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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905840/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-in-an-effort-to-eradicate-hiv
#1
Thor A Wagner
More than 30 million people are infected with HIV, and HIV remains the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically decreases mortality rate, but there are side effects, long-term toxicities, expenses, stigmas, and inconveniences associated with chronic treatment, and HIV-infected individuals on ART have an increased risk of malignancies, cardiovascular disease, neurologic disease, and shortened life expectancy. Therefore, a cure for HIV remains an important goal...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835681/cognitive-performance-is-highly-stable-over-a-2-year-follow-up-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-in-a-dedicated-medical-environment
#2
Janine Gronewold, Olga Todica, Ulla K Seidel, Michaela Volsek, Andreas Kribben, Heike Bruck, Dirk M Hermann
BACKGROUND: As kidney and brain functions decline with aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia are becoming increasing health burdens worldwide. Among the risk factors for cognitive impairment, CKD is increasingly recognized. The precise impact of CKD on the development of cognitive impairment is poorly understood. METHODS: In the New Tools for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (NTCVD) cohort, which was recruited in a dedicated nephrology department, we examined the 2-year course of cognitive performance in 120 patients (73 patients with CKD stages 3-5D, 47 control patients without CKD with similar vascular risk profile) using a comprehensive battery of 10 neuropsychological tests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825722/current-status-of-hiv-aids-in-the-art-era
#3
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Yoshimura
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798431/hemeoxygenase-1-as-a-novel-driver-in-ritonavir-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#4
Ninon Taylor, Iris Kremser, Simon Auer, Gregor Hoermann, Richard Greil, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Harald Esterbauer, Lukas Kenner, Hannes Oberkofler
BACKGROUND: Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) has recently been identified as a major driver of metaflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance (IR). Drug-induced IR increases cardiovascular risk within the HIV-1-infected population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore investigated a possible role of HO-1 in ART-induced IR. METHODS: Effects of HIV-1 protease inhibitor ritonavir and integrase inhibitor raltegravir on expression levels of HO-1 and proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were studied in monocyte and hepatocyte cell lines...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749649/safety-and-efficacy-of-atorvastatin-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-hyperlipidemia
#5
Ann J Melvin, Grace Montepiedra, Lisa Aaron, William A Meyer, Hans M Spiegel, William Borkowsky, Mark J Abzug, Brookie M Best, Marilyn J Crain, Peggy R Borum, Bobbie Graham, Patricia Anthony, Katherine Shin, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have increased prevalence of hyperlipidemia and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. No studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of statins in this population. METHODS: HIV-infected youth aged 10 - < 24 years on stable ART with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL for ≥ 6 months initiated atorvastatin 10mg once daily. Atorvastatin was increased to 20mg if LDL-C efficacy criteria (LDL-C < 110 mg/dL or decreased ≥30% from baseline) were not met at week 4...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749112/trends-in-nonlipid-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-management-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study-and-association-with-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
David B Hanna, Molly Jung, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer M Cocohoba, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Nancy A Hessol, Alexandra M Levine, Tracey E Wilson, Mary A Young, Robert C Kaplan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly common among women with HIV, but literature on nonlipid CVD risk factor management is lacking. We examined semiannual trends from 2006 to 2014 in hypertension treatment and control (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg), diabetes treatment and control (fasting glucose <130 mg/dL), and smoking quit rates in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models tested time trends and differences between HIV+ and HIV- women. Among antiretroviral therapy (ART) users, we examined the association of ART adherence and virologic suppression with each outcome...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749108/changes-in-body-fat-distribution-on-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-black-south-africans-starting-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Zulfa Abrahams, Naomi Levitt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, Joel Dave
Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740536/treatment-of-hiv-infection-with-a-raltegravir-based-regimen-increases-ldl-levels-but-improves-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity
#8
Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naïve participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir (RAL), emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730474/cardiovascular-complications-of-hiv-in-endemic-countries
#9
Matthew J Feinstein, Milana Bogorodskaya, Gerald S Bloomfield, Rajesh Vedanthan, Mark J Siedner, Gene F Kwan, Christopher T Longenecker
Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to evolve from a generally fatal condition to a manageable chronic disease. This transition began two decades ago in high-income countries and has more recently begun in lower income, HIV endemic countries (HIV-ECs). With this transition, there has been a concurrent shift in clinical and public health burden from AIDS-related complications and opportunistic infections to those associated with well-controlled HIV disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721508/new-strategies-for-a-comprehensive-fight-against-hiv-infection-using-monoclonal-antibody-therapy
#10
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed a long-term control of viral replication and HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic disease. However, ART is not able to eradicate the virus, and high levels of inflammation and immune-activation are observed despite prolonged ART. Consequently, a number of comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, are gaining relevance in patients living with HIV. Moreover, the toxicities associated with continued exposure to ART cause several metabolic disturbances with clinical relevance, and the cost of treatment is a heavy burden for the national health systems...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703039/inflammatory-function-of-cx3cr1-cd8-t-cells-in-treated-hiv-infection-is-modulated-by-platelet-interactions
#11
Joseph C Mudd, Soumya Panigrahi, Benjamin Kyi, So Hee Moon, Maura M Manion, Souheil-Antoine Younes, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg, David A Zidar, Michael M Lederman, Michael L Freeman
Increases in inflammation, coagulation, and CD8(+) T-cell numbers are associated with an elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients. Circulating memory CD8(+) T cells that express the vascular endothelium-homing receptor CX3CR1 (fractalkine receptor) are enriched in HIV-infected ART recipients. Thrombin-activated receptor (PAR-1) expression is increased in HIV-infected ART recipients and is particularly elevated on CX3CR1(+) CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that these cells could interact with coagulation elements...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701421/cardio-thoracic-ratio-is-stable-reproducible-and-has-potential-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-1-related-cardiac-disorders-in-resource-poor-settings
#12
Hanif Esmail, Tolu Oni, Friedrich Thienemann, Nashreen Omar-Davies, Robert J Wilkinson, Mpiko Ntsekhe
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disorders are common in HIV-1 infected persons in Africa and presentation is often insidious. Development of screening algorithms for cardiovascular disorders appropriate to a resource-constrained setting could facilitate timely referral. Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) on chest radiograph (CXR) has been suggested as a potential screening tool but little is known about its reproducibility and stability. Our primary aim was to evaluate the stability and the inter-observer variability of CTR in HIV-1 infected outpatients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662547/initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-based-on-the-2015-who-guidelines-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-in-nigeria-south-africa-uganda-and-india
#13
Andreas Kuznik, Garba Iliyasu, Abdulrazaq G Habib, Baba M Musa, Andrew Kambugu, Mohammed Lamorde
OBJECTIVE: In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in all HIV-positive patients regardless of CD4 cell count. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among patients with CD4 counts exceeding 500 cells/mm in four resource-limited countries (South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, and India). DESIGN: A 5-year Markov model with annual cycles including patients at CD4>500 cells/mm initiating ART or deferring therapy until historic ART initiation criteria of CD < 350 cells/mm were met...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661466/changes-in-plasma-levels-of-oxidized-lipoproteins-and-lipoprotein-subfractions-with-atazanavir-raltegravir-darunavir-based-initial-antiviral-therapy-and-associations-with-common-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-actg-5260s
#14
Theodoros Kelesidis, Thuy Tien T Tran, Todd T Brown, Carlee Moser, Heather J Ribaudo, Michael P Dube, Otto O Yang, Grace A McComsey, James H Stein, Judith S Currier
BACKGROUND: The role of oxidized lipoproteins (high-density [HDLox] and low-density [LDLox]) and total lipoprotein particle (Lp) number and size in HIV-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes of these biomarkers and their associations with rate of carotid intima media thickness progression over 3 years (ΔCIMT) in chronic HIV infection. METHODS: Prospective study of 234 HIV-infected antiretroviral treatment naïve participants without CVD who were randomized to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ ritonavir, or raltegravir (RAL) and achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter...
September 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642271/metabolomics-enables-precision-medicine-a-white-paper-community-perspective
#15
Richard D Beger, Warwick Dunn, Michael A Schmidt, Steven S Gross, Jennifer A Kirwan, Marta Cascante, Lorraine Brennan, David S Wishart, Matej Oresic, Thomas Hankemeier, David I Broadhurst, Andrew N Lane, Karsten Suhre, Gabi Kastenmüller, Susan J Sumner, Ines Thiele, Oliver Fiehn, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO METABOLOMICS: Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome, the repertoire of biochemicals (or small molecules) present in cells, tissues, and body fluids. The study of metabolism at the global or "-omics" level is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to have a profound impact upon medical practice. At the center of metabolomics, is the concept that a person's metabolic state provides a close representation of that individual's overall health status...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579612/dyslipidemias-and-elevated-cardiovascular-risk-on-lopinavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-cambodia
#16
Setha Limsreng, Olivier Marcy, Sowath Ly, Vara Ouk, Hak Chanroeurn, Saem Thavary, Ban Boroath, Ana Canestri, Gérald Viretto, Jean-François Delfraissy, Olivier Ségéral
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562769/atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-and-anti-retroviral-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Emma Kaplan-Lewis, Judith A Aberg, Mikyung Lee
In the current era of available therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), life expectancy for persons living with HIV (PLWH) nears that of the general population. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has become a particular burden for PLWH and society at large. PLWH have historically been shown to have an excess of cardiovascular risk and subsequent events when compared to the general population. Potential explanations include the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors, direct inflammatory and immunological effects from the HIV virus itself, and metabolic adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552153/brief-report-factors-associated-with-the-selection-of-initial-antiretroviral-therapy-from-2009-to-2012
#18
Michael S Saag, Andrew O Westfall, Stephen R Cole, William C Mathews, Daniel R Drozd, Kenneth H Mayer, Greer A Burkholder, Mari Kitahata, Eric M Maiese
We examined factors associated with selection of initial antiretroviral regimen in the CNICS cohort. Patients initiating antiretroviral therapy between July 2009 and December 2012 were classified as receiving a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-, boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-, or raltegravir-based regimen. Among 873 patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, 488 regimens contained an NNRTI, 319 a boosted PI, and 66 raltegravir. Patients with depression and women were less likely to receive an NNRTI, whereas those with underlying cardiovascular disease, liver disease, and those coinfected with hepatitis C were more likely to receive raltegravir...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548257/low-cd4-cd8-ratio-is-associated-with-non-aids-defining-cancers-in-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-anrs-co8-aproco-copilote-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Mariam Noelie Hema, Tristan Ferry, Michel Dupon, Lise Cuzin, Renaud Verdon, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Camelia Protopopescu, Catherine Leport, François Raffi, Vincent Le Moing
OBJECTIVES: To study the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and morbidity in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: The APROCO/COPILOTE cohort enrolled patients initiating a protease inhibitor-containing ART in 1997-1999. The association between occurrence of first non AIDS-defining severe events (NADE) and time-dependent measures of immune restoration was assessed by 4 Cox models with different definitions of restoration, CD4+ cell counts (CD4), CD4/CD8 ratio, both CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio, or a composite variable (CD4< 500/mm3, CD4 > 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio < 1, CD4 > 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio > 1)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541600/metabolic-complications-and-glucose-metabolism-in-hiv-infection-a-review-of-the-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Amanda L Willig, Edgar Turner Overton
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use are associated with perturbations in glucose and lipid metabolism. Increasing incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity highlights the need for early identification and treatment of metabolic dysfunction. Newer ART regimens are less toxic for cellular function and metabolism but have failed to completely eliminate metabolic dysfunction with HIV infection. Additional factors, including viral-host interactions, diet, physical activity, non-ART medications, and aging may further contribute to metabolic disease risk in the HIV setting...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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