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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938568/senp3-grants-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#1
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938008/vca-nanobodies-target-n-wasp-to-reduce-invadopodium-formation-and-functioning
#2
Tim Hebbrecht, Isabel Van Audenhove, Olivier Zwaenepoel, Adriaan Verhelle, Jan Gettemans
Invasive cancer cells develop small actin-based protrusions called invadopodia, which perform a primordial role in metastasis and extracellular matrix remodelling. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) is a scaffold protein which can directly bind to actin monomers and Arp2/3 and is a crucial player in the formation of an invadopodium precursor. Expression modulation has pointed to an important role for N-WASp in invadopodium formation but the role of its C-terminal VCA domain in this process remains unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933599/skap2-regulates-arp2-3-complex-for-actin-mediated-asymmetric-cytokinesis-by-interacting-with-wave2-in-mouse-oocytes
#3
Shu-Wen He, Bai-Hui Xu, Yu Liu, Ya-Long Wang, Ming-Huang Chen, Lin Xu, Bao-Qiong Liao, Rui Lui, Fei-Ping Li, Yan-Hong Lin, Xian-Pei Fu, Bin-Bin Fu, Zi-Wei Hong, Yu-Xin Liu, Zhong-Quan Qi, Hai-Long Wang
SKAP2 (Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 2), a substrate of Src family kinases, has been suggested to be involved in actin-mediated cellular processes. However, little is known about its role in mouse oocyte maturation. In this study, we thus investigated the expression, localization, and functions of SKAP2 during mouse oocyte asymmetric division. SKAP2 protein expression was detected at all developmental stages in mouse oocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed that SKAP2 was mainly distributed at the cortex of the oocytes during maturation...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923975/control-of-actin-polymerization-via-the-coincidence-of-phosphoinositides-and-high-membrane-curvature
#4
Frederic Daste, Astrid Walrant, Mikkel R Holst, Jonathan R Gadsby, Julia Mason, Ji-Eun Lee, Daniel Brook, Marcel Mettlen, Elin Larsson, Steven F Lee, Richard Lundmark, Jennifer L Gallop
The conditional use of actin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells suggests that the cell controls whether and how actin is used. Using a combination of biochemical reconstitution and mammalian cell culture, we elucidate a mechanism by which the coincidence of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3)P in a curved vesicle triggers actin polymerization. At clathrin-coated pits, PI(3)P is produced by the INPP4A hydrolysis of PI(3,4)P2, and this is necessary for actin-driven endocytosis. Both Cdc42⋅guanosine triphosphate and SNX9 activate N-WASP-WIP- and Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916554/first-person-meraj-hasan-khan
#5
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Meraj Hasan Khan is the first author on 'The Sharpin interactome reveals a role for Sharpin in lamellipodium formation via the Arp2/3 complex', published in Journal of Cell Science. Meraj is a PhD student in the laboratory of Jeroen Pouwel at the University of Turku, Finland, investigating the cytoskeleton and protein early markers of metastasis...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912435/turning-behaviors-of-t-cells-climbing-up-ramp-like-structures-are-regulated-by-myosin-light-chain-kinase-activity-and-lamellipodia-formation
#6
Kwang Hoon Song, Jaehyun Lee, Hong-Ryul Jung, HyoungJun Park, Junsang Doh
T cells navigate diverse microenvironments to perform immune responses. Micro-scale topographical structures within the tissues, which may inherently exist in normal tissues or may be formed by inflammation or injury, can influence T cell migration, but how T cell migration is affected by such topographical structures have not been investigated. In this study, we fabricated ramp-like structures with a 5 μm height and various slopes, and observed T cells climbing up the ramp-like structures. T cells encountering the ramp-like structures exhibited MLC accumulation near head-tail junctions contacting the ramp-like structures, and made turns to the direction perpendicular to the ramp-like structures...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912124/kindlin-2-recruits-paxillin-and-arp2-3-to-promote-membrane-protrusions-during-initial-cell-spreading
#7
Ralph T Böttcher, Maik Veelders, Pascaline Rombaut, Jan Faix, Marina Theodosiou, Theresa E Stradal, Klemens Rottner, Roy Zent, Franz Herzog, Reinhard Fässler
Cell spreading requires the coupling of actin-driven membrane protrusion and integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix. The integrin-activating adaptor protein kindlin-2 plays a central role for cell adhesion and membrane protrusion by directly binding and recruiting paxillin to nascent adhesions. Here, we report that kindlin-2 has a dual role during initial cell spreading: it binds paxillin via the pleckstrin homology and F0 domains to activate Rac1, and it directly associates with the Arp2/3 complex to induce Rac1-mediated membrane protrusions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898673/arp2-3-not-absolutely-required-after-all
#8
Stefan Linder
The Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin networks and is thought to be essential for macrophage migration and phagocytosis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Rotty et al. (2017) show that there is only a surprisingly specific requirement for Arp2/3 in integrin-dependent macrophage functions, including CR3 phagocytosis and haptotaxis on fibronectin.
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892082/myofibril-contraction-and-crosslinking-drive-nuclear-movement-to-the-periphery-of-skeletal-muscle
#9
William Roman, João P Martins, Filomena A Carvalho, Raphael Voituriez, Jasmine V G Abella, Nuno C Santos, Bruno Cadot, Michael Way, Edgar R Gomes
Nuclear movements are important for multiple cellular functions, and are driven by polarized forces generated by motor proteins and the cytoskeleton. During skeletal myofibre formation or regeneration, nuclei move from the centre to the periphery of the myofibre for proper muscle function. Centrally located nuclei are also found in different muscle disorders. Using theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that nuclear movement to the periphery of myofibres is mediated by centripetal forces around the nucleus...
September 11, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889942/differential-functions-of-wave-regulatory-complex-subunits-in-the-regulation-of-actin-driven-processes
#10
Christof Litschko, Joern Linkner, Stefan Brühmann, Theresia E B Stradal, Tobias Reinl, Lothar Jänsch, Klemens Rottner, Jan Faix
The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) links upstream Rho-family GTPase signaling to the activation of the ARP2/3 complex in different organisms. WRC-induced and ARP2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation beneath the plasma membrane is critical for actin assembly in the leading edge to drive efficient cell migration. The WRC is a stable heteropentamer composed of SCAR/WAVE, Abi, Nap, Pir and the small polypeptide Brk1/Hspc300. Functional interference with individual subunits of the complex frequently results in diminished amounts of the remaining polypeptides of the WRC complex, implying the complex to act as molecular entity...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867487/arp2-3-complex-is-required-for-macrophage-integrin-functions-but-is-dispensable-for-fcr-phagocytosis-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-motility
#11
Jeremy D Rotty, Hailey E Brighton, Stephanie L Craig, Sreeja B Asokan, Ning Cheng, Jenny P Ting, James E Bear
The Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin, forming networks involved in lamellipodial protrusion, phagocytosis, and cell adhesion. We derived primary bone marrow macrophages lacking Arp2/3 complex (Arpc2(-/-)) and directly tested its role in macrophage functions. Despite protrusion and actin assembly defects, Arpc2(-/-) macrophages competently phagocytose via FcR and chemotax toward CSF and CX3CL1. However, CR3 phagocytosis and fibronectin haptotaxis, both integrin-dependent processes, are disrupted. Integrin-responsive actin assembly and αM/β2 integrin localization are compromised in Arpc2(-/-) cells...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867286/load-adaptation-of-lamellipodial-actin-networks
#12
Jan Mueller, Gregory Szep, Maria Nemethova, Ingrid de Vries, Arnon D Lieber, Christoph Winkler, Karsten Kruse, J Victor Small, Christian Schmeiser, Kinneret Keren, Robert Hauschild, Michael Sixt
Actin filaments polymerizing against membranes power endocytosis, vesicular traffic, and cell motility. In vitro reconstitution studies suggest that the structure and the dynamics of actin networks respond to mechanical forces. We demonstrate that lamellipodial actin of migrating cells responds to mechanical load when membrane tension is modulated. In a steady state, migrating cell filaments assume the canonical dendritic geometry, defined by Arp2/3-generated 70° branch points. Increased tension triggers a dense network with a broadened range of angles, whereas decreased tension causes a shift to a sparse configuration dominated by filaments growing perpendicularly to the plasma membrane...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834398/er-golgi-trafficking-is-facilitated-by-unbranched-actin-filaments-containing-tpm4-2
#13
Anthony J Kee, Nicole S Bryce, Lingyan Yang, Elena Polishchuk, Galina Schevzov, Roberto Weigert, Roman Polishchuk, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
We have identified novel actin filaments defined by tropomyosin Tpm4.2 at the ER. EM analysis of mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from mice expressing a mutant Tpm4.2 (Tpm4(Plt53/Plt53) ), incapable of incorporating into actin filaments, revealed swollen ER structures compared to wild-type (WT) MEFs (Tpm4(+/+) ). ER-to-Golgi, but not Golgi-to-ER trafficking was altered in the Tpm4(Plt53/Plt53) MEFs following the transfection of the temperature sensitive ER-associated ts045-VSVg construct. Exogenous Tpm4...
August 22, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827576/arp2-3-complex-controls-t-cell-homeostasis-by-maintaining-surface-tcr-levels-via-regulating-tcr-endosome-trafficking
#14
Ye Zhang, Hao Shen, Haifeng Liu, Haiyun Feng, Yan Liu, Xiaoyan Zhu, Xiaolong Liu
T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is important for T cell homeostasis and function. However, how surface TCR levels are regulated and its biological significance on T cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the T cell-specific deletion of Arpc2, a component of Arp2/3 complex, results in compromised peripheral T cell homeostasis. Arp2/3 complex-nucleated actin filaments are essential for maintaining surface TCR levels by regulating TCR(+) endosome trafficking in resting state and controlling polarization of TCR(+) endosomes during immune synapse formation in T cells...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827448/egf-hijacks-mir-198-fstl1-wound-healing-switch-and-steers-a-two-pronged-pathway-toward-metastasis
#15
Gopinath M Sundaram, Hisyam M Ismail, Mohsin Bashir, Manish Muhuri, Candida Vaz, Srikanth Nama, Ghim Siong Ow, Ivshina Anna Vladimirovna, Rajkumar Ramalingam, Brian Burke, Vivek Tanavde, Vladimir Kuznetsov, E Birgitte Lane, Prabha Sampath
Epithelial carcinomas are well known to activate a prolonged wound-healing program that promotes malignant transformation. Wound closure requires the activation of keratinocyte migration via a dual-state molecular switch. This switch involves production of either the anti-migratory microRNA miR-198 or the pro-migratory follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) protein from a single transcript; miR-198 expression in healthy skin is down-regulated in favor of FSTL1 upon wounding, which enhances keratinocyte migration and promotes re-epithelialization...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819224/the-role-of-rho-gtpases-and-actin-polymerization-during-macrophage-tunneling-nanotube-biogenesis
#16
Samer J Hanna, Kessler McCoy-Simandle, Veronika Miskolci, Peng Guo, Michael Cammer, Louis Hodgson, Dianne Cox
Macrophage interactions with other cells, either locally or at distances, are imperative in both normal and pathological conditions. While soluble means of communication can transmit signals between different cells, it does not account for all long distance macrophage interactions. Recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are membranous channels that connect cells together and allow for transfer of signals, vesicles, and organelles. However, very little is known about the mechanism by which these structures are formed...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813247/switch-like-arp2-3-activation-upon-wasp-and-wip-recruitment-to-an-apparent-threshold-level-by-multivalent-linker-proteins-in-vivo
#17
Yidi Sun, Nicole T Leong, Tommy Jiang, Astou Tangara, Xavier Darzacq, David G Drubin
Actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex activation by nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) such as WASP, plays an important role in many actin-mediated cellular processes. In yeast, Arp2/3-mediated actin filament assembly drives endocytic membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Here we used genetics and quantitative live-cell imaging to probe the mechanisms that concentrate NPFs at endocytic sites, and to investigate how NPFs regulate actin assembly onset. Our results demonstrate that SH3 (Src homology 3) domain-PRM (proline-rich motif) interactions involving multivalent linker proteins play central roles in concentrating NPFs at endocytic sites...
August 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775156/the-sharpin-interactome-reveals-a-role-for-sharpin-in-lamellipodium-formation-via-the-arp2-3-complex
#18
Meraj H Khan, Siiri I Salomaa, Guillaume Jacquemet, Umar Butt, Mitro Miihkinen, Takahiro Deguchi, Elena Kremneva, Pekka Lappalainen, Martin J Humphries, Jeroen Pouwels
Sharpin, a multifunctional adaptor protein, regulates several signalling pathways. For example, Sharpin enhances signal-induced NF-κB signalling as part of the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) and inhibits integrins, the T cell receptor, caspase1 and PTEN. However, despite recent insights into Sharpin and LUBAC function, a systematic approach to identify signalling pathways regulated by Sharpin has not been reported. Here, we present the first 'Sharpin interactome', which identifies a large amount of novel potential Sharpin interactors in addition to several known ones...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771584/extracellular-motility-and-cell-to-cell-transmission-of-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-is-driven-by-espfu-mediated-actin-assembly
#19
Katrina B Velle, Kenneth G Campellone
Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are closely-related pathogens that attach tightly to intestinal epithelial cells, efface microvilli, and promote cytoskeletal rearrangements into protrusions called actin pedestals. To trigger pedestal formation, EPEC employs the tyrosine phosphorylated transmembrane receptor Tir, while EHEC relies on the multivalent scaffolding protein EspFU. The ability to generate these structures correlates with bacterial colonization in several animal models, but the precise function of pedestals in infection remains unclear...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769954/taarpc3-contributes-to-wheat-resistance-against-the-stripe-rust-fungus
#20
Tuo Qi, Juan Wang, Qixiong Sun, Brad Day, Jun Guo, Qing Ma
The actin cytoskeleton participates in numerous cellular processes, including less-characterized processes, such as nuclear organization, chromatin remodeling, transcription, and signal transduction. As a key regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, the actin related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) controls multiple developmental processes in a variety of tissues and cell types. To date, the role of the Arp2/3 complex in plant disease resistance signaling is largely unknown. Herein, we identified and characterized wheat ARPC3, TaARPC3, which encodes the C3 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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