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Arts in cardiovascular therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212629/cardiometabolic-risk-in-a-population-of-older-adults-with-multiple-co-morbidities-in-rural-south-africa-the-haalsi-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-indepth-communities-study
#1
Thomas A Gaziano, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Alisha Wade, Nigel J Crowther, Sartaj Alam, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Ryan Wagner, Julia Rohr, Livia Montana, Kathleen Kahn, Till W Bärnighausen, Lisa F Berkman, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196511/antiretroviral-therapy-related-adverse-effects-can-sub-saharan-africa-cope-with-the-new-test-and-treat-policy-of-the-world-health-organization
#2
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future...
February 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182622/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-hiv-adis-a-new-way-of-modulation-of-cardiovascular-risk
#3
Mohamed H Ahmed, Nazik Elmalaika Hussian, Akif Malik, Clare Woodward, Dushyant Mital
With the advent and subsequent success of antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely become a chronic condition and is increasingly seen alongside metabolic disorders such as dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) itself is associated with an increase in the incidence of metabolic risk factors (namely insulin resistance, lipoatrophy, dyslipidaemia, and abnormalities of fat distribution in HIV patients). Thus, further challenges in the management of HIV patients include the management of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155318/weight-status-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-people-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-dikgale-limpopo-south-africa
#4
Felistas Mashinya, Marianne Alberts, Robert Colebunders, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Underweight in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) complicates the management of HIV infection and contributes to mortality, whereas overweight increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM: The study determined weight status and associated factors in people with HIV infection receiving ART. SETTING: Rural primary health care clinics in Dikgale, Limpopo province, South Africa...
November 29, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143688/sleep-apnea-state-of-the-art
#5
REVIEW
Martin R Cowie
Many patient with, or at risk of, cardiovascular disease have sleep disordered breathing (SDB), which can be either obstructive (with intermittent collapse of the upper airway) or central (episodic loss of respiratory drive). SDB is associated with sleep disturbance, hypoxemia, hemodynamic changes, and sympathetic activation. Such patients have a worse prognosis than those without SDB. Mask-based therapies of positive airway pressure targeted at SDB can improve measures of sleep quality and partially normalize the sleep and respiratory physiology, but recent randomized trials of cardiovascular outcomes in SDB have either been neutral (obstructive sleep apnea) or suggested the possibility of harm, likely from increased sudden death, in central sleep apnea...
December 20, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117005/pharmacogenomic-challenges-in-cardiovascular-diseases-examples-of-drugs-and-considerations-for-future-integration-in-clinical-practice
#6
Jérôme Chatelin, Maria G Stathopoulou, Alex-Ander Aldasoro Arguinano, Ting Xie, Sophie Visvikis-Siest
Introduction Even if cardiovascular disease (CVD) drugs are supported by high level proofs, the results of CVD treatment present great disparities: there are still patients dying with supposed optimal treatment, patients facing adverse events and CVD remain the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacogenomics is the basis of personalisation of the treatment able to allow higher medication success rates. In this review, we will present detailed examples of CVD drugs to highlight the complexity of this challenging field and we will discuss novel concepts that should be considered for a fastest integration of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice of CVD...
January 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079007/novel-therapies-targeting-cardioprotection-and-regeneration
#7
Valeria Garrido, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres, Jaime A Riquelme, Ariel Díaz, Marcela Pizarro, Mario Bustamante, Myra N Chavez, María Paz Ocaranza, Rosemarie Mellado, Ramon Corbalan, Miguel L Allende, Sergio Lavandero
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The heart is susceptible to pathologies that impact the myocardium directly, such myocardial infarction and consequent heart failure, as well as conditions with indirect cardiac effects, such cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicity. As the contractile cells of the heart, cardiomyocytes are essential for normal cardiac function. Various stress stimuli may result in transient damage or cell death in cardiomyocytes through apoptosis, necrosis or maladaptive autophagy...
January 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#8
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981886/additive-manufacturing-of-vascular-grafts-and-vascularized-tissue-constructs
#9
Laura Elomaa, Yunzhi Peter Yang
There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956833/inflammation-modulating-cytokine-profile-and-lipid-interaction-in-hiv-related-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
Elizabeth Gori, Takafira Mduluza, Mudavanhu Nyagura, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Zvenyika Alfred Gomo
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with changes in plasma levels of lipoproteins, thus posing the risk of cardiovascular complications in infected individuals. The alteration in plasma lipoprotein levels results from dysregulation of inflammation-modulating cytokines that control lipid metabolism. Little is understood regarding the relationship between the cytokines and serum lipid levels, which have been reported to be altered in adults receiving ART. The objective of this study was to describe the profiles of inflammation-modulating cytokines and their relationship to lipids as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in HIV infection...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955664/the-burden-of-hypertension-diabetes-mellitus-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-among-adult-malawians-in-hiv-care-consequences-for-integrated-services
#11
Oscar H Divala, Alemayehu Amberbir, Zahra Ismail, Teferi Beyene, Daniela Garone, Colin Pfaff, Victor Singano, Harriet Akello, Martias Joshua, Moffat J Nyirenda, Alfred Matengeni, Josh Berman, Jane Mallewa, Gift S Chinomba, Noel Kayange, Theresa J Allain, Adrienne K Chan, Sumeet K Sodhi, Joep J van Oosterhout
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes prevalence is high in Africans. Data from HIV infected populations are limited, especially from Malawi. Integrating care for chronic non-communicable co-morbidities in well-established HIV services may provide benefit for patients by preventing multiple hospital visits but will increase the burden of care for busy HIV clinics. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults (≥18 years) at an urban and a rural HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi, during 2014...
December 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942541/early-antiretroviral-therapy-at-high-cd4-counts-does-not-improve-arterial-elasticity-a-substudy-of-the-strategic-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-start-trial
#12
Jason V Baker, Katherine Huppler Hullsiek, Nicole Wyman Engen, Ray Nelson, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd, Jan Gerstoft, Heiko Jessen, Marcelo Losso, Norman Markowitz, Paula Munderi, Antonios Papadopoulos, Jonathan Shuter, Claire Rappoport, Mary T Pearson, Elizabeth Finley, Abdel Babiker, Sean Emery, Daniel Duprez
BACKGROUND: Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Vascular function assessments can be used to study CVD pathogenesis. We compared the effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation at CD4 counts >500 cells/mm(3) on small arterial elasticity (SAE) and large artery elasticity (LAE). METHODS: Radial artery blood pressure waveforms were recorded noninvasively. Small arterial elasticity and LAE were derived from analysis of the diastolic pulse waveform...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905840/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-in-an-effort-to-eradicate-hiv
#13
Thor A Wagner
More than 30 million people are infected with HIV, and HIV remains the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically decreases mortality rate, but there are side effects, long-term toxicities, expenses, stigmas, and inconveniences associated with chronic treatment, and HIV-infected individuals on ART have an increased risk of malignancies, cardiovascular disease, neurologic disease, and shortened life expectancy. Therefore, a cure for HIV remains an important goal...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835681/cognitive-performance-is-highly-stable-over-a-2-year-follow-up-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-in-a-dedicated-medical-environment
#14
Janine Gronewold, Olga Todica, Ulla K Seidel, Michaela Volsek, Andreas Kribben, Heike Bruck, Dirk M Hermann
BACKGROUND: As kidney and brain functions decline with aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia are becoming increasing health burdens worldwide. Among the risk factors for cognitive impairment, CKD is increasingly recognized. The precise impact of CKD on the development of cognitive impairment is poorly understood. METHODS: In the New Tools for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (NTCVD) cohort, which was recruited in a dedicated nephrology department, we examined the 2-year course of cognitive performance in 120 patients (73 patients with CKD stages 3-5D, 47 control patients without CKD with similar vascular risk profile) using a comprehensive battery of 10 neuropsychological tests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825722/current-status-of-hiv-aids-in-the-art-era
#15
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Yoshimura
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health...
January 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798431/hemeoxygenase-1-as-a-novel-driver-in-ritonavir-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#16
Ninon Taylor, Iris Kremser, Simon Auer, Gregor Hoermann, Richard Greil, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Harald Esterbauer, Lukas Kenner, Hannes Oberkofler
BACKGROUND: Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) has recently been identified as a major driver of metaflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance (IR). Drug-induced IR increases cardiovascular risk within the HIV-1-infected population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore investigated a possible role of HO-1 in ART-induced IR. METHODS: Effects of HIV-1 protease inhibitor ritonavir and integrase inhibitor raltegravir on expression levels of HO-1 and proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were studied in monocyte and hepatocyte cell lines...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749649/safety-and-efficacy-of-atorvastatin-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-hyperlipidemia
#17
Ann J Melvin, Grace Montepiedra, Lisa Aaron, William A Meyer, Hans M Spiegel, William Borkowsky, Mark J Abzug, Brookie M Best, Marilyn J Crain, Peggy R Borum, Bobbie Graham, Patricia Anthony, Katherine Shin, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have increased prevalence of hyperlipidemia and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. No studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of statins in this population. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 10 to <24 years of age on stable ART with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL for ≥6 months initiated atorvastatin 10 mg once daily...
January 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749112/trends-in-nonlipid-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-management-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study-and-association-with-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
David B Hanna, Molly Jung, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer M Cocohoba, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Nancy A Hessol, Alexandra M Levine, Tracey E Wilson, Mary A Young, Robert C Kaplan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly common among women with HIV, but literature on nonlipid CVD risk factor management is lacking. We examined semiannual trends from 2006 to 2014 in hypertension treatment and control (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg), diabetes treatment and control (fasting glucose <130 mg/dL), and smoking quit rates in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models tested time trends and differences between HIV+ and HIV- women. Among antiretroviral therapy (ART) users, we examined the association of ART adherence and virologic suppression with each outcome...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749108/changes-in-body-fat-distribution-on-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-black-south-africans-starting-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Zulfa Abrahams, Naomi Levitt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, Joel Dave
Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740536/treatment-of-hiv-infection-with-a-raltegravir-based-regimen-increases-ldl-levels-but-improves-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity
#20
Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
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