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Autism, asperger's syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#1
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060873/assessment-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-acc-and-left-cerebellar-metabolism-in-asperger-s-syndrome-with-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs
#2
Aya Goji, Hiromichi Ito, Kenji Mori, Masafumi Harada, Sonoka Hisaoka, Yoshihiro Toda, Tatsuo Mori, Yoko Abe, Masahito Miyazaki, Shoji Kagami
PURPOSE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging method to quantify biochemical metabolites in vivo and it can serve as a powerful tool to monitor neurobiochemical profiles in the brain. Asperger's syndrome (AS) is a type of autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired social skills and restrictive, repetitive patterns of interest and activities, while intellectual levels and language skills are relatively preserved. Despite clinical aspects have been well-characterized, neurometabolic profiling in the brain of AS remains to be clear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051218/parental-satisfaction-of-an-assessment-unit-for-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#3
Arwa Ben Amor, Soumeyya Halayem, Maissa Touati, Ahlem Belhadj, Riadh Gouider, Ridha Mrad, Asma Bouden
Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included...
June 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025692/age-related-differences-in-inhibitory-control-and-memory-updating-in-boys-with-asperger-syndrome
#4
Elisabeth M Weiss, Bianca Gschaidbauer, Liane Kaufmann, Andreas Fink, Günter Schulter, Erich Mittenecker, Ilona Papousek
Deficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls...
December 26, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013245/european-studies-on-prevalence-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-according-to-immigrant-status-a-review
#5
Rafał Kawa, Evald Saemundsen, Sigrídur Lóa Jónsdóttir, Annika Hellendoorn, Sanne Lemcke, Ricardo Canal-Bedia, Patricia García-Primo, Irma Moilanen
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), once considered to be rare, are now reaching prevalence estimates of 1% and higher. Studies conducted in North America indicate large racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of ASDs. Others show, that immigrant children have similar prevalence rates of ASDs as native children, although they are diagnosed later compared with native children. In relation to a EU funded network action, Enhancing the Scientific Study of Early Autism, it was considered important to review the literature on this subject...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822381/clinical-pearls-how-my-patients-taught-me-the-fainting-lark-symptom
#6
A Kuiper, M E van Egmond, M P M Harms, M D Oosterhoff, B van Harten, D A Sival, T J de Koning, M A J Tijssen
BACKGROUND: Compulsive movements, complex tics and stereotypies are frequent, especially among patients with autism or psychomotor retardation. These movements can be difficult to characterize and can mimic other conditions like epileptic seizures or paroxysmal dystonia, particularly when abnormal breathing and cerebral hypoxia are induced. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an 18-year-old patient with Asperger syndrome who presented with attacks of tonic posturing of the trunk and neck...
2016: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812341/from-high-intellectual-potential-to-asperger-syndrome-evidence-for-differences-and-a-fundamental-overlap-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Aurélie Boschi, Pascale Planche, Cherhazad Hemimou, Caroline Demily, Laurence Vaivre-Douret
Background: An increasing number of clinicians point to similar clinical features between some children with High Intellectual Potential (HIP or "Giftedness" = Total IQ > 2 SD), and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without intellectual or language delay, formerly diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. Some of these common features are social interaction impairments, special interests, and in some cases high-verbal abilities. The aim of this article is to determine whether these similarities exist at more fundamental levels, other than clinical, and to explore the literature in order to provide empirical support for an overlap between ASD and HIP...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730473/cytokine-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children
#8
Vesna Bryn, Hans Christian Dalsbotten Aass, Ola H Skjeldal, Jørn Isaksen, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Heidi Ormstad
The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is not completely understood, but there is evidence of associations with altered immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of various cytokines in children with ASD and in healthy controls, in order to determine their role in ASD and its diagnostic subgroups. Sixty-five ASD patients were enrolled from an epidemiological survey in Norway, of which 30 were diagnosed with childhood autism, 16 with Asperger syndrome, 12 with atypical autism, 1 with Rett syndrome, and 6 with another ASD diagnosis...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703778/asperger-syndrome-in-childhood-personality-dimensions-in-adult-life-temperament-character-and-outcome-trajectories
#9
Adam Helles, Märta Wallinius, I Carina Gillberg, Christopher Gillberg, Eva Billstedt
BACKGROUND: Temperament and character have been shown to be important factors in understanding psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have repeatedly been shown to have a distinct temperament and character, but this has not been evaluated in relation to psychiatric comorbidity and ASD diagnostic stability. AIMS: To examine temperament and character in males that were diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed prospectively over almost two decades...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563293/autism-and-classical-eyeblink-conditioning-performance-changes-of-the-conditioned-response-related-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis
#10
John P Welsh, Jeffrey T Oristaglio
Changes in the timing performance of conditioned responses (CRs) acquired during trace and delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) are presented for diagnostic subgroups of children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 6-15 years. Children diagnosed with autistic disorder (AD) were analyzed separately from children diagnosed with either Asperger's syndrome or Pervasive developmental disorder (Asp/PDD) not otherwise specified and compared to an age- and IQ-matched group of children who were typically developing (TD)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319749/factors-related-to-care-burden-among-parents-of-adults-with-developmental-disabilities
#11
Hiroko Honda, Emiko Saito
Purpose To clarify the care burden and associated factors among parents of adults with developmental disabilities in order to obtain suggestions for the family supports.Methods Subjects included 125 parents of adults (aged 18 or older) with developmental disabilities. All parents belonged to and/or contacted parents' associations, mental health welfare centers, and support centers for persons with developmental disabilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Participants completed self-report questionnaire surveys from October to November 2011...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242478/reduced-volume-of-the-arcuate-fasciculus-in-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-conditions
#12
Rachel L Moseley, Marta M Correia, Simon Baron-Cohen, Yury Shtyrov, Friedemann Pulvermüller, Bettina Mohr
Atypical language is a fundamental feature of autism spectrum conditions (ASC), but few studies have examined the structural integrity of the arcuate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting frontal and temporal language regions, which is usually implicated as the main transfer route used in processing linguistic information by the brain. Abnormalities in the arcuate have been reported in young children with ASC, mostly in low-functioning or non-verbal individuals, but little is known regarding the structural properties of the arcuate in adults with ASC or, in particular, in individuals with ASC who have intact language, such as those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233289/asperger-syndrome-in-males-over-two-decades-quality-of-life-in-relation-to-diagnostic-stability-and-psychiatric-comorbidity
#13
Adam Helles, I Carina Gillberg, Christopher Gillberg, Eva Billstedt
This study examined objective quality of life (work, academic success, living situation, relationships, support system) and subjective quality of life (Sense of Coherence and Short-Form Health Survey-36) in an adult sample of males (n = 50, mean age: 30 years) with Asperger syndrome diagnosed in childhood and followed prospectively over two decades. The association between long-term diagnostic stability of an autism spectrum disorder and/or comorbid psychiatric disorders with quality of life was also examined...
May 26, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196958/romantic-relationships-and-relationship-satisfaction-among-adults-with-asperger-syndrome-and-high-functioning-autism
#14
Sandra Strunz, Constanze Schermuck, Sarah Ballerstein, Christoph J Ahlers, Isabel Dziobek, Stefan Roepke
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience difficulties in maintaining romantic relationships. In this study high-functioning adults with ASD were examined concerning their romantic relationship interest and experience. METHOD: Participants, 31 recruited via an outpatient clinic and 198 via an online survey, were asked to answer a number of self-report questionnaires. The total sample comprised 229 high-functioning adults with ASD (40% males, average age: 35 years)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145529/risk-of-psychiatric-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-among-siblings-of-probands-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Elina Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Dan Sucksdorff, Auli Suominen, David Gyllenberg, Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Mika Gissler, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
IMPORTANCE: Previous research has focused on examining the familial clustering of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is known about the clustering of other psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of persons with ASD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among full siblings of probands with ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders used a population-based cohort that included children born from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2005, who received a diagnosis of ASD by December 31, 2007...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071791/effects-of-yokukansan-a-japanese-kampo-medicine-for-symptoms-associated-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Rei Wake, Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Motohide Furuya, Sadayuki Hashioka, Jun Horiguchi
A neuropsychiatric syndrome, Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is qualified via impairments in qualitative communication, social interaction, and stereotyped or restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. While all ASDs are considered to have qualitative deficits in social relatedness to others, many people with ASDs have other symptoms, including irritability (which includes aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums). In order to decrease these behaviors, it is often helpful to make use of behavioral therapy...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936160/asperger-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-a-comparative-neuropsychological-study
#17
Maria Marinopoulou, Tove Lugnegård, Maria Unenge Hallerbäck, Christopher Gillberg, Eva Billstedt
There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning...
July 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902438/exploratory-study-of-childbearing-experiences-of-women-with-asperger-syndrome
#18
Marcia Gardner, Patricia D Suplee, Joan Bloch, Karen Lecks
Increasing numbers of girls have been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the past two decades; therefore, more women with ASDs are entering the childbearing phase of their lives. Little is known about the childbearing experiences of women with ASDs. This qualitative study describes the childbearing experiences of eight women with Asperger syndrome. Four major themes emerged: Processing Sensations, Needing to Have Control, Walking in the Dark, and Motherhood on My Own Terms...
February 2016: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883648/history-and-first-descriptions-of-autism-asperger-versus-kanner-revisited
#19
LETTER
Nick Chown, Liz Hughes
When reading Michael Fitzgerald's chapter entitled 'Autism: Asperger's Syndrome-History and First Descriptions' in 'Asperger's Disorder' edited by Rausch, Johnson and Casanova, a while ago, one of us was struck by his contention that Kanner was guilty of plagiarism as well as non-attribution of Asperger's 1938 paper 'Das psychisch abnorme kind' (Fitzgerald in Asperger's disorder. Informa Healthcare, New York, 2008) published in a Vienna weekly. Steve Silberman has discovered evidence that Kanner rescued Asperger's chief diagnostician from the Nazis in 1944 so must have been aware of Asperger's work and conclusions...
June 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883645/do-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-or-asperger-syndrome-differ-in-empathy-and-emotion-recognition
#20
Charlotte B Montgomery, Carrie Allison, Meng-Chuan Lai, Sarah Cassidy, Peter E Langdon, Simon Baron-Cohen
The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA...
June 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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