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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486558/temperature-during-conidiation-affects-stress-tolerance-pigmentation-and-trypacidin-accumulation-in-the-conidia-of-the-airborne-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#1
Daisuke Hagiwara, Kanae Sakai, Satoshi Suzuki, Myco Umemura, Toshihiko Nogawa, Naoki Kato, Hiroyuki Osada, Akira Watanabe, Susumu Kawamoto, Tohru Gonoi, Katsuhiko Kamei
Asexual spores (conidia) are reproductive structures that play a crucial role in fungal distribution and survival. As fungal conidia are, in most cases, etiological agents of plant diseases and fungal lung disease, their stress resistance and interaction with their hosts have drawn increasing attention. In the present study, we investigated whether environmental temperature during conidiation affects the stress tolerance of the conidia of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Conidia from a 25°C culture showed a lower tolerance to heat (60°C) and oxidative (H2O2) stresses and a marked resistance to ultraviolet radiation exposure, compared with those produced at 37 and 45°C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472054/a-mathematical-model-coupling-polarity-signaling-to-cell-adhesion-explains-diverse-cell-migration-patterns
#2
William R Holmes, JinSeok Park, Andre Levchenko, Leah Edelstein-Keshet
Protrusion and retraction of lamellipodia are common features of eukaryotic cell motility. As a cell migrates through its extracellular matrix (ECM), lamellipod growth increases cell-ECM contact area and enhances engagement of integrin receptors, locally amplifying ECM input to internal signaling cascades. In contrast, contraction of lamellipodia results in reduced integrin engagement that dampens the level of ECM-induced signaling. These changes in cell shape are both influenced by, and feed back onto ECM signaling...
May 4, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446721/senp3-grants-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#3
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424461/a-lack-of-coordination-between-sister-chromatids-segregation-and-cytokinesis-in-the-oocytes-of-b6-y-tir-xy-sex-reversed-female-mice
#4
Jia-Qiao Zhu, Seang Lin Tan, Teruko Taketo
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406140/spicule-formation-in-calcareous-sponges-coordinated-expression-of-biomineralization-genes-and-spicule-type-specific-genes
#5
Oliver Voigt, Maja Adamska, Marcin Adamski, André Kittelmann, Lukardis Wencker, Gert Wörheide
The ability to form mineral structures under biological control is widespread among animals. In several species, specific proteins have been shown to be involved in biomineralization, but it is uncertain how they influence the shape of the growing biomineral and the resulting skeleton. Calcareous sponges are the only sponges that form calcitic spicules, which, based on the number of rays (actines) are distinguished in diactines, triactines and tetractines. Each actine is formed by only two cells, called sclerocytes...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404941/citrinin-exposure-affects-oocyte-maturation-and-embryo-development-by-inducing-oxidative-stress-mediated-apoptosis
#6
Yu Wu, Na Zhang, Ying-Hua Li, Liang Zhao, Mo Yang, Yimei Jin, Yong-Nan Xu, Hongyan Guo
Citrinin is one of the mycotoxins and has been shown to have various toxic effects in animals and humans. Although previous study showed the toxic effects of citrinin on the female reproductive system, especially on oocyte maturation, however, the causes or mechanism of citrinin on oocyte quality is unclear. In present study we deeply investigated this topic. We found thatcitrinin toxin exposure inhibited mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Further investigation showed that the actin distribution in oocytes and embryos was disrupted, and the reduced expression of actin nucleator ARP2 expression in the oocyte cortex further confirmed this...
February 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399395/spectraplakin-induces-positive-feedback-between-fusogens-and-the-actin-cytoskeleton-to-promote-cell-cell-fusion
#7
Yihong Yang, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jun Li, Yuxiang Jiang, Zhiwen Zhu, Huifang Hu, Wei Li, Jia-Wei Wu, Zhi-Xin Wang, Meng-Qiu Dong, Shanjin Huang, Guangshuo Ou
Cell-cell fusion generally requires cellular fusogenic proteins and actin-propelled membrane protrusions. However, the molecular connections between fusogens and the actin cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans fusogen EFF-1 and F-actin are enriched at the cortex of the post-embryonic fusing cells, and conditional mutations of WASP and Arp2/3 delay cell-cell fusion by impairing EFF-1 localization. Our affinity purification and mass spectrometry analyses determined that an actin-binding protein, spectraplakin/VAB-10A, binds to EFF-1...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380416/actin-cytoskeleton-regulator-arp2-3-complex-is-required-for-dll1-activating-notch1-signaling-to-maintain-the-stem-cell-phenotype-of-glioma-initiating-cells
#8
Chen Zhang, Long Hai, Meng Zhu, Shengping Yu, Tao Li, Yu Lin, Bo Liu, Xingchen Zhou, Lei Chen, Pengfei Zhao, Hua Zhou, Yubao Huang, Kai Zhang, Bingcheng Ren, Xuejun Yang
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary intracranial tumor. Actin cytoskeleton regulator Arp2/3 complex stimulates glioma cell motility and migration, and thus triggers tumor invasion. However, little is known regarding the role of actin cytoskeleton in maintaining the stem cell phenotype. Here, we showed that Arp2/3 complex improved stem cell phenotype maintenance through sustaining the activated Notch signaling. ShRNA targeting Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1) decreased CD133 and Nestin expression, and impaired the self-renewal ability of CD133+ U87-MG and U251-MG glioma cells, indicating DLL1/Notch1 signaling promoted stem cell phenotype maintenance...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371128/intranuclear-actin-structure-modulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#9
Buer Sen, Gunes Uzer, Rebekah M Samsonraj, Zhihui Xie, Cody McGrath, Maya Styner, Amel Dudakovic, Andre J van Wijnen, Janet Rubin
Actin structure contributes to physiologic events within the nucleus to control mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation. Continuous cytochalasin D (Cyto D) disruption of the MSC actin cytoskeleton leads to osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation, both requiring mass transfer of actin into the nucleus. Cyto D remains extranuclear, thus intranuclear actin polymerization is potentiated by actin transfer: we asked whether actin structure affects differentiation. We show that secondary actin filament branching via the Arp2/3 complex is required for osteogenesis and that preventing actin branching stimulates adipogenesis, as shown by expression profiling of osteogenic and adipogenic biomarkers and unbiased RNA-seq analysis...
April 3, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368018/loss-of-the-arp2-3-complex-component-arpc1b-causes-platelet-abnormalities-and-predisposes-to-inflammatory-disease
#10
Walter H A Kahr, Fred G Pluthero, Abdul Elkadri, Neil Warner, Marko Drobac, Chang Hua Chen, Richard W Lo, Ling Li, Ren Li, Qi Li, Cornelia Thoeni, Jie Pan, Gabriella Leung, Irene Lara-Corrales, Ryan Murchie, Ernest Cutz, Ronald M Laxer, Julia Upton, Chaim M Roifman, Rae S M Yeung, John H Brumell, Aleixo M Muise
Human actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3), required for actin filament branching, has two ARPC1 component isoforms, with ARPC1B prominently expressed in blood cells. Here we show in a child with microthrombocytopenia, eosinophilia and inflammatory disease, a homozygous frameshift mutation in ARPC1B (p.Val91Trpfs*30). Platelet lysates reveal no ARPC1B protein and greatly reduced Arp2/3 complex. Missense ARPC1B mutations are identified in an unrelated patient with similar symptoms and ARPC1B deficiency...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366661/synthetic-triterpenoids-inhibit-gsk3%C3%AE-activity-and-localization-and-affect-focal-adhesions-and-cell-migration
#11
Ciric To, Ashbeel Roy, Eddie Chan, Marco A M Prado, Gianni M Di Guglielmo
Synthetic triterpenoids are a class of anti-cancer compounds that target many cellular functions, including apoptosis and cell growth in both cell culture and animal models. We have shown that triterpenoids inhibit cell migration in part by interfering with Arp2/3-dependent branched actin polymerization in lamellipodia (To et al., 2010). Our current studies reveal that Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), a kinase that regulates many cellular processes, including cell adhesion dynamics, is a triterpenoid-binding protein...
March 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333264/single-cell-transcriptomics-mega-phylogeny-and-the-genetic-basis-of-morphological-innovations-in-rhizaria
#12
Anders K Krabberød, Russell J S Orr, Jon Bråte, Tom Kristensen, Kjell R Bjørklund, Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi
The innovation of the eukaryote cytoskeleton enabled phagocytosis, intracellular transport and cytokinesis, and is responsible for the diversity of eukaryotic morphologies. Still, the relationship between phenotypic innovations in the cytoskeleton and their underlying genotype is poorly understood. To explore the genetic mechanism of morphological evolution of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton we provide the first single cell transcriptomes from uncultured, free-living unicellular eukaryotes: the polycystine radiolarian Lithomelissa setosa (Nassellaria) and Sticholonche zanclea (Taxopodida)...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332566/a-conformational-change-within-the-wave2-complex-regulates-its-degradation-following-cellular-activation
#13
Noah Joseph, Guy Biber, Sophia Fried, Barak Reicher, Omer Levy, Batel Sabag, Elad Noy, Mira Barda-Saad
WASp family Verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2), a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family of actin nucleation promoting factors, is a central regulator of actin cytoskeleton polymerization and dynamics. Multiple signaling pathways operate via WAVE2 to promote the actin-nucleating activity of the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. WAVE2 exists as a part of a pentameric protein complex known as the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), which is unstable in the absence of its individual proteins...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331069/efficiency-of-lamellipodia-protrusion-is-determined-by-the-extent-of-cytosolic-actin-assembly
#14
Georgi Dimchev, Anika Steffen, Frieda Kage, Vanessa Dimchev, Julien Pernier, Marie-France Carlier, Klemens Rottner
Cell migration and cell-cell communication involve the protrusion of actin-rich cell surface projections such as lamellipodia and filopodia. Lamellipodia are networks of actin filaments generated and turned over by filament branching through the Arp2/3 complex. Inhibition of branching is commonly agreed to eliminate formation and maintenance of lamellipodial actin networks, but the regulation of nucleation or elongation of Arp2/3-independent filament populations within the network by, for example, formins or Ena/VASP family members and its influence on the effectiveness of protrusion have been unclear...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327544/fmnl-formins-boost-lamellipodial-force-generation
#15
Frieda Kage, Moritz Winterhoff, Vanessa Dimchev, Jan Mueller, Tobias Thalheim, Anika Freise, Stefan Brühmann, Jana Kollasser, Jennifer Block, Georgi Dimchev, Matthias Geyer, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Cord Brakebusch, Theresia E B Stradal, Marie-France Carlier, Michael Sixt, Josef Käs, Jan Faix, Klemens Rottner
Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here to nucleate and elongate actin filaments with complementary activities in vitro. In migrating B16-F1 melanoma cells, both formins contribute to the velocity of lamellipodium protrusion. Loss of FMNL2/3 function in melanoma cells and fibroblasts reduces lamellipodial width, actin filament density and -bundling, without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293874/diversity-of-actin-architecture-in-human-osteoclasts-network-of-curved-and-branched-actin-supporting-cell-shape-and-intercellular-micrometer-level-tubes
#16
Paula Pennanen, Maria Helena Alanne, Elnaz Fazeli, Takahiro Deguchi, Tuomas Näreoja, Sirkku Peltonen, Juha Peltonen
Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells with a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Osteoclasts are derived from circulating mononuclear precursors. Confocal and stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy was used to investigate peripheral blood-derived human osteoclasts cultured on glass surfaces. STED and confocal microscopy demonstrated that the actin was curved and branched, for instance, in the vicinity of membrane ruffles. The overall architecture of the curved actin network extended from the podosomes to the top of the cell...
March 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293092/clinicopathological-and-prognostic-significance-of-aberrant-arpin-expression-in-gastric-cancer
#17
Tao Li, Hong-Mei Zheng, Nai-Mei Deng, Ying-Jian Jiang, Jiang Wang, Dian-Liang Zhang
AIM: To detect the expression of Arpin, and determine its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) patients. METHODS: A total of 176 GC patients were enrolled as study subjects and classified into groups according to different clinicopathological variables. GC mucosal tissues were obtained via surgery. Another 43 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of normal gastric epithelium (> 5 cm away from the edge of the tumor) were included in the control group...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255536/central-role-of-pi3k-syk-interaction-in-fibrinogen-induced-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-formation-in-platelets
#18
Raghvendra Singh
The WAVE complex-1, a complex of WAVE, Abi1, NAP1, PIR121, HSPC300, RacGTP and Arp2/3 proteins, and WASP complex-1, a complex of WASP, Cdc42, PIP2, and Arp2/3 proteins, are involved in lamellipodia and filopodia formation, respectively. It is known that the two complexes have opposite dynamics. Furthermore, Rac has two guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Vav and Sos, whose role in activating Rac is not well understood. In this work, by the construction of signaling network, analysis, and mathematical modeling, I show that Sos generates a pulse of WAVE complex-1, decreasing the response time of WAVE complex-1 formation upon the stimulation of platelets by fibrinogen...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246120/kdm3a-coordinates-actin-dynamics-with-intraflagellar-transport-to-regulate-cilia-stability
#19
Patricia L Yeyati, Rachel Schiller, Girish Mali, Ioannis Kasioulis, Akane Kawamura, Ian R Adams, Christopher Playfoot, Nick Gilbert, Veronica van Heyningen, Jimi Wills, Alex von Kriegsheim, Andrew Finch, Juro Sakai, Christopher J Schofield, Ian J Jackson, Pleasantine Mill
Cilia assembly and disassembly are coupled to actin dynamics, ensuring a coherent cellular response during environmental change. How these processes are integrated remains undefined. The histone lysine demethylase KDM3A plays important roles in organismal homeostasis. Loss-of-function mouse models of Kdm3a phenocopy features associated with human ciliopathies, whereas human somatic mutations correlate with poor cancer prognosis. We demonstrate that absence of KDM3A facilitates ciliogenesis, but these resulting cilia have an abnormally wide range of axonemal lengths, delaying disassembly and accumulating intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238662/coordination-by-cdc42-of-actin-contractility-and-adhesion-for-melanoblast-movement-in-mouse-skin
#20
Emma F Woodham, Nikki R Paul, Benjamin Tyrrell, Heather J Spence, Karthic Swaminathan, Michelle R Scribner, Evangelos Giampazolias, Ann Hedley, William Clark, Frieda Kage, Daniel J Marston, Klaus M Hahn, Stephen W G Tait, Lionel Larue, Cord H Brakebusch, Robert H Insall, Laura M Machesky
The individual molecular pathways downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPases are well documented, but we know surprisingly little about how these pathways are coordinated when cells move in a complex environment in vivo. In the developing embryo, melanoblasts originating from the neural crest must traverse the dermis to reach the epidermis of the skin and hair follicles. We previously established that Rac1 signals via Scar/WAVE and Arp2/3 to effect pseudopod extension and migration of melanoblasts in skin...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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