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Arts in cardiovascular therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079007/novel-therapies-targeting-cardioprotection-and-regeneration
#1
Valeria Garrido, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres, Jaime A Riquelme, Ariel Díaz, Marcela Pizarro, Mario Bustamante, Myra N Chavez, María Paz Ocaranza, Rosemarie Mellado, Ramon Corbalan, Miguel L Allende, Sergio Lavandero
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The heart is susceptible to pathologies that impact the myocardium directly, such myocardial infarction and consequent heart failure, as well as conditions with indirect cardiac effects, such cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicity. As the contractile cells of the heart, cardiomyocytes are essential for normal cardiac function. Various stress stimuli may result in transient damage or cell death in cardiomyocytes through apoptosis, necrosis or maladaptive autophagy...
January 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#2
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981886/additive-manufacturing-of-vascular-grafts-and-vascularized-tissue-constructs
#3
Laura Elomaa, Yunzhi Peter Yang
There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956833/inflammation-modulating-cytokine-profile-and-lipid-interaction-in-hiv-related-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
Elizabeth Gori, Takafira Mduluza, Mudavanhu Nyagura, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Zvenyika Alfred Gomo
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with changes in plasma levels of lipoproteins, thus posing the risk of cardiovascular complications in infected individuals. The alteration in plasma lipoprotein levels results from dysregulation of inflammation-modulating cytokines that control lipid metabolism. Little is understood regarding the relationship between the cytokines and serum lipid levels, which have been reported to be altered in adults receiving ART. The objective of this study was to describe the profiles of inflammation-modulating cytokines and their relationship to lipids as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in HIV infection...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955664/the-burden-of-hypertension-diabetes-mellitus-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-among-adult-malawians-in-hiv-care-consequences-for-integrated-services
#5
Oscar H Divala, Alemayehu Amberbir, Zahra Ismail, Teferi Beyene, Daniela Garone, Colin Pfaff, Victor Singano, Harriet Akello, Martias Joshua, Moffat J Nyirenda, Alfred Matengeni, Josh Berman, Jane Mallewa, Gift S Chinomba, Noel Kayange, Theresa J Allain, Adrienne K Chan, Sumeet K Sodhi, Joep J van Oosterhout
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes prevalence is high in Africans. Data from HIV infected populations are limited, especially from Malawi. Integrating care for chronic non-communicable co-morbidities in well-established HIV services may provide benefit for patients by preventing multiple hospital visits but will increase the burden of care for busy HIV clinics. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults (≥18 years) at an urban and a rural HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi, during 2014...
December 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942541/early-antiretroviral-therapy-at-high-cd4-counts-does-not-improve-arterial-elasticity-a-substudy-of-the-strategic-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-start-trial
#6
Jason V Baker, Katherine Huppler Hullsiek, Nicole Wyman Engen, Ray Nelson, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd, Jan Gerstoft, Heiko Jessen, Marcelo Losso, Norman Markowitz, Paula Munderi, Antonios Papadopoulos, Jonathan Shuter, Claire Rappoport, Mary T Pearson, Elizabeth Finley, Abdel Babiker, Sean Emery, Daniel Duprez
BACKGROUND: Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Vascular function assessments can be used to study CVD pathogenesis. We compared the effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation at CD4 counts >500 cells/mm(3) on small arterial elasticity (SAE) and large artery elasticity (LAE). METHODS: Radial artery blood pressure waveforms were recorded noninvasively. Small arterial elasticity and LAE were derived from analysis of the diastolic pulse waveform...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905840/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-in-an-effort-to-eradicate-hiv
#7
Thor A Wagner
More than 30 million people are infected with HIV, and HIV remains the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically decreases mortality rate, but there are side effects, long-term toxicities, expenses, stigmas, and inconveniences associated with chronic treatment, and HIV-infected individuals on ART have an increased risk of malignancies, cardiovascular disease, neurologic disease, and shortened life expectancy. Therefore, a cure for HIV remains an important goal...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835681/cognitive-performance-is-highly-stable-over-a-2-year-follow-up-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-in-a-dedicated-medical-environment
#8
Janine Gronewold, Olga Todica, Ulla K Seidel, Michaela Volsek, Andreas Kribben, Heike Bruck, Dirk M Hermann
BACKGROUND: As kidney and brain functions decline with aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia are becoming increasing health burdens worldwide. Among the risk factors for cognitive impairment, CKD is increasingly recognized. The precise impact of CKD on the development of cognitive impairment is poorly understood. METHODS: In the New Tools for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (NTCVD) cohort, which was recruited in a dedicated nephrology department, we examined the 2-year course of cognitive performance in 120 patients (73 patients with CKD stages 3-5D, 47 control patients without CKD with similar vascular risk profile) using a comprehensive battery of 10 neuropsychological tests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825722/current-status-of-hiv-aids-in-the-art-era
#9
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Yoshimura
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health...
January 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798431/hemeoxygenase-1-as-a-novel-driver-in-ritonavir-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#10
Ninon Taylor, Iris Kremser, Simon Auer, Gregor Hoermann, Richard Greil, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Harald Esterbauer, Lukas Kenner, Hannes Oberkofler
BACKGROUND: Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) has recently been identified as a major driver of metaflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance (IR). Drug-induced IR increases cardiovascular risk within the HIV-1-infected population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore investigated a possible role of HO-1 in ART-induced IR. METHODS: Effects of HIV-1 protease inhibitor ritonavir and integrase inhibitor raltegravir on expression levels of HO-1 and proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were studied in monocyte and hepatocyte cell lines...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749649/safety-and-efficacy-of-atorvastatin-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-hyperlipidemia
#11
Ann J Melvin, Grace Montepiedra, Lisa Aaron, William A Meyer, Hans M Spiegel, William Borkowsky, Mark J Abzug, Brookie M Best, Marilyn J Crain, Peggy R Borum, Bobbie Graham, Patricia Anthony, Katherine Shin, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have increased prevalence of hyperlipidemia and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. No studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of statins in this population. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 10 to <24 years of age on stable ART with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL for ≥6 months initiated atorvastatin 10 mg once daily...
January 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749112/trends-in-nonlipid-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-management-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study-and-association-with-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
David B Hanna, Molly Jung, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer M Cocohoba, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Nancy A Hessol, Alexandra M Levine, Tracey E Wilson, Mary A Young, Robert C Kaplan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly common among women with HIV, but literature on nonlipid CVD risk factor management is lacking. We examined semiannual trends from 2006 to 2014 in hypertension treatment and control (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg), diabetes treatment and control (fasting glucose <130 mg/dL), and smoking quit rates in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models tested time trends and differences between HIV+ and HIV- women. Among antiretroviral therapy (ART) users, we examined the association of ART adherence and virologic suppression with each outcome...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749108/changes-in-body-fat-distribution-on-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-black-south-africans-starting-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Zulfa Abrahams, Naomi Levitt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, Joel Dave
Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740536/treatment-of-hiv-infection-with-a-raltegravir-based-regimen-increases-ldl-levels-but-improves-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity
#14
Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naïve participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir (RAL), emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730474/cardiovascular-complications-of-hiv-in-endemic-countries
#15
Matthew J Feinstein, Milana Bogorodskaya, Gerald S Bloomfield, Rajesh Vedanthan, Mark J Siedner, Gene F Kwan, Christopher T Longenecker
Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to evolve from a generally fatal condition to a manageable chronic disease. This transition began two decades ago in high-income countries and has more recently begun in lower income, HIV endemic countries (HIV-ECs). With this transition, there has been a concurrent shift in clinical and public health burden from AIDS-related complications and opportunistic infections to those associated with well-controlled HIV disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721508/new-strategies-for-a-comprehensive-fight-against-hiv-infection-using-monoclonal-antibody-therapy
#16
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed a long-term control of viral replication and HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic disease. However, ART is not able to eradicate the virus, and high levels of inflammation and immune-activation are observed despite prolonged ART. Consequently, a number of comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, are gaining relevance in patients living with HIV. Moreover, the toxicities associated with continued exposure to ART cause several metabolic disturbances with clinical relevance, and the cost of treatment is a heavy burden for the national health systems...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703039/inflammatory-function-of-cx3cr1-cd8-t-cells-in-treated-hiv-infection-is-modulated-by-platelet-interactions
#17
Joseph C Mudd, Soumya Panigrahi, Benjamin Kyi, So Hee Moon, Maura M Manion, Souheil-Antoine Younes, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg, David A Zidar, Michael M Lederman, Michael L Freeman
Increases in inflammation, coagulation, and CD8(+) T-cell numbers are associated with an elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients. Circulating memory CD8(+) T cells that express the vascular endothelium-homing receptor CX3CR1 (fractalkine receptor) are enriched in HIV-infected ART recipients. Thrombin-activated receptor (PAR-1) expression is increased in HIV-infected ART recipients and is particularly elevated on CX3CR1(+) CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that these cells could interact with coagulation elements...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701421/cardio-thoracic-ratio-is-stable-reproducible-and-has-potential-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-1-related-cardiac-disorders-in-resource-poor-settings
#18
Hanif Esmail, Tolu Oni, Friedrich Thienemann, Nashreen Omar-Davies, Robert J Wilkinson, Mpiko Ntsekhe
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disorders are common in HIV-1 infected persons in Africa and presentation is often insidious. Development of screening algorithms for cardiovascular disorders appropriate to a resource-constrained setting could facilitate timely referral. Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) on chest radiograph (CXR) has been suggested as a potential screening tool but little is known about its reproducibility and stability. Our primary aim was to evaluate the stability and the inter-observer variability of CTR in HIV-1 infected outpatients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662547/initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-based-on-the-2015-who-guidelines-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-in-nigeria-south-africa-uganda-and-india
#19
Andreas Kuznik, Garba Iliyasu, Abdulrazaq G Habib, Baba M Musa, Andrew Kambugu, Mohammed Lamorde
OBJECTIVE: In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in all HIV-positive patients regardless of CD4 cell count. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among patients with CD4 counts exceeding 500 cells/mm in four resource-limited countries (South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, and India). DESIGN: A 5-year Markov model with annual cycles including patients at CD4>500 cells/mm initiating ART or deferring therapy until historic ART initiation criteria of CD < 350 cells/mm were met...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661466/changes-in-plasma-levels-of-oxidized-lipoproteins-and-lipoprotein-subfractions-with-atazanavir-raltegravir-darunavir-based-initial-antiviral-therapy-and-associations-with-common-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-actg-5260s
#20
Theodoros Kelesidis, Thuy Tien T Tran, Todd T Brown, Carlee Moser, Heather J Ribaudo, Michael P Dube, Otto O Yang, Grace A McComsey, James H Stein, Judith S Currier
BACKGROUND: The role of oxidized lipoproteins (high-density [HDLox] and low-density [LDLox]) and total lipoprotein particle (Lp) number and size in HIV-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes of these biomarkers and their associations with rate of carotid intima media thickness progression over 3 years (ΔCIMT) in chronic HIV infection. METHODS: Prospective study of 234 HIV-infected antiretroviral treatment naïve participants without CVD who were randomized to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ ritonavir, or raltegravir (RAL) and achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter...
September 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
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