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influenza ns1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218433/s8orf2-protein-of-infectious-salmon-anaemia-virus-is-a-rna-silencing-suppressor-and-interacts-with-salmon-salar-mov10-ssmov10-of-the-host-rnai-machinery
#1
Vandana Thukral, Bhavna Varshney, Rimatulhana B Ramly, Sanket S Ponia, Sumona Karjee Mishra, Christel M Olsen, Akhil C Banerjea, Sunil K Mukherjee, Rana Zaidi, Espen Rimstad, Sunil K Lal
The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a piscine virus, a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. It encodes at least 10 proteins from eight negative-strand RNA segments. Since ISAV belongs to the same virus family as Influenza A virus, with similarities in protein functions, they may hence be characterised by analogy. Like NS1 protein of Influenza A virus, s8ORF2 of ISAV is implicated in interferon antagonism and RNA-binding functions. In this study, we investigated the role of s8ORF2 in RNAi suppression in a well-established Agrobacterium transient suppression assay in stably silenced transgenic Nicotiana xanthi...
December 7, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212246/the-interaction-between-nolc1-and-iav-ns1-protein-promotes-host-cell-apoptosis-and-reduces-virus-replication
#2
Chunyu Zhu, Fangliang Zheng, Junfeng Zhu, Meichen Liu, Na Liu, Xue Li, Li Zhang, Zaidong Deng, Qi Zhao, Hongsheng Liu
NS1 of the influenza virus plays an important role in the infection ability of the influenza virus. Our previous research found that NS1 protein interacts with the NOLC1 protein of host cells, however, the function of the interaction is unknown. In the present study, the role of the interaction between the two proteins in infection was further studied. Several analyses, including the use of a pull-down assay, Co-IP, western blot analysis, overexpression, RNAi, flow cytometry, etc., were used to demonstrate that the NS1 protein of H3N2 influenza virus interacts with host protein NOLC1 and reduces the quantity of NOLC1...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181006/protective-effect-of-panax-notoginseng-root-water-extract-against-influenza-a-virus-infection-by-enhancing-antiviral-interferon-mediated-immune-responses-and-natural-killer-cell-activity
#3
Jang-Gi Choi, Young-Hee Jin, Heeeun Lee, Tae Woo Oh, Nam-Hui Yim, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by the influenza A virus, which causes economic losses and social disruption mainly by increasing hospitalization and mortality rates among the elderly and people with chronic diseases. Influenza vaccines are the most effective means of preventing seasonal influenza, but can be completely ineffective if there is an antigenic mismatch between the seasonal vaccine virus and the virus circulating in the community. In addition, influenza viruses resistant to antiviral drugs are emerging worldwide...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107643/nuclear-trim25-specifically-targets-influenza-virus-ribonucleoproteins-to-block-the-onset-of-rna-chain-elongation
#4
Nicholas R Meyerson, Ligang Zhou, Yusong R Guo, Chen Zhao, Yizhi J Tao, Robert M Krug, Sara L Sawyer
TRIM25 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates RIG-I to promote the antiviral interferon response. The NS1 protein from all strains of influenza A virus binds TRIM25, although not all virus strains block the interferon response, suggesting alternative mechanisms for TRIM25 action. Here we present a nuclear role for TRIM25 in specifically restricting influenza A virus replication. TRIM25 inhibits viral RNA synthesis through a direct mechanism that is independent of its ubiquitin ligase activity and the interferon pathway...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102108/increased-virulence-of-a-pb2-ha-mutant-of-an-avian-h9n2-influenza-strain-after-three-passages-in-porcine-differentiated-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
Wei Yang, Ruth L O Lambertz, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Sarah R Leist, Jürgen Stech, Klaus Schughart, Georg Herrler, Nai-Huei Wu, Fandan Meng
We analyzed the adaptation of influenza viruses to growth in differentiated airway epithelial cells of a new host by passaging an avian H9N2 virus three times in porcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). Sequence analysis revealed four mutations: one each in the PB2 and NS1 proteins, and two in the HA protein. In this study, we characterized the PB2 mutation G685R by generating recombinant H9N2 viruses containing the PB2 single mutation alone or in combination with one of the HA mutations (A190V or T212I). When analyzed in porcine cells - a tracheal cell line (NPTr) or PCLS - the PB2-685 mutant did not provide a growth advantage and had no effect on the ciliary activity which is a virulence marker of swine influenza viruses...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067097/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-virus-h5n1-non-structural-protein-1-is-associated-with-apoptotic-activation-of-the-intrinsic-mitochondrial-pathway
#6
Qian Bian, Jing Lu, Li Zhang, Ying Chi, Yan Li, Hongxiong Guo
Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection have significant health and economic consequences. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is an essential virulence factor of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and of the apoptosis associated with the pathogenesis of H5N1. Previous studies have revealed that the NS1 protein is able to induce apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway. However, it remains unclear whether the intrinsic pathway is also associated with this apoptosis. The present study used a clone of the NS1 gene from avian influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2007 and observed the localization of the NS1 protein and cytochrome c release from mitochondria and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in lung cancer cells...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034629/-comparison-of-cellular-localization-of-ns1-from-different-subtypes-of-influenza-a-virus
#7
Meng Yu, Shuaishuai Cao, Weinan Zheng, Xiaoxiao Jia, Jing Li, Wenjun Liu
The non-structural (NS1) protein is a multifunctional molecular protein encoded by influenza A virus genome. NS1 plays an important role in inhibition of host immune responses. In order to assess the cellular localization of NS1 in different influenza A virus subtypes, we performed the immunofluorescence assay to observe the cellular location of NS1 after infection with influenza A virus WSN (H1N1), PR8 (H1N1), CA04 (H1N1), SD (H9N2) and AH01 (H7N9) in A549 cells and MDCK cells respectively. According to the results, NS1-WSN and NS1-PR8 accumulated mainly in cytoplasm at 24 h post infection, while the NS1-CA04 and NS1-SD appeared major in the nucleus...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992616/ns1-of-h7n9-influenza-a-virus-induces-no-mediated-cellular-senescence-in-neuro2a-cells
#8
Yinxia Yan, Yongming Du, Huali Zheng, Gefei Wang, Rui Li, Jieling Chen, Kangsheng Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The novel avian H7N9 influenza A virus has been detected in brain tissues and associated with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms in infected human and mice. Roles of its virulence factor, NS1 protein in influenza virus infected neuron has yet to be explored. METHODS: Nitric oxide (NO) release and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in H7N9/NS1-expressed Neuro2a cells were detected by Griess test and western blotting. Cell proliferation rate of H7N9/NS1-expressing cells was recorded by Cell Counting Kit-8...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955326/influenza-a-virus-pa-antagonizes-interferon-%C3%AE-by-interacting-with-interferon-regulatory-factor-3
#9
Chenyang Yi, Zongzheng Zhao, Shengyu Wang, Xin Sun, Dan Zhang, Xiaomei Sun, Anding Zhang, Meilin Jin
The influenza A virus (IAV) can be recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to activate the type I interferon response and induce antiviral effects. The virus has evolved several strategies to evade the innate immune response, including non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and its polymerase subunits. The mechanism by which NS1 inhibits interferon-β (IFN-β) is well understood, whereas the mechanism by which polymerase acid protein (PA) inhibits IFN-β remains to be elucidated. In this study, we observed that the IAV PA protein could inhibit the production of IFN-β and interferon-stimulated genes induced by Sendai virus through interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), but not through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953980/influenza-virus-differentially-activates-mtorc1-and-mtorc2-signaling-to-maximize-late-stage-replication
#10
Sharon K Kuss-Duerkop, Juan Wang, Ignacio Mena, Kris White, Giorgi Metreveli, Ramanavelan Sakthivel, Miguel A Mata, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Xiang Chen, Florian Krammer, Michael S Diamond, Zhijian J Chen, Adolfo García-Sastre, Beatriz M A Fontoura
Influenza A virus usurps host signaling factors to regulate its replication. One example is mTOR, a cellular regulator of protein synthesis, growth and motility. While the role of mTORC1 in viral infection has been studied, the mechanisms that induce mTORC1 activation and the substrates regulated by mTORC1 during influenza virus infection have not been established. In addition, the role of mTORC2 during influenza virus infection remains unknown. Here we show that mTORC2 and PDPK1 differentially phosphorylate AKT upon influenza virus infection...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940727/whole-genome-sequencing-and-antigenic-analysis-of-the-first-equine-influenza-virus-identified-in-turkey
#11
Jacinta Gahan, Marie Garvey, Sarah Gildea, Gildea Gür, Anil Kagankaya, Ann Cullinane
BACKGROUND: In 2013 there was an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in racehorses in Turkey. The clinical signs were consistent with equine influenza (EI). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to confirm the cause of the outbreak and characterise the causal virus. METHODS: A pan-reactive influenza type A real time RT-PCR and a rapid antigen detection kit were used for confirmatory diagnosis of equine influenza virus (EIV). Immunological susceptibility to EIV was examined using Single Radial Haemolysis and ELISA...
September 21, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903072/the-role-of-nuclear-ns1-protein-in-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#12
Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Honglian Liu, Pin Chen, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Xiaofeng Huang, Yen-Chin Liu, Pui Wang, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
The non-structural protein (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) performs multiple functions during viral infection. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLS): NLS1 and NLS2. The NS1 protein is located predominantly in the nucleus during the early stages of infection and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm. A nonsense mutation that results in a large deletion in the carboxy-terminal region of the NS1 protein that contains the NLS2 domain was found in some IAV subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 viruses...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893180/annexin-a2-anxa2-interacts-with-nonstructural-protein-1-and-promotes-the-replication-of-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus
#13
Yong Ma, Jiashan Sun, Linlin Gu, Hongmei Bao, Yuhui Zhao, Lin Shi, Wei Yao, Guobin Tian, Xiurong Wang, Hualan Chen
BACKGROUND: Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein and a crucial regulatory factor in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). Studies have shown that NS1 can interact with a variety of host proteins to modulate the viral life cycle. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody against NS1 protein; In the current research study, using this antibody, we immunoprecipitated host proteins that interact with NS1 to better understand the roles played by NS1 in communications between virus and host...
September 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892164/mcpip1-attenuates-the-innate-immune-response-to-influenza-a-viruse-by-suppressing-rig-i-expression-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#14
Xiaoning Sun, Wenjing Feng, Yidi Guo, Qi Wang, Chunyan Dong, Maolin Zhang, Zhenhong Guan, Ming Duan
The pattern recognition receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) reportedly plays a key role in sensing influenza A virus (IAV) infection and activating type I interferon (IFN) response. MCP-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) can directly degrade cytokine mRNAs, such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and IL-2, by functioning as an RNase. Here, we initially observed that MCPIP1 exhibited virus supportive functions later in the course of IAV infection in A549 cells, and negatively regulated IAV-induced RIG-I-dependent innate antiviral response...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878070/effect-of-phosphorylation-of-cm2-protein-on-influenza-c-virus-replication
#15
Takanari Goto, Yoshitaka Shimotai, Yoko Matsuzaki, Yasushi Muraki, Ri Sho, Kanetsu Sugawara, Seiji Hongo
CM2 is the second membrane protein of the influenza C virus and has been demonstrated to play a role in the uncoating and genome packaging processes in influenza C virus replication. Although the effects of N-linked glycosylation, disulfide-linked oligomerization, and palmitoylation of CM2 on virus replication have been analyzed, the effect of the phosphorylation of CM2 on virus replication remains to be determined. In this study, a phosphorylation site(s) at residue 78 and/or 103 of CM2 was replaced with an alanine residue(s), and the effects of the loss of phosphorylation on influenza C virus replication were analyzed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874549/molecular-basis-of-mammalian-transmissibility-of-avian-h1n1-influenza-viruses-and-their-pandemic-potential
#16
Mark Zanin, Sook-San Wong, Subrata Barman, Challika Kaewborisuth, Peter Vogel, Adam Rubrum, Daniel Darnell, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Scott Krauss, Richard J Webby, Robert G Webster
North American wild birds are an important reservoir of influenza A viruses, yet the potential of viruses in this reservoir to transmit and cause disease in mammals is not well understood. Our surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) at Delaware Bay, USA, revealed a group of similar H1N1 AIVs isolated in 2009, some of which were airborne-transmissible in the ferret model without prior adaptation. Comparison of the genomes of these viruses revealed genetic markers of airborne transmissibility in the Polymerase Basic 2 (PB2), PB1, PB1-F2, Polymerase Acidic-X (PA-X), Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1), and Nuclear Export Protein (NEP) genes...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869005/human-interactome-of-the-influenza-b-virus-ns1-protein
#17
Corinna Patzina, Catherine H Botting, Adolfo García-Sastre, Richard E Randall, Benjamin G Hale
NS1 proteins of influenza A and B viruses share limited sequence homology, yet both are potent manipulators of host cell processes, particularly interferon (IFN) induction. Although many cellular partners are reported for A/NS1, only a few (e.g. PKR and ISG15) have been identified for B/NS1. Here, affinity-purification and mass spectrometry were used to expand the known host interactome of B/NS1. We identified 22 human proteins as new putative targets for B/NS1, validating several, including DHX9, ILF3, YBX1 and HNRNPC...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837667/influenza-ns1-directly-modulates-hedgehog-signaling-during-infection
#18
Margery G Smelkinson, Annabel Guichard, John R Teijaro, Meghana Malur, Maria Eugenia Loureiro, Prashant Jain, Sundar Ganesan, Elina I Zúñiga, Robert M Krug, Michael B Oldstone, Ethan Bier
The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses suppresses host cellular defense mechanisms and subverts other cellular functions. We report here on a new role for NS1 in modifying cell-cell signaling via the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. Genetic epistasis experiments and FRET-FLIM assays in Drosophila suggest that NS1 interacts directly with the transcriptional mediator, Ci/Gli1. We further confirmed that Hh target genes are activated cell-autonomously in transfected human lung epithelial cells expressing NS1, and in infected mouse lungs...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835506/the-k186e-amino-acid-substitution-in-the-canine-influenza-virus-h3n8-ns1-protein-restores-its-ability-to-inhibit-host-gene-expression
#19
Aitor Nogales, Caroline Chauché, Marta L DeDiego, David J Topham, Colin R Parrish, Pablo R Murcia, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Canine influenza viruses (CIVs) are the causative agents of canine influenza, a contagious respiratory disease in dogs, and include the equine-origin H3N8 and the avian-origin H3N2 viruses. Influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor essential for counteracting the innate immune response. Here, we evaluated the ability of H3N8 CIV NS1 to inhibit host innate immune responses. We found that H3N8 CIV NS1 was able to efficiently counteract interferon (IFN) responses but was unable to block general gene expression in human or canine cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814525/structure-guided-functional-annotation-of-the-influenza-a-virus-ns1-protein-reveals-dynamic-evolution-of-the-p85%C3%AE-binding-site-during-circulation-in-humans
#20
Antonio M Lopes, Patricia Domingues, Roland Zell, Benjamin G Hale
Rational characterization of virulence and host-adaptive markers in the multifunctional influenza A virus NS1 protein is hindered by a lack of comprehensive knowledge about NS1-host protein protein interfaces. Here, we surveyed the impact of amino acid variation in NS1 at its structurally defined binding site for host p85β, a regulator of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Structure-guided alanine scanning of all viral residues at this interface defined 10 positions contributing to the interaction, with residues 89, 95, 98, 133, 145, and 162 being the most important...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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