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Arts in cardiovascular therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160505/metabolic-disorders-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-without-the-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Mariana Amaral Raposo, Geyza Nogueira de Almeida Armiliato, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Camila Abrahão Caram, Raíssa Domingues de Simoni Silveira, Unaí Tupinambás
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159965/improvement-in-lipids-after-switch-to-boosted-atazanavir-or-darunavir-in-children-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-on-older-protease-inhibitors-results-from-the-pediatric-hiv-aids-cohort-study
#2
J Jao, W Yu, K Patel, T L Miller, B Karalius, M E Geffner, L A DiMeglio, A Mirza, J S Chen, M Silio, E J McFarland, R B Van Dyke, D Jacobson
OBJECTIVES: Dyslipidaemia is common in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) youth receiving protease inhibitors (PIs). Few studies have evaluated longitudinal lipid changes in PHIV youth after switch to newer PIs. METHODS: We compared longitudinal changes in fasting lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and TC:HDL-C ratio] in PHIV youth enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) study who switched to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)- or darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) from an older PI-based ART and those remaining on an older PI...
November 21, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135581/high-rates-of-hypertension-diabetes-elevated-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-hiv-infected-patients-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-malawi
#3
Sekai C Mathabire Rücker, Alia Tayea, Joseph Bitilinyu-Bangoh, Elkin H Bermúdez-Aza, Leon Salumu, Isabel A Quiles, Elisabeth Szumilin, Zengani Chirwa, Fernanda Rick, David Maman
OBJECTIVES: Data on cardiovascular disease risks among HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) over long periods of time are lacking in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chiradzulu, Malawi from December 2015 to June 2016. HIV-infected persons on ART for more than 10 years (patients) and HIV-negative individuals (controls) from selected clinics participated. Following informed consent, a standardized questionnaire, clinical and laboratory examinations were performed...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106789/depression-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#4
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is described as intermittent interruptions or reductions in airflow which are initiated by an incomplete or complete collapse of the upper airways despite respiratory effort. When left untreated, OSA is connected with comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic illnesses. METHOD: The PubMed database was used to examine papers published until April 2017 using the subsequent terms: "obstructive sleep apnea" or "obstructive sleep apnoea" and "depression" in successive combination with "CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure)", "therapy", "pharmacotherapy", "psychotherapy", "cognitive behavioral therapy" or "quality of life"...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090191/coronary-heart-disease-risk-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-lebanese-cross-sectional-study
#5
Chadia Haddad, Souheil Hallit, Pascale Salameh, Tarek Bou-Assi, Marouan Zoghbi
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. CHD risk in Lebanese patients with schizophrenia remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To (i) evaluate CHD risk of patients with schizophrenia in Lebanon; and (ii) detect the modifiable and non-modifiable factors affecting this risk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 329 patients with schizophrenia aged 20-75 years. Ten-year hard CHD risk was calculated using the Framingham risk score...
2017: J Comorb
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081979/dual-antiplatelet-therapy-for-secondary-prevention-of-coronary-artery-disease
#6
REVIEW
Sophie Degrauwe, Thomas Pilgrim, Adel Aminian, Stephane Noble, Pascal Meier, Juan F Iglesias
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) combining aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor has been consistently shown to reduce recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with aspirin monotherapy, but at the expense of an increased risk of major bleeding. Nevertheless, the optimal duration of DAPT for secondary prevention of CAD remains uncertain, owing to the conflicting results of several large randomised trials...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078761/risk-of-cardiovascular-events-from-current-recent-and-cumulative-exposure-to-abacavir-among-persons-living-with-hiv-who-were-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-united-states-a-cohort-study
#7
Kunchok Dorjee, Sanjiv M Baxi, Arthur L Reingold, Alan Hubbard
BACKGROUND: There is ongoing controversy regarding abacavir use in the treatment of HIV infection and the risk of subsequent development of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear how the risk varies as exposure accumulates. METHODS: Using an administrative health-plan dataset, risk of cardiovascular disease events (CVDe), defined as the first episode of an acute myocardial infarction or a coronary intervention procedure, associated with abacavir exposure was assessed among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy across the U...
October 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067253/evidence-based-review-of-statin-use-in-patients-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Daniel B Chastain, Kayla R Stover, Daniel M Riche
INTRODUCTION: As a result of improved safe and effective therapeutic options for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), life expectancy of those living with HIV is increasing leading to new challenges (e.g., management of chronic diseases). Some chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease [CVD]), are up to two times more prevalent in patients with HIV. Statins are a mainstay of therapy for prevention of CVD; but, clinicians should be aware that not all statins are appropriate for use in the HIV population, especially those receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053758/sex-differences-in-long-term-mortality-among-acute-myocardial-infarction-patients-results-from-the-isar-risk-and-art-studies
#9
Romy Ubrich, Petra Barthel, Bernhard Haller, Katerina Hnatkova, Katharina Maria Huster, Alexander Steger, Alexander Müller, Marek Malik, Georg Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Mortality rates in females who survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI) exceed those in males. Differences between sexes in age, cardiovascular risk factors and revascularization therapy have been proposed as possible reasons. OBJECTIVE: To select sets of female and male patients comparable in respect of relevant risk factors in order to compare the sex-specific risk in a systematic manner. METHODS: Data of the ISAR-RISK and ART studies were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044011/antiretroviral-therapy-and-arterial-elasticity-in-hiv-infected-patients
#10
Mariana A Kundro, Guillermo A Viloria, Javier J Toibaro, Marcelo H Losso
Cardiovascular risk is increased in HIV-infected patients and has become a leading cause of morbi-mortality in this population. The purpose of this study is to compare HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ART-naïve HIV-infected patients regarding arterial elasticity. From September 2010 to September 2015, 105 HIV-infected subjects were enrolled, 41 ART-naïve and 64 on ART with stable viral suppression. Elasticity of large and small arteries (LAE and SAE) was assessed by analysis of radial pulse waveforms using a calibrated device...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991883/inflammation-related-morbidity-and-mortality-among-hiv-positive-adults-how-extensive-is-it
#11
Brian B Hart, Anna D Nordell, Jason F Okulicz, Adrian Palfreeman, Andrzej Horban, Eynat Kedem, Jacqueline Neuhaus, David R Jacobs, Daniel A Duprez, James D Neaton
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of grade 4, potentially life-threatening, events not attributable to AIDS, cardiovascular disease (CVD) or non-AIDS cancer among participants on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and to describe associations of these events with interleukin-6 and D-dimer. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: HIV-infected participants on ART (N=3,568) with an HIV RNA level ≤ 500 copies/mL were followed for grade 4, AIDS, CVD, non-AIDS cancer and all-cause mortality events...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984703/pathophysiology-of-ischaemic-heart-disease
#12
Mamatha O Pocock, Lucy Dorrell, Paola Cicconi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in people living with HIV (PLWH). RECENT FINDINGS: PLWH have an elevated risk of IHD. Although incidence is declining, this condition still represents a major cause of non-AIDS-related mortality. The cause is likely multifactorial: traditional risk factors play an important role and IHD risk might be reduced with greater emphasis on primary prevention. The contribution of specific antiretroviral agents to IHD risk is changing as antiretroviral coverage increases globally and as safer agents have replaced drugs with well-described metabolic toxicities...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984702/current-assessment-of-heart-rate-variability-and-qtc-interval-length-in-hiv-aids
#13
Roger C McIntosh, Judith D Lobo, Barry E Hurwitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease comorbidity in persons infected with the HIV has become a global concern. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is increasingly being utilized to provide clinically relevant information regarding cardiac arrhythmias and cardio-autonomic dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest research comparing QT and R-to-R interval length as a function of HIV+ status or antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. RECENT FINDINGS: Prolongation of the corrected QTc interval may be acquired in HIV+ ART-naive individuals, exacerbated by various classes of ART drugs, and is generally predictive of lethal cardiac arrhythmias, with effects observed from childhood to adulthood...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975270/lung-cancer-mortality-associated-with-smoking-and-smoking-cessation-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states
#14
Krishna P Reddy, Chung Yin Kong, Emily P Hyle, Travis P Baggett, Mingshu Huang, Robert A Parker, A David Paltiel, Elena Losina, Milton C Weinstein, Kenneth A Freedberg, Rochelle P Walensky
Importance: Lung cancer has become a leading cause of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). Over 40% of PLWH in the United States smoke cigarettes; HIV independently increases the risk of lung cancer. Objective: To project cumulative lung cancer mortality by smoking exposure among PLWH in care. Design: Using a validated microsimulation model of HIV, we applied standard demographic data and recent HIV/AIDS epidemiology statistics with specific details on smoking exposure, combining smoking status (current, former, or never) and intensity (heavy, moderate, or light)...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948955/factors-affecting-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-nevirapine-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
C Padmapriyadarsini, K Ramesh, L Sekar, Geetha Ramachandran, Devaraj Reddy, G Narendran, S Sekar, C Chandrasekar, D Anbarasu, Christine Wanke, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglycerides is common in the general population in India. As nevirapine (NVP)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) tends to increase HDL-C, gene polymorphisms associated with HDL-C metabolism in HIV-infected adults on stable NVP-based ART were studied. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2013 and July 2014 among adults receiving NVP-based ART for 12-15 months...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945911/hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-newly-diagnosed-hiv-and-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Mabel Toribio, Min Hi Park, Markella V Zanni, Gregory K Robbins, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Meghan N Feldpausch, Lauren Stone, Kathleen Melbourne, Steven K Grinspoon, Michael L Fitzgerald
Context: In the general population, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity (HCEC) relates inversely to incident cardiovascular events. Previous studies have suggested that HCEC is decreased in HIV and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation might improve HCEC. Objective: To evaluate HCEC in the context of ART initiation and immune activation in HIV. Design and Outcome Measures: Baseline HCEC from 10 ART-naive HIV-infected males and 12 prospectively matched non-HIV-infected males were analyzed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935146/effect-of-chocolate-and-mate-tea-on-the-lipid-profile-of-individuals-with-hiv-aids-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-clinical-trial
#17
Suelen J Souza, Aline A Petrilli, Andrea M Teixeira, Patricia M Pontilho, Antonio A Carioca, Liania A Luzia, José M Souza, Nágila R Damasceno, Aluisio A Segurado, Patricia H Rondó
OBJECTIVE: HIV/AIDS is generally associated with dyslipidemia and oxidative imbalance, which are caused by the infection itself and by antiretroviral therapy (ART). The flavonoids, found in cocoa and yerba mate, have antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the consumption of dark chocolate and mate tea on the lipid profiles of individuals with HIV/AIDS who are undergoing ART. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted with 92 patients receiving ART for ≥6 mo and with viral suppression...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926407/dysfunctional-high-density-lipoprotein-from-hiv-individuals-promotes-monocyte-derived-foam-cell-formation-in-vitro
#18
Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Michael N Oda, Mark S Borja, Diana Huynh, Stefanie Homann, Anthony Jaworowski, Theodoros Kelesidis
OBJECTIVE: The role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function in HIV-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. HDLs isolated from HIV [HIV(+)HDL] and HIV-uninfected individuals [HIV(-)HDL] were assessed for HDL function and ability to promote monocyte-derived foam cell formation (MDFCF; a key event in HIV-related CVD) ex vivo. DESIGN/METHODS: Using an established in-vitro model of atherogenesis and plasma samples from an established cross-sectional study of virologically suppressed HIV men on stable effective antiretroviral therapy and with low CVD risk (median age: 42 years; n = 10), we explored the impact of native HDL [HIV(+)HDL] on MDFCF...
November 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922979/a-review-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-older-hiv-infected-patients
#19
Aarthi Chary, Nancy N Nguyen, Kimberly Maiton, Mark Holodniy
The number of older HIV-infected people is growing due to increasing life expectancies resulting from the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both HIV and aging increase the risk of other comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and some malignancies, leading to greater challenges in managing HIV with other conditions. This results in complex medication regimens with the potential for significant drug-drug interactions and increased morbidity and mortality. Area covered: We review the metabolic pathways of ART and other medications used to treat medical co-morbidities, highlight potential areas of concern for drug-drug interactions, and where feasible, suggest alternative approaches for treating these conditions as suggested from national guidelines or articles published in the English language...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910489/nucleoside-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-attenuate-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-by-impairing-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-signalling-in-endothelial-cells
#20
Lin Song, Sha Ding, Zhen Ge, Xiaolong Zhu, Cong Qiu, Yuewen Wang, Enyin Lai, Weijun Yang, Yi Sun, Samson A Chow, Luyang Yu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a major clinical challenge for HIV-positive patients. However, the role of ART in blood vessel growth is largely unknown. Here, we examined an integral component of ART, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and investigated their effects on key microvascular functions, including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis capability of endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated using migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in vitro, and mouse ear and Matrigel plug assays in vivo...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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