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Aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761517/pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-gentamicin-in-healthy-young-adult-compared-to-aged-alpacas
#1
A Gestrich, D Bedenice, M Ceresia, I Zaghloul
The study objective was to evaluate the effects of age on aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics in eight young-adult (<4 years) and eight aged (≥14 years) healthy alpacas, receiving a single 6.6 mg/kg intravenous gentamicin injection. Heparinized plasma samples were obtained at designated time points following drug administration and frozen at -80°C until assayed by a validated immunoassay (QMS® ). Compartmental and noncompartmental analyses of gentamicin plasma concentrations versus time were performed using WinNonlin (v6...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730830/the-epidemiology-evolution-and-treatment-of-kpc-producing-organisms
#2
REVIEW
Ann Marie Porreca, Kaede V Sullivan, Jason C Gallagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to investigate the evolution and epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms and the current and future treatment options for infections caused by KPC-producing isolates. RECENT FINDINGS: The emergence of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemases globally has increased the challenges in treating infections caused by these organisms. One of the prominent mechanisms of resistance is the production of KPC enzymes...
May 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720919/extended-interval-tobramycin-pharmacokinetics-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-presenting-with-an-acute-respiratory-exacerbation
#3
Kristi L Higgins, Cady Noda, Jeremy S Stultz
The pharmacokinetics of tobramycin in patients with ciliary dyskinesia have not been previously reported. A 10-year-old female patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia was admitted to the general pediatrics floor with an acute respiratory exacerbation after several months of worsening lung function that was unresponsive to oral antibiotics. Extrapolating from cystic fibrosis dosing regimens, she was given intravenous tobramycin 320 mg (10.3 mg/kg/day) on admission as a result of concern for a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623443/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations-of-antibiotics-of-last-resort-in-treating-gram-negative-infections-in-adult-critically-ill-patients
#4
REVIEW
Mojdeh S Heavner, Kimberly C Claeys, Anne M Masich, Jeffrey P Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of antimicrobials that are considered last resort for the treatment of resistant gram-negative infections in adult critically ill patients. The role in therapy, pharmacodynamic (PD) goals, and pharmacokinetic (PK) changes in critical illness for aminoglycosides, polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and fluoroquinolones are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered PK in septic patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is observed with many of our agents of last resort...
April 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615159/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-neonates-challenges-and-opportunities
#5
Christopher McPherson, Caren Liviskie, Brandy Zeller, Miranda P Nelson, Jason G Newland
Neonatal infections result in significant morbidity and mortality. Antibiotics are vital for the treatment of infections but disrupt the neonatal microbiome, put the infant at risk for an adverse drug reaction, and may lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. Immediately after birth, clinicians must determine which infants require empiric antibiotics. Online risk stratification tools may provide a superior approach to decision trees. In infants who require empiric therapy for early-onset sepsis, ampicillin and an aminoglycoside with dosing based on recent pharmacokinetic studies represents the most appropriate first-line agents; third-generation cephalosporins should be reserved for patients with a high likelihood of Gram-negative meningitis...
March 1, 2018: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569104/individualising-therapy-to-minimize-bacterial-multidrug-resistance
#6
REVIEW
A J Heffernan, F B Sime, J Lipman, J A Roberts
The scourge of antibiotic resistance threatens modern healthcare delivery. A contributing factor to this significant issue may be antibiotic dosing, whereby standard antibiotic regimens are unable to suppress the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This article aims to review the role of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) measures for optimising antibiotic therapy to minimise resistance emergence. It also seeks to describe the utility of combination antibiotic therapy for suppression of resistance and summarise the role of biomarkers in individualising antibiotic therapy...
March 22, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476349/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-beta-lactams-and-other-antibiotics-in-the-intensive-care-unit-which-agents-which-patients-and-which-infections
#7
REVIEW
Anouk E Muller, Benedikt Huttner, Angela Huttner
Antibiotics are among the medications most frequently administered to the critically ill, a population with high levels of intra- and inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. Our knowledge of the relationships among antibiotic dosing, exposure and clinical effect in this population has increased in recent decades. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of serum antibiotic concentrations is the most practical means of assessing adequate antibiotic exposure, though until recently, it has been underutilised for this end...
March 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471721/evaluation-of-epithelial-lining-fluid-concentration-of-amikacin-in-critically-ill-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#8
Farhad Najmeddin, Bita Shahrami, Sayna Azadbakht, Mehrnoush Dianatkhah, Mohammad Reza Rouini, Atabak Najafi, Arezoo Ahmadi, Hamidreza Sharifnia, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Classically, aminoglycosides are known to have low penetration into the lung tissue. So far, no study has been conducted on human adult patients to evaluate amikacin concentration in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the alveoli. Therefore, convincing data are not available from the perspective of pharmacokinetics to support the fact that a dosage of 20 mg/kg of amikacin is sufficient to treat patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHOD: This was a pilot study of amikacin concentration measurement in the alveolar site of action in critically ill adult patients with VAP who required aminoglycoside therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433693/pharmacocin%C3%A3-tique-et-pharmacodynamie-des-antibiotiques-est-ce-diff%C3%A3-rent-en-n%C3%A3-onatologie
#9
R Cohen, M Tauzin, S Béchet, L Caeymaex
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) data on antimicrobial agents enable physicians to optimize their use in clinical practice. Neonates exhibit a large inter-individual variability in antibiotic levels due to immaturity and maturational changes in the first weeks of life. This variability explains the large therapeutic margins needed to ensure an optimal efficacy of antibiotics. These pharmacokinetic characteristics have to be taken into account when treating neonatal sepsis, along with pharmacodynamics targets for each antibiotic and notably minimal inhibitory concentration for usual causes of neonatal bacterial infections (group B streptococcus and Escherichia coli)...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416121/in-vitro-activity-of-minocycline-combined-with-aminoglycosides-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-producing-k-pneumoniae
#10
Ni Wentao, Li Guobao, Zhao Jin, Cui Junchang, Wang Rui, Gao Zhancheng, Liu Youning
This study assessed the in vitro antibacterial activity of minocycline-aminoglycoside combination against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae. Seventy non-duplicate clinical isolates of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae were collected from patients with bloodstream infections. The synergistic activity of minocycline-aminoglycoside combination was studied by the checkerboard method and time-kill assays in strains with different susceptibilities, and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and mutant selection window (MSW) of drugs alone and in combination were determined...
May 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311078/-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-to-amikacin-kanamycin-and-capreomycin
#11
J A Dijkstra, T van der Laan, O W Akkerman, M S Bolhuis, W C M de Lange, J G W Kosterink, T S van der Werf, J W C Alffenaar, D van Soolingen
Amikacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin are among the most important second-line drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Although amikacin and kanamycin are administered at the same dose and show the same pharmacokinetics, they have different WHO breakpoints, suggesting that the two drugs have different MICs. The aim of this study was to investigate possible differences in MICs between the aminoglycosides and capreomycin. Using the direct concentration method, a range of concentrations of amikacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin (0...
March 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309652/proline-rich-antimicrobial-peptides-show-a-long-lasting-post-antibiotic-effect-on-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Luzia Holfeld, Daniel Knappe, Ralf Hoffmann
Background: Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) represent a promising class of potential therapeutics to treat multiresistant infections. They inhibit bacterial protein translation at the 70S ribosome by either blocking the peptide-exit tunnel (oncocin type) or trapping release factors (apidaecin type). Objectives: Besides direct concentration-dependent antibacterial effects, the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) is the second most important criterion of antimicrobial pharmacodynamics to be determined in vitro...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290237/antibiotic-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-parameters-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#13
R Cohen, E Grimprel
Progress in the knowledge of antibiotic mechanisms of action allows to determine the pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameters predictive of antibiotic efficacy in bacterial infections. According to the antibiotic compound, the bacterial species implicated, the location of the infection, and the severity of the disease, these parameters may vary. The PK/PD parameters described in this paper, focus only on blood compartments. These PK/PD parameters best predict efficacy in the most frequent infections (e...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273613/implementation-of-a-prioritized-scoring-tool-to-improve-time-to-pharmacist-intervention
#14
Andre Harvin, John J J Mellett, Daren Knoell, Jay Mirtallo, Ryan W Naseman, Nicole Brown, Crystal R Tubbs
PURPOSE: The implementation of a prioritized scoring tool to improve time to pharmacist intervention is described. SUMMARY: At the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, pharmacists are accepted providers of therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin and aminoglycosides. At the onset of this initiative and despite the implementation of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR), management of pharmacokinetically monitored medications was conducted using a paper monitoring form...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180163/a-needs-assessment-of-pharmacokinetic-skills-performed-on-advanced-pharmacy-practice-experiences-by-student-pharmacists
#15
Emily K Dornblaser
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacokinetic (PK) calculations are an important competency for pharmacy students, however, there is little to guide which medications should be included in pharmacy curricula. Additionally, many new medications require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-but not PK calculations-to ensure safe use. The objectives of this study were to quantify which medications are most frequently encountered by pharmacy students during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE's) and to what extent PK calculations or TDM were completed by students while on APPE's at the University of New England...
January 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119059/the-bacteriological-profile-of-the-burned-patients-in-the-center-of-burns-in-chu-mohamed-vi-marrakech-about-123-cases
#16
Yassine Benchamkha, Ouafaa Dhaidah, Adil Dahazze, Quaboul Meriem, Moulay Driss Elamrani, Salwa Ettalbi
The bacterial nosocomial infection is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for burned patient; we conducted a retrospective study of 123 patients hospitalized in the burns center CHUMED VI of Marrakechover a period of 3 years, from January 1st , 2013 to December 31st , 2016. The criteria for nosocomial infection were those of the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta in 1988. Incidence rates were calculated. The bacterial ecology of the department was described as also antibiotype. The predominancy of the population was male...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063877/optimisation-of-antimicrobial-dosing-based-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-principles
#17
REVIEW
Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
While suboptimal dosing of antimicrobials has been attributed to poorer clinical outcomes, clinical cure and mortality advantages have been demonstrated when target pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for various classes of antimicrobials were achieved to maximise antibiotic activity. Dosing optimisation requires a good knowledge of PK/PD principles. This review serves to provide a foundation in PK/PD principles for the commonly prescribed antibiotics (β-lactams, vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides), as well as dosing considerations in special populations (critically ill and obese patients)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993332/amikacin-pharmacokinetics-to-optimize-dosing-in-neonates-with-perinatal-asphyxia-treated-with-hypothermia
#18
Sinziana Cristea, Anne Smits, Aida Kulo, Catherijne A J Knibbe, Mirjam van Weissenbruch, Elke H J Krekels, Karel Allegaert
Aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics (PK) is expected to change in neonates with perinatal asphyxia treated with therapeutic hypothermia (PATH). Several amikacin dosing guidelines have been proposed for treating neonates with (suspected) septicemia; however, none provide adjustments for cases of PATH. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the differences in amikacin PK between neonates with and without PATH to propose suitable dosing recommendations. Based on amikacin therapeutic drug monitoring data collected retrospectively from neonates with PATH, combined with a published data set, we assessed the impact of PATH on amikacin PK by using population modeling...
December 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992413/phenotypic-optimization-of-urea-thiophene-carboxamides-to-yield-potent-well-tolerated-and-orally-active-protective-agents-against-aminoglycoside-induced-hearing-loss
#19
Sarwat Chowdhury, Kelly N Owens, R Jason Herr, Qin Jiang, Xinchao Chen, Graham Johnson, Vincent E Groppi, David W Raible, Edwin W Rubel, Julian A Simon
Hearing loss is a major public health concern with no pharmaceutical intervention for hearing protection or restoration. Using zebrafish neuromast hair cells, a robust model for mammalian auditory and vestibular hair cells, we identified a urea-thiophene carboxamide, 1 (ORC-001), as protective against aminoglycoside antibiotic (AGA)-induced hair cell death. The 50% protection (HC50 ) concentration conferred by 1 is 3.2 μM with protection against 200 μM neomycin approaching 100%. Compound 1 was sufficiently safe and drug-like to validate otoprotection in an in vivo rat hearing loss model...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881316/development-and-validation-of-a-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-method-without-derivatization-ion-pairing-agents-for-etimicin-quantification-in-rat-plasma-internal-ear-and-kidney
#20
Lan Yao, Fang Zhou, Mingmin Cai, Ying Peng, Jianguo Sun, Qianying Chen, Xiaoliang Jin, Guangji Wang, Jingwei Zhang
Etimicin (ETM), which belongs to the newest generation of aminoglycosides (AGs), has been proven to not only maintain but also strengthen the advantages of former AGs with relatively less toxicity. Now, it is widely applied for the treatment of bacterial infections in the clinic. Nevertheless, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are unavoidable issues for AGs, and while ETM is no exception, the seriousness of these issues is different. To explore the reason why ETM exhibits less toxicity and to better direct the optimization and development of new AGs, it is of great necessity and importance to monitor the pharmacokinetic behaviors of ETM in its potential toxicity target organs, the kidney and internal ear, as well as in plasma...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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