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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#1
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928676/effects-of-immune-activation-during-early-or-late-gestation-on-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-measures-in-adult-rat-offspring
#2
Tasnim Rahman, Katerina Zavitsanou, Tertia Purves-Tyson, Lauren R Harms, Crystal Meehan, Ulrich Schall, Juanita Todd, Deborah M Hodgson, Patricia T Michie, Cyndi Shannon Weickert
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic receptor [N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)] alterations within cortex, hippocampus, and striatum are linked to schizophrenia pathology. Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in offspring. In rodents, gestational timing of MIA may result in distinct behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how timing of MIA may impact the nature and extent of NMDAR-related changes in brain is not known. We hypothesize that NMDAR-related molecular changes in rat cortex, striatum, and hippocampus are induced by MIA and are dependent on the timing of gestational inflammation and sex of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928638/affective-circuitry-alterations-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#3
Dave J Hayes, David Q Chen, Jidan Zhong, Ariel Lin, Brendan Behan, Matthew Walker, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder. Affect-related behavioral and structural brain changes have been noted across chronic pain disorders, but have not been well-studied in TN. We examined the potential impact of TN (37 patients: 23 with right-sided TN, 14 with left-sided TN), compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, on three major white matter tracts responsible for carrying affect-related signals-i.e., cingulum, fornix, and medial forebrain bundle. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), deterministic multi-tensor tractography for tract modeling, and a model-driven region-of-interest approach was used...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923348/stimulation-of-accumbal-gabaa-receptors-inhibits-delta2-but-not-delta1-opioid-receptor-mediated-dopamine-efflux-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-freely-moving-rats
#4
Yuri Aono, Yuri Kiguchi, Yuriko Watanabe, John L Waddington, Tadashi Saigusa
The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABAA receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#5
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919158/a-role-for-nucleus-accumbens-glutamate-in-the-expression-but-not-the-induction-of-behavioural-sensitization-to-ethanol
#6
Christina N Nona, José N Nobrega
Mechanisms underlying differential sensitivity to behavioural sensitization to ethanol (EtOH) remain poorly understood, although accumulating evidence suggests a role for glutamatergic processes in the ventral striatum. Efforts to address this issue can benefit from the well-documented fact that in any given cohort, some of the mice (High sensitized; HS) show robust sensitization, while others (Low sensitized; LS) show little, if any, sensitization. Here, we examined whether this variability might be differentially associated with nucleus accumbens (NAc) glutamate processes...
September 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919080/regulation-of-glutamate-transporter-1-glt-1-gene-expression-by-cocaine-self-administration-and-withdrawal
#7
Ronald Kim, Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Kati L Healey, Emily A Williams, Kathryn J Reissner
Downregulation of the astroglial glutamate transporter GLT-1 is observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following administration of multiple drugs of abuse. The decrease in GLT-1 protein expression following cocaine self-administration is dependent on both the amount of cocaine self-administered and the length of withdrawal, with longer access to cocaine and longer withdrawal periods leading to greater decreases in GLT-1 protein. However, the mechanism(s) by which cocaine downregulates GLT-1 protein remains unknown...
September 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918268/a-structural-mri-study-of-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-and-its-relationship-to-clinical-severity
#8
Michael D Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) shares symptomology with other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Few studies, however, have examined the neurological profile of patients with SPD. This study examined differences in cortical thickness and basal ganglia structural volumes between 20 individuals with SPD and 16 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no significant differences in demographic variables (age, gender, education and race) between groups. All subjects completed a structural MRI scan and completed a battery of clinical assessments focusing on SPD symptom severity, depression and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#9
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918226/chronic-central-oxytocin-infusion-impairs-sociability-in-mandarin-voles
#10
Peirong Du, Zhixiong He, Zhenlu Cai, Xin Hao, Na Dong, Wei Yuan, Wenjuan Hou, Jinfeng Yang, Rui Jia, Faodao Tai
Oxytocin (OT) has been reported to increase social contact, however some studies have related OT to reduced social contact, particularly with unfamiliar individuals. The underlying mechanisms of OT on social contact remain unclear. In this study, male mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent, was used as an animal model in which osmotic minipumps were used to intracerebroventricularly administer two continuous dosages of OT or saline for 12 consecutive days. We examined the effect of long-term OT treatment on social behavior, anxiety levels, and levels of oxytocin, vasopressin (AVP) and dopamine (DA) receptors, mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and medial amygdala (MeA)...
September 13, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916502/sociability-trait-and-regional-cerebral-oxidative-metabolism-in-rats-predominantly-nonlinear-relations
#12
Margus Kanarik, Jaanus Harro
Deficits in social behaviour are common in psychopathological conditions e.g., depression, autism and schizophrenia. In rats, sociability, defined as the engagement of an animal in non-aggressive social contact with a conspecific in a neutral arena, is as a persistent trait. To elucidate the neuroanatomy of social behaviour in animal models, long term neuronal energy metabolism was studied in rats preselected for sociability levels. Rats were divided into groups with high, medium and low sociability levels (HS, MS and LS) according to the average score of three social interaction tests, and cerebral long-term energy metabolism was assayed with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912680/fyn-signaling-is-compartmentalized-to-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-dorsal-medial-striatum
#13
Khanhky Phamluong, Emmanuel Darcq, Su Wu, Samuel A Sakhai, Dorit Ron
The tyrosine kinase Fyn plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Here we report that Fyn is activated in response to 15 min D1 receptor (D1R) but not D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation specifically in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice but not in the other substriatal regions, the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Once activated Fyn phosphorylates its substrate GluN2B, and we show that GluN2B is phosphorylated only in the DMS but not in the other striatal regions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912087/endocannabinoid-mechanism-in-amphetamine-type-stimulant-use-disorders-a-short-review
#14
REVIEW
Hang Su, Min Zhao
Recent evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system is involved in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use disorders. To elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid system in ATS addiction, we reviewed results of studies using cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists as well as knockout model. The endocannabinoid system seems to play a role in reinstatement and relapse of ATS addiction and ATS-induced psychiatric symptoms. The molecular mechanisms of this system remains unclear, the association with dopamine system in nucleus accumbens is most likely involved...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905269/differences-in-neural-response-to-romantic-stimuli-in-monogamous-and-non-monogamous-men
#15
Lisa Dawn Hamilton, Cindy M Meston
In non-human animal research, studies comparing socially monogamous and promiscuous species of voles (Microtus) have identified some key neural differences related to monogamy and non-monogamy. Specifically, densities of the vasopressin V1a receptor and dopamine D2 receptors in subcortical reward-related and limbic areas of the brain have been linked to monogamous behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Similar brain areas have been shown to be correlated with feelings of romantic love in monogamously pair-bonded humans...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904288/alpha-pvp-induces-the-rewarding-effect-via-activating-dopaminergic-neuron
#16
Kyoko Hataoka, Asuka Kaizaki-Mitsumoto, Satoshi Numazawa
A synthetic cathinone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone (α-PVP), was occasionally found in the "bath salt" type of designer drugs, as an active ingredient. It has been reported that drivers who consumed α-PVP were in an excited state and incapable of controlling their behavior, causing traffic accidents. Despite its acute excitatory effects, there is no information on the psychological dependency elicited by α-PVP use. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether the reward pathway is activated with repeated doses of α-PVP in experimental animals...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901327/selective-lesioning-of-nuclear-factor-kb-activated-cells-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-attenuates-alcohol-place-preference
#17
S E Nennig, H D Fulenwider, S H Chimberoff, B M Smith, J E Eskew, M K Sequeira, C Karlsson, C Liang, J Chen, M Heilig, J R Schank
Nuclear factor κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a transcription factor commonly associated with innate immunity, and is activated by infection and inflammation. NFkB has recently gained attention as a mediator of complex psychiatric phenomena like stress and addiction. In regards to alcohol, most research on NFkB has focused on neurotoxicity, and few studies have explored the role of NFkB in alcohol reward, reinforcement, or consumption. In these studies, we used conditioned place preference to assess the activity of NFkB in response to rewarding doses of alcohol...
September 13, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899794/female-rats-exhibit-less-avoidance-than-male-rats-of-a-cocaine-but-not-a-morphine-paired-saccharin-cue
#18
Christopher B Jenney, Jinju Dasalla, Patricia S Grigson
Rats avoid intake of an otherwise palatable taste cue when paired with drugs of abuse (Grigson and Twining, 2002). In male rats, avoidance of drug-paired taste cues is associated with conditioned blunting of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (Grigson and Hajnal, 2007), conditioned elevation in circulating corticosterone (Gomez et al., 2000), and greater avoidance of the drug-paired cue predicts greater drug-taking (Grigson and Twining, 2002; Twining et al., 2009). While female rats generally are more responsive to drug than male rats, in this self-administration model, female rats consume more of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue and take less drug than males (Cason and Grigson, 2013)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898485/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-dorsal-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-inhibits-medial-orbitofrontal-activity-in-smokers
#19
Xingbao Li, Gregory L Sahlem, Bashar W Badran, Lisa M McTeague, Colleen A Hanlon, Karen J Hartwell, Scott Henderson, Mark S George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), can reduce cue-elicited craving in smokers. Currently, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effect of a single treatment of rTMS on cortical and sub-cortical neural activity in non-treatment seeking nicotine-dependent participants. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial in which participants attended two experimental visits separated by at least 1 week...
September 12, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895569/the-effects-of-the-monoamine-stabilizer-osu6162-on-binge-like-eating-and-cue-controlled-food-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#20
K Feltmann, C Giuliano, B J Everitt, P Steensland, J Alsiö
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive consumption of palatable food and an increased sensitivity to food cues. Patients with BED display an addiction-like symptomatology and the dopamine system might be a potential treatment target. The clinically safe monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) restores dopaminergic dysfunction in long-term alcohol drinking rats and shows promise as a novel treatment for alcohol use disorder. Here, the effects of OSU6162 on consummatory (binge-like eating) and appetitive (cue-controlled seeking) behavior motivated by chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets were evaluated in non-food-restricted male Lister Hooded rats...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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