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Cancer initiating cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458107/wnt-receptor-signalling-in-lung-physiology-and-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Wioletta Skronska-Wasek, Reinoud Gosens, Melanie Königshoff, Hoeke Abele Baarsma
The WNT signalling cascades have emerged as critical regulators of a wide variety of biological aspects involved in lung development as well as in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the adult lung. WNTs (secreted glycoproteins) interact with various transmembrane receptors and co-receptors to activate signalling pathways that regulate transcriptional as well as non-transcriptional responses within cells. In physiological conditions, the majority of WNT receptors and co-receptors can be detected in the adult lung...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457552/reciprocal-regulation-of-yap-taz-by-the-hippo-pathway-and-the-small-gtpase-pathway
#2
Ju-Won Jang, Min-Kyu Kim, Suk-Chul Bae
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) (YAP/TAZ) are transcriptional coactivators that regulate genes involved in proliferation and transformation by interacting with DNA-binding transcription factors. Remarkably, YAP/TAZ are essential for cancer initiation or growth of most solid tumors. Their activation induces cancer stem cell attributes, proliferation, and metastasis. The oncogenic activity of YAP/TAZ is inhibited by the Hippo cascade, an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is governed by two kinases, mammalian Ste20-like kinases 1/2 (MST1/2) and Large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (LATS1/2), corresponding to Drosophila's Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), respectively...
February 18, 2018: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457129/in-vitro-modeling-of-mechanics-in-cancer-metastasis
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Malandrino, Roger D Kamm, Emad Moeendarbary
In addition to a multitude of genetic and biochemical alterations, abnormal morphological, structural, and mechanical changes in cells and their extracellular environment are key features of tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, it is now evident that mechanical cues alongside biochemical signals contribute to critical steps of cancer initiation, progression, and spread. Despite its importance, it is very challenging to study mechanics of different steps of metastasis in the clinic or even in animal models...
February 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456743/il-10-in-the-microenvironment-of-hnscc-inhibits-the-cpg-odn-induced-ifn-%C3%AE-secretion-of-pdcs
#4
Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage, Sabrina Heinrichs, Barbara Wollenberg, Ralph Pries
It has been shown that head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are infiltrated by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). The HNSCC TH2 biased microenvironment leads to strong alterations of the cellular functions of pDC and thus impairs the initiation and function of adequate immune responses. In this work we comprehensively analyzed the capacity of CpG-oligonucleotides to activate interferon (IFN)-α secretion of human pDC in the presence of HNSCC. IFN-α secretion was measured using the ELISA Technique...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456682/l1cam-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-formation-of-cancer-initiating-cells-in-human-endometrial-cancer
#5
Jinlong Chen, Fufeng Gao, Naifu Liu
Identification of novel factors critical for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer initiating cell (CIC) formation may aid in the identification of novel therapeutics for the treatment of endometrial cancer. The present study demonstrated that L1 cell adhesion molecule (CAM) is critical for EMT and formation of CICs in endometrial cancer. Overexpression of L1CAM may promote EMT with increased formation of CICs in HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. CICs and mesenchymal status resist chemotherapeutic drugs and may regenerate the various cell types in tumors, thereby resulting in relapse of the disease...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456661/anticancer-activity-of-23-24-dihydrocucurbitacin-b-against-the-hela-human-cervical-cell-line-is-due-to-apoptosis-and-g-2-m-cell-cycle-arrest
#6
Jun-Xiao Zhang, Hong Wei-Tan, Chun-Yan Hu, Wei-Qiang Wang, Guang-Hua Chu, Li-Hui Wei, Liu Chen
Cervical cancer is one of the primary causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Due to the increasing incidence of cervical cancer, multiple treatment options are required. Initial responses to chemotherapy and surgical interventions are generally positive, however patients often experience relapse and tumor recurrence. Currently, the effects of cucurbitacins on different types of cancer are being investigated, as they exhibit a wide variety of bioactivities. The anticancer activity of the cucurbitacin 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin B against a panel of human cervical cancer cell lines was investigated in the current study...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456511/p2y-12-receptors-in-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#7
REVIEW
Patrizia Ballerini, Melania Dovizio, Annalisa Bruno, Stefania Tacconelli, Paola Patrignani
Platelets, beyond their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, may sustain tumorigenesis and metastasis. These effects may occur via direct interaction of platelets with cancer and stromal cells and by the release of several platelet products. Platelets and tumor cells release several bioactive molecules among which a great amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP is also formed extracellularly from ATP breakdown by the ecto-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases. Under ATP and ADP stimulation the purinergic P2Y1 receptor (R) initiates platelet activation followed by the ADP-P2Y12 R-mediated amplification...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456012/injectable-and-body-temperature-sensitive-hydrogels-based-on-chitosan-and-hyaluronic-acid-for-ph-sensitive-drug-release
#8
Wei Zhang, Xin Jin, Heng Li, Run-Run Zhang, Cheng-Wei Wu
Hydrogels based on chitosan/hyaluronic acid/β-sodium glycerophosphate demonstrate injectability, body temperature sensitivity, pH sensitive drug release and adhesion to cancer cell. The drug (doxorubicin) loaded hydrogel precursor solutions are injectable and turn to hydrogels when the temperature is increased to body temperature. The acidic condition (pH 4.00) can trigger the release of drug and the cancer cell (Hela) can adhere to the surface of the hydrogels, which will be beneficial for tumor site-specific administration of drug...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455885/vincristine-resistance-in-relapsed-neuroblastoma-can-be-efficiently-overcome-by-smac-mimetic-lcl161-treatment
#9
Kristin Frommann, Birgit Appl, Patrick Hundsdoerfer, Konrad Reinshagen, Georg Eschenburg
PURPOSE: In spite of good initial therapy response neuroblastomas often spread to distant organs or relapse after periods of remission. Dysregulation of apoptosis, a hallmark of cancer, is often effected by elevated levels of antiapoptotic signals leading to resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are crucial cellular apoptosis regulators. Targeting IAPs with Smac mimetics has been demonstrated as a promising strategy for treatment of neuroblastoma and other tumors...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455848/caveolin-1-the-unnoticed-player-in-tcr-and-bcr-signaling
#10
Gina J Fiala, Susana Minguet
T and B lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system. They recognize pathogenic cues via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) to get activated and execute their protective function. TCR and BCR signaling are initiated at the plasma membrane and subsequently propagated into the cell, ultimately leading to cell activation and a protective immune response. However, inappropriate activation of T and B cells can be detrimental to the host resulting in autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and cancer...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455668/function-of-the-c-met-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-in-carcinogenesis-and-associated-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Yazhuo Zhang, Mengfang Xia, Ke Jin, Shufei Wang, Hang Wei, Chunmei Fan, Yingfen Wu, Xiaoling Li, Xiayu Li, Guiyuan Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Wei Xiong
c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the MET (MNNG HOS transforming gene) family, and is expressed on the surfaces of various cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is the ligand for this receptor. The binding of HGF to c-Met initiates a series of intracellular signals that mediate embryogenesis and wound healing in normal cells. However, in cancer cells, aberrant HGF/c-Met axis activation, which is closely related to c-Met gene mutations, overexpression, and amplification, promotes tumor development and progression by stimulating the PI3K/AKT, Ras/MAPK, JAK/STAT, SRC, Wnt/β-catenin, and other signaling pathways...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455660/the-relevance-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-global-metabolic-pathways-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Michaela Poliaková, Daniel M Aebersold, Yitzhak Zimmer, Michaela Medová
Tumor metabolism is a thrilling discipline that focuses on mechanisms used by cancer cells to earn crucial building blocks and energy to preserve growth and overcome resistance to various treatment modalities. At the same time, therapies directed specifically against aberrant signalling pathways driven by protein tyrosine kinases (TKs) involved in proliferation, metastasis and growth count for several years to promising anti-cancer approaches. In this respect, small molecule inhibitors are the most widely used clinically relevant means for targeted therapy, with a rising number of approvals for TKs inhibitors...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455658/receptor-tyrosine-kinases-rtks-in-breast-cancer-signaling-therapeutic-implications-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Ramesh Butti, Sumit Das, Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran, Amit Singh Yadav, Dhiraj Kumar, Gopal C Kundu
Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and driven by aberrant regulation of cell signaling pathways due to the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic changes. An array of growth factors and their receptors is involved in cancer development and metastasis. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) constitute a class of receptors that play important role in cancer progression. RTKs are cell surface receptors with specialized structural and biological features which respond to environmental cues by initiating appropriate signaling cascades in tumor cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455654/third-generation-egfr-tkis-current-data-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Chee-Seng Tan, Nesaretnam Barr Kumarakulasinghe, Yi-Qing Huang, Yvonne Li En Ang, Joan Rou-En Choo, Boon-Cher Goh, Ross A Soo
Acquired T790 M mutation is the commonest cause of resistance for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant patients who had progressed after first line EGFR TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor). Several third generation EGFR TKIs which are EGFR mutant selective and wild-type (WT) sparing were developed to treat these patients with T790 M acquired resistant mutation. Osimertinib is one of the third generation EGFR TKIs and is currently the most advanced in clinical development...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455645/pyruvate-kinase-m2-fuels-multiple-aspects-of-cancer-cells-from-cellular-metabolism-transcriptional-regulation-to-extracellular-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Ming-Chuan Hsu, Wen-Chun Hung
Originally identified as a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP in the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase M2-type (PKM2) has been shown to exhibit novel biological activities in the nucleus and outside the cells. Although cell-based studies reveal new non-canonical functions of PKM2 in gene transcription, epigenetic modulation and cell cycle progression, the importance of these non-canonical functions in PKM2-mediated tumorigenesis is still under debate because studies in genetically modified mice do not consistently echo the findings observed in cultured cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455639/role-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-b-cells-and-malignancies
#16
REVIEW
Simar Pal Singh, Floris Dammeijer, Rudi W Hendriks
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays a crucial role in oncogenic signaling that is critical for proliferation and survival of leukemic cells in many B cell malignancies. BTK was initially shown to be defective in the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and is essential both for B cell development and function of mature B cells. Shortly after its discovery, BTK was placed in the signal transduction pathway downstream of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). More recently, small-molecule inhibitors of this kinase have shown excellent anti-tumor activity, first in animal models and subsequently in clinical studies...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455637/molecular-dynamics-of-interaction-of-sesamin-and-related-compounds-with-the-cancer-marker-%C3%AE-catenin-an-in-silico-study
#17
Bindu Madhuri Cavuturu, Vishwambar Vishnu Bhandare, Amutha Ramaswamy, Neelakantan Arumugam
By virtue of their regulatory role in the biological process, certain protein-protein complexes form potential targets for designing and discovery of drugs. Alteration set in the controlled formation of such complexes results in dysregulation of several metabolic processes, leading to diseased condition. β-catenin/Tcf4 complex is one such protein-protein complex found altered in colorectal epithelial cells resulting in activation of target genes leading to cancer. Recently certain lignans from seeds of the oil crop sesame were found inhibiting initiation and progression of this type of cancer...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455351/lead-facilitates-foci-formation-in-a-balb-c-3t3-two-step-cell-transformation-model-role-of-ape1-function
#18
Pablo Hernández-Franco, Martín Silva, Rodrigo Franco, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas
Several possible mechanisms have been examined to gain an understanding on the carcinogenic properties of lead, which include among others, mitogenesis, alteration of gene expression, oxidative damage, and inhibition of DNA repair. The aim of the present study was to explore if low concentrations of lead, relevant for human exposure, interfere with Ape1 function, a base excision repair enzyme, and its role in cell transformation in Balb/c-3T3. Lead acetate 5 and 30 μM induced APE1 mRNA and upregulation of protein expression...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454702/c-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-2-induces-proliferation-and-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#19
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small chemokine which belongs to the CC-type chemokine family, and has chemoattractant activity for recruitment of monocytes to sites of inflammation. Overexpressed CCL2 binding to its receptor C-C chemokine receptor 2 increases the risk of breast cancer in humans, but its effects on proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells is not known. Maintaining a high level of proliferative activity in bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation is important for improving milk yield and can benefit the dairy industry economically...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454575/targeting-complement-mediated-immunoregulation-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Martin Kolev, Maciej M Markiewski
Complement was initially discovered as an assembly of plasma proteins "complementing" the cytolytic activity of antibodies. However, our current knowledge places this complex system of several plasma proteins, receptors, and regulators in the center of innate immunity as a bridge between the initial innate responses and adaptive immune reactions. Consequently, complement appears to be pivotal for elimination of pathogens, not only as an early response defense, but by directing the subsequent adaptive immune response...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
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