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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811669/paraventricular-thalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-reward-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling
#1
Zhi Yi Ong, Jing-Jing Liu, Zhiping P Pang, Harvey J Grill
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons receive hindbrain and hypothalamic inputs, and project to forebrain sites involved in reward and motivation function. The role of PVT in energy balance and reward control is however understudied. Given that PVT neurons express glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R), which are critical to feeding and body weight control, we tested the hypothesis that PVT GLP-1R signaling contributes to food intake and reward inhibition. To assess the hypothesis, behavioral tests including chow and high-fat diet intake, meal patterns, conditioned place preference for high-fat food, cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking, and motivation to work for sucrose were employed following intra-PVT delivery of either GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4 (Ex4), or GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-9-39 (Ex9)...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808012/bdnf-trkb-controls-cocaine-induced-dendritic-spines-in-rodent-nucleus-accumbens-dissociated-from-increases-in-addictive-behaviors
#2
Ethan M Anderson, Anne Marie Wissman, Joyce Chemplanikal, Nicole Buzin, Daniel Guzman, Erin B Larson, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, Christopher W Cowan, David W Self
Chronic cocaine use is associated with prominent morphological changes in nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) neurons, including increases in dendritic spine density along with enhanced motivation for cocaine, but a functional relationship between these morphological and behavioral phenomena has not been shown. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in NACsh neurons is necessary for cocaine-induced dendritic spine formation by using either localized TrkB knockout or viral-mediated expression of a dominant negative, kinase-dead TrkB mutant...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803349/scary-symptoms-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evidence-for-symptom-interpretation-bias-in-pathological-health-anxiety
#3
Zhimin Yan, Michael Witthöft, Josef Bailer, Carsten Diener, Daniela Mier
Patients with pathological health anxiety (PHA) tend to automatically interpret bodily sensations as sign of a severe illness. To elucidate the neural correlates of this cognitive bias, we applied an functional magnetic resonance imaging adaption of a body-symptom implicit association test with symptom words in patients with PHA (n = 32) in comparison to patients with depression (n = 29) and healthy participants (n = 35). On the behavioral level, patients with PHA did not significantly differ from the control groups...
August 12, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#4
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windish, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#5
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797599/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-analysis-of-neurochemical-changes-in-the-atrophic-hippocampus-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#6
Shengxiang Liang, Jia Huang, Weilin Liu, Hao Jin, Long Li, Xiufeng Zhang, Binbin Nie, Ruhui Lin, Jing Tao, Shujun Zhao, Baoci Shan, Lidian Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuropathological changes and progressive cognitive decline, which is associated with the volume loss and neurochemical alterations. However, the specific neurochemical alterations in cerebral regions that contribute to cognitive decline still remain unknown. In the present study, we measured cerebral morphological and neurochemical alterations using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in an AD model of APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794196/limbic-motor-integration-by-neural-excitations-and-inhibitions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#7
Sara E Morrison, Vincent B McGinty, Johann du Hoffmann, Saleem M Nicola
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has often been described as a "limbic-motor interface," implying that the NAc integrates the value of expected rewards with the motor planning required to obtain them. However, there is little direct evidence that the signaling of individual NAc neurons combines information about predicted reward and behavioral response. Here, we report that cue-evoked neural responses in the NAc form a likely physiological substrate for its limbic-motor integration function. Across task contexts, individual NAc neurons in behaving rats robustly encode the reward-predictive qualities of a cue, as well as the probability of behavioral response to the cue, as coexisting components of the neural signal...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794174/maternal-western-diet-age-specifically-alters-female-offspring-voluntary-physical-activity-and-dopamine-and-leptin-related-gene-expression
#8
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Kolter B Grigsby, Taylor J Kelty, Terese M Zidon, Thomas E Childs, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, David L Klinkebiel, Michael Matheny, Phillip J Scarpace, Frank W Booth
Prenatal overnutrition affects development into adulthood and influences risk of obesity. We assessed the transgenerational effect of maternal Western diet (WD) consumption on offspring physical activity. Voluntary wheel running was increased in juvenile (4-7 wk of age), but decreased in adult (16-19 wk of age), F1 female WD offspring In contrast, no wheel-running differences in F1 male offspring were observed. Increased wheel running in juvenile female WD offspring was associated with up-regulated dopamine receptor (DRD)-1 and -2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and with down-regulated Lepr in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
August 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782589/the-role-of-thioredoxin-1-in-resisting-methamphetamine-induced-rewarding-effect
#9
Mengbing Huang, Lingpin Kong, Lihua Yang, Xiang Li, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive drug of abuse which induces behavioral sensitization and rewarding effects. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox protein and plays role in regulating activity of transcription factor, such as cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), AP-1, p53, is emerging as an important modulator of neuronal function. It has been reported that Trx-1 is involved in morphine dependence. In this study, we examined the rewarding effect after METH administration by conditioned place preference (CPP) of mice, and detected the levels of dopamine and the activity of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), the expressions of ΔFosB and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice...
August 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780734/intra-accumbal-cannabinoid-agonist-attenuated-reinstatement-but-not-extinction-period-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-evidence-for-different-characteristics-of-extinction-period-and-reinstatement
#10
Hossein Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar, Abbas Haghparast
The brain reward system consists of the ventral tegmental area that sends its dopaminergic projections to the forebrain, cortical areas, amygdala and largely to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The present study aims were to investigate the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal microinjection of WIN55,212-2, a CB1 receptor agonist, on the duration of extinction period and reinstatement to morphine by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the rat. Forty-six adult male albino Wistar rats received intra-accumbal WIN55,212-2 [p0...
August 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780133/altered-glua1-gria1-function-and-accumbal-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-clock%C3%AE-19-model-of-bipolar-mania
#11
Puja K Parekh, Darius Becker-Krail, Poornima Sundaravelu, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Haruo Okado, Gen Sobue, Yanhua Huang, Colleen A McClung
BACKGROUND: Disruptions in circadian rhythms are associated with an increased risk for bipolar disorder. Moreover, studies show that the circadian protein CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) is involved in regulating monoaminergic systems and mood-related behavior. However, the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. METHODS: Using ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in ClockΔ19 mutant and wild-type mice we characterized alterations in excitatory synaptic transmission, strength, and intrinsic excitability of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons...
June 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769056/increased-epha4-ephexin1-signaling-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-plays-a-role-in-depression-like-phenotype
#12
Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Youge Qu, Mayumi Nakamura, Chao Dong, Chun Yang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Mei Han, Yukihiko Shirayama, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi, Kenji Hashimoto
Accumulating evidence suggests a role of the ephrin receptor EphA4 and the downstream protein ephexin1 in synaptic plasticity, which is implicated in depression. We examined whether EphA4-ephexin1 signaling plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression, and the antidepressant-like effect of EphA4 inhibitor rhynchophylline. We found increased ratios of p-EphA4/EphA4 and p-ephexin1/ephexin1 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of susceptible mice after social defeat stress...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762073/alterations-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-prolonged-morphine-withdrawal-induced-behavioral-inflexibility-in-rats
#13
Chengji Piao, Tiane Liu, Lian Ma, Xuekun Ding, Xingyue Wang, Xing Chen, Ying Duan, Nan Sui, Jing Liang
RATIONALE: The inability to stop a repetitive maladaptive behavior is a main problem in addictive disorders. Neuroadaptations that are associated with behavioral inflexibility may be involved in compulsive drug use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of behavioral inflexibility during morphine withdrawal and map brain activation that is linked to alterations in flexibility. METHODS: We first analyzed the effects of chronic morphine exposure on reversal learning after 2-week (short-term) and 6-week (prolonged) morphine withdrawal...
July 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761095/associations-between-subjective-well-being-and-subcortical-brain-volumes
#14
D Van 't Ent, A den Braber, B M L Baselmans, R M Brouwer, C V Dolan, H E Hulshoff Pol, E J C de Geus, M Bartels
To study the underpinnings of individual differences in subjective well-being (SWB), we tested for associations of SWB with subcortical brain volumes in a dataset of 724 twins and siblings. For significant SWB-brain associations we probed for causal pathways using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and estimated genetic and environmental contributions from twin modeling. Another independent measure of genetic correlation was obtained from linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression on published genome-wide association summary statistics...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760987/toll-like-receptor-4-deficiency-alters-nucleus-accumbens-synaptic-physiology-and-drug-reward-behavior
#15
Daniel T Kashima, Brad A Grueter
Behavioral manifestations of drug-seeking behavior are causally linked to alterations of synaptic strength onto nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSN). Although neuron-driven changes in physiology and behavior are well characterized, there is a lack of knowledge of the role of the immune system in mediating such effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system, and evidence suggests that it modulates drug-related behavior. Using TLR4 knockout (TLR4...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758534/local-anaesthetic-refinement-of-pentobarbital-euthanasia-reduces-abdominal-writhing-without-affecting-immunohistochemical-endpoints-in-rats
#16
Shaun Y-S Khoo, Belinda P P Lay, Josephine Joya, Gavan P McNally
Sodium pentobarbital is a commonly used agent for euthanizing laboratory rats, however its high pH can cause abdominal discomfort after intraperitoneal injection. Previous studies suggest that the addition of a local anaesthetic may alleviate this discomfort, but the practice has not been widely adopted. We examined the effect of combining lidocaine with pentobarbital on abdominal writhing, defecation, ultrasonic vocalizations, the rat grimace scale and immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos in the nucleus accumbens and basolateral amygdala of the brain...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757250/optogenetic-activation-of-amygdala-projections-to-nucleus-accumbens-can-arrest-conditioned-and-unconditioned-alcohol-consummatory-behavior
#17
E Zayra Millan, H Amy Kim, Patricia H Janak
Following a Pavlovian-pairing procedure, alcohol-paired cues come to elicit behavioral responses that lead to alcohol consumption. Here we used an optogenetic approach to activate basolateral amygdala (BLA) axonal terminals targeting the shell of nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) and investigated a possible influence over cue-conditioned alcohol seeking and alcohol drinking, based on the demonstrated roles of these areas in behavioral responding to Pavlovian cues and in feeding behavior. Rats were trained to anticipate alcohol or sucrose following the onset of a discrete conditioned stimulus (CS)...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756273/back-to-the-future-circuit-testing-ts-ocd
#18
Frank H Burton
A decade before the rise of optogenetics, the first behavioral "circuit-test" - transgenically modulating the output of a genetically-specified brain circuit element to examine its effect on behavior - was performed. The behaviors emulated in those mice were comorbid tics and compulsions, elicited by a gene borrowed from cholera bacteria and tailored to intracellularly neuropotentiate glutamatergic somatosensory cortical and limbic output neurons of cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop circuits...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755887/brain-temperature-effects-of-intravenous-heroin-state-dependency-environmental-modulation-and-the-effects-of-dose
#19
R Aaron Bola, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Here we examined how intravenous heroin at a dose that maintains self-administration (0.1 mg/kg) affects brain temperature homeostasis in freely moving rats under conditions that seek to mimic some aspects of human drug use. When administered under standard laboratory conditions (quiet rest at 22 °C ambient temperature), heroin induced moderate temperature increases (1.0-1.5 °C) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure of the brain motivation-reinforcement circuit. By simultaneously recording temperatures in the temporal muscle and skin, we demonstrate that the hyperthermic effects of heroin results primarily from inhibition of heat loss due to strong and prolonged skin vasoconstriction...
July 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755862/ketamine-changes-the-local-resting-state-functional-properties-of-anesthetized-monkey-brain
#20
Jia-Sheng Rao, Zuxiang Liu, Can Zhao, Rui-Han Wei, Wen Zhao, Peng-Yu Tian, Xia Zhou, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
OBJECTIVE: Ketamine is a well-known anesthetic. 'Recreational' use of ketamine common induces psychosis-like symptoms and cognitive impairments. The acute and chronic effects of ketamine on relevant brain circuits have been studied, but the effects of single-dose ketamine administration on the local resting-state functional properties of the brain remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of single-dose ketamine administration on the brain local intrinsic properties...
July 26, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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