter
INTRODUCTION: Primary care clinics are opportune settings in which to deliver substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, but little is known about which patients initiate treatment in these settings. METHODS: Using secondary data from a RCT that aimed to integrate SUD treatment into a federally qualified health center (FQHC) using an organizational readiness and collaborative care (CC) intervention, we examined patient-level predictors of initiation of evidence-based practices for opioid and/or alcohol use disorders (OAUDs): a brief behavioral treatment (BT) based on motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) (extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX) for patients with an alcohol use disorder or opioid use disorder and buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX) for patients with an opioid use disorder)...
July 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
B D Sigmarsdottir, Th K Gudmundsdottir, S Zoäga, P S Gunnarsson
Aims Respiratory depression is a serious life threatening condition and a known adverse event of opioids. Little is known about the use of the opioid antidote naloxon in Iceland, and the additive effects of other potentially respiratory depressive drugs administered with opioids. The aim of the study was to review the literature on drugs that may cause respiratory depression and to assess medication use in patients receiving parenteral naloxone in Landspítali University Hospital. Methods A review and analysis of drugs that can cause respiratory depression based on information from the scientific literature, medicine databases and clinical guidelines...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jakob Lykke Poulsen, Christina Brock, Debbie Grønlund, Klaus Krogh, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Background Opioid analgesics inhibit anal sphincter function and contribute to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. However, it is unknown if the inhibition can be reduced by opioid antagonism with oral naloxone, and how this compares to osmotic laxative treatment. Aims To compare the effects of oxycodone and macrogol 3350 treatment (OX + PEG) versus combined oral oxycodone and naloxone (OXN) on anal sphincter function and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 20 healthy, male volunteers...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Zhaoxia Wang, Limin Liao, Han Deng, Xing Li, Guoqing Chen, Xiwen Liao
AIM: To examine the roles of opioid receptors in the inhibition of nociceptive and nonnociceptive bladder reflexes by sacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation in cats. METHODS: Hook electrodes were placed in the right S1 and S2 DRG of cats. The bladders were infused with physiologic saline or 0.25% acetic acid (AA). Naloxone (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg), an opioid receptor antagonist, was administered intravenously. S1 or S2 DRG stimulation was applied before and after administering the drug...
June 4, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Jing Xu, Corey S Davis, Marisa Cruz, Peter Lurie
BACKGROUND: In response to the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic, many states have enacted laws increasing naloxone access by lay people, such as friends and family members of people who use drugs (PWUD), as well as PWUD themselves. METHOD: We utilized Symphony Health Solutions' PHAST Prescription data from 2007 to 2016 to investigate whether naloxone access laws were associated with an increase in naloxone dispensed from retail pharmacies in the United States. RESULT: Using a negative binomial regression, we found that naloxone access laws were associated with an average increase of 78 prescriptions dispensed per state per quarter...
May 29, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Maryam Alizadeh, Mahdi Zahedi-Khorasani, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm...
May 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sarah N Musy, Dietmar Ausserhofer, René Schwendimann, Hans Ulrich Rothen, Marie-Madlen Jeitziner, Anne Ws Rutjes, Michael Simon
BACKGROUND: Adverse events in health care entail substantial burdens to health care systems, institutions, and patients. Retrospective trigger tools are often manually applied to detect AEs, although automated approaches using electronic health records may offer real-time adverse event detection, allowing timely corrective interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to describe current study methods and challenges regarding the use of automatic trigger tool-based adverse event detection methods in electronic health records...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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