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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142048/accurate-pcr-detection-of-influenza-a-b-and-rsv-using-the-cepheid-xpert-flu-rsv-xpress-assay-in-point-of-care-settings-comparison-to-prodesse-proflu
#1
Daniel M Cohen, Jennifer Kline, Larissa S May, Glenn Eric Harnett, Jane Gibson, Stephen Y Liang, Zubaid Rafique, Carina A Rodriguez, Kevin M McGann, Charlotte A Gaydos, Donna Mayne, David Phillips, Jason Cohen
The Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay is a fast, automated in vitro diagnostic test for qualitative detection and differentiation of influenza A, B, and RSV performed on the Cepheid GeneXpert Xpress System. The objective of this study was to establish performance characteristics of the Xpert Flu+RSV Xpress Assay compared to the Prodesse ProFlu+ real-time RT-PCR assay (ProFlu+) for the detection of influenza A and B as well as RSV in a CLIA-waived (CW) setting. Overall, the assay, using fresh and frozen nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs, demonstrated high concordance with ProFlu+ in the combined CW and non-CW settings with Positive Percent Agreements (PPA) (100%, 100%, 97...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133554/what-is-resistance-impact-of-phenotypic-versus-molecular-drug-resistance-testing-on-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-therapy
#2
Jan Heyckendorf, Sönke Andres, Claudio U Köser, Ioana D Olaru, Thomas Schön, Erik Sturegård, Patrick Beckert, Viola Schleusener, Thomas A Kohl, Doris Hillemann, Danesh Moradigaravand, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, Stefan Niemann, Christoph Lange, Matthias Merker
Rapid and accurate drug-susceptibility testing (DST) is essential for the treatment of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). We compared the utility of genotypic DST assays with phenotypic DST (pDST) using BACTEC 960 MGIT or Löwenstein-Jensen to construct M/XDR-TB treatment regimens for a cohort of 25 consecutive M/XDR-TB patients and 15 possible anti-TB drugs.Genotypic DST results from Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and line probe assays (LPAs: Hain GenoType MTBDRplus 2.0 and MTBDRsl 2...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126226/optimizing-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-hiv-infected-inpatients-meeting-the-criteria-of-seriously-ill-in-the-who-algorithm
#3
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Mark P Nicol, Andre P Kengne, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: The WHO algorithm for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in seriously ill HIV-infected patients lacks a firm evidence base. We aimed to develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to determine the diagnostic utility of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in seriously ill HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among HIV-infected inpatients with any cough duration and WHO-defined danger signs. Culture-positive tuberculosis from any site was the reference standard...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118165/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-xpert-mrsa-nxg-assay-for-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-nasal-swabs
#4
Melanie L Yarbrough, David K Warren, Karen Allen, Dennis Burkholder, Robert Daum, Curtis Donskey, Dennis Knaack, Anthony LaMarca, Larissa May, Loren G Miller, David M Parenti, Lance Peterson, Thean Yen Tan, Raymond Widen, Diana R Hernandez, Donna M Wolk, C A Burnham
Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a burden on the healthcare system. Clinical laboratories play a key role in reducing this burden, as timely identification of MRSA colonization or infection facilitates infection control practices that are effective at limiting invasive MRSA infections. The Xpert MRSA NxG Assay recently received FDA clearance for the direct detection of MRSA from nasal swabs. This multicenter study evaluated the clinical performance characteristics of the Xpert MRSA NxG Assay with prospectively collected rayon nasal swabs (n = 1103) and flocked swab (ESwab) nasal specimens (n = 846)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117346/increasing-access-to-tuberculosis-services-in-ethiopia-findings-from-a-patient-pathway-analysis
#5
Lelisa Fekadu, Christy Hanson, Mike Osberg, Julia Makayova, Pia Mingkwan, Daniel Chin
Background: In Ethiopia, extensive scale-up of the availability of health extension workers (HEWs) at the community level has been credited with increased identification and referral of patients with presumptive tuberculosis, which has contributed to increased tuberculosis case notification and better treatment outcomes. However, nearly 30% of Ethiopia's estimated 191000 patients with tuberculosis remained unnotified in 2015. A better understanding of patient care-seeking practices may inform future government action to reach all patients with tuberculosis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116638/evolution-of-phenotypic-and-molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing
#6
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Enrico Tortoli
Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) is an emerging problem world-wide. In order to control the disease and decrease the number of cases overtime a prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment should be provided to patients. Phenotypic DST based on liquid automated culture has greatly reduced the time needed to generate reliable data but has the drawback to be expensive and prone to contamination in the absence of appropriate infrastructures. In the past 10 years molecular biology tools have been developed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109010/a-novel-isothermal-amplification-based-method-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#7
Dongxin Liu, Bing Zhao, Xichao Ou, Huiwen Zheng, Aijing Ma, Wencong He, Shengfen Wang, Yang Zhou, Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Ping Hou, Guangxue He, Yanlin Zhao
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to tuberculosis control and prevention. A series of diagnostic methods has been available for MTB detection; however, new rapid, simple and affordable methods are needed. In this study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA)-based assay was developed to detect the IS6110 gene of the M. tuberculosis complex. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), a colorimetric indicator, was used to detect amplification products...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093504/mycobacterial-genomic-dna-from-used-xpert-mtb-rif-cartridges-can-be-utilised-for-accurate-second-line-genotypic-drug-susceptibility-testing-and-spoligotyping
#8
Rouxjeane Venter, Brigitta Derendinger, Margaretha de Vos, Samantha Pillay, Tanya Dolby, John Simpson, Natasha Kitchin, Ashley Ruiters, Paul D van Helden, Robin M Warren, Grant Theron
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a widely-used test for tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin-resistance. Second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), which is recommended by policymakers, typically requires additional specimen collection that delays effective treatment initiation. We examined whether cartridge extract (CE) from used Xpert TB-positive cartridges was, without downstream DNA extraction or purification, suitable for both genotypic DST (MTBDRplus, MTBDRsl), which may permit patients to rapidly receive a XDR-TB diagnosis from a single specimen, and spoligotyping, which could facilitate routine genotyping...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091135/an-evaluation-of-false-positive-rifampicin-resistance-on-the-xpert-mtb-rif
#9
Yeliz Tanriverdi Cayci, Kemal Bilgin, Ahmet Yilmaz Coban, Asuman Birinci, Belma Durupınar
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most significant causes of mortality and morbidity. Early diagnose is important especially in multiple drug resistant tuberculosis to avoid transmission. Traditional techniques requires at least one to three weeks for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Diagnostic delays with multiple drug resistant tuberculosis are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased transmission The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is one of the new diagnostic device for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and rapid detection of rifampicin resistance...
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082442/intrapartum-group-b-streptococcus-screening-in-the-labor-ward-by-xpert%C3%A2-gbs-real-time-pcr
#10
C Plainvert, F El Alaoui, A Tazi, C Joubrel, O Anselem, M Ballon, A Frigo, C Branger, L Mandelbrot, F Goffinet, C Poyart
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections in industrialized countries. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) given to colonized parturients is a key step for the prevention of neonatal early-onset infection. We compared the performances of Xpert® GBS polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) as a point-of-care system in labor wards to standard culture for intrapartum GBS detection. Pregnant women with a GBS-positive antenatal screening were prospectively included...
October 29, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074186/xpert-human-papillomavirus-test-is-a-promising-cervical-cancer-screening-test-for-hiv-seropositive-women
#11
Zizipho Z A Mbulawa, Timothy J Wilkin, Bridgette Goeieman, Avril Swarts, Sophie Williams, Simon Levin, Mark Faesen, Jennifer S Smith, Carla J Chibwesha, Anna-Lise Williamson, Cynthia Firnhaber
This study investigated the performance of Cepheid Xpert human papillomavirus (HPV) assay in South African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women and compared its performance with that of hybrid capture-2 (hc2). METHODS: Stored cervical specimens from HIV-infected women that had previously been tested using hc2 were tested using Xpert. RESULTS: The overall HR-HPV prevalence was found to be 62.0% (720/1161) by Xpert and 61.2% (711/1161) by hc2. 13.6% (158/1161) were HPV16 positive, 18...
December 2016: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074030/reliable-rapid-assay-for-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-emergency-department
#12
Sean P Wilson, Taher Vohra, Jared Goldberg, Christopher Price, Sean Calo, Meredith Mahan, Joseph Miller
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are common sexually transmitted infections seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to an inability to reliably make accurate diagnosis by physical examination, concern for unreliable follow-up, and current delays in diagnostic nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), presumptive treatment active against CT and NG, as described by Centers for Disease Control clinical practice guidelines, is often performed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a rapid, urine NAAT performed in the ED is noninferior in its diagnostic sensitivity compared with a traditional, swab NAAT assay...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073731/performance-evaluation-of-cepheid-xpert-norovirus-kit-with-a-user-modified-protocol
#13
Rachel Shi-Lei Wong, Fion Yeo, Wai Theng Chia, Chun Kiat Lee, Mun Han Leong, Christopher Wai-Siong Ng, Kok Siong Poon, Gabriel Zherong Yan, Lily-Lily Chiu, Benedict Junrong Yan, Roland Jureen, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay, Hong Kai Lee
The Cepheid Xpert® Norovirus kit automates sample processing, nucleic acid extraction, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) to detect norovirus genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Eighty-five stool samples collected between February 2015 and May 2017 were used to compare the performance of a user-modified Xpert assay against a clinically validated laboratory-developed test (LDT). Of the 85 samples, 54 were previously archived in -80°C freezer. The remaining 31 were fresh samples tested concurrently with the LDT...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057945/a-pilot-evaluation-of-whole-blood-finger-prick-sampling-for-point-of-care-hiv-viral-load-measurement-the-unicorn-study
#14
Sarah Fidler, Heather Lewis, Jodi Meyerowitz, Kristin Kuldanek, John Thornhill, David Muir, Alice Bonnissent, Georgina Timson, John Frater
There is a global need for HIV viral load point-of-care (PoC) assays to monitor patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. UNICORN was the first study of an off-label protocol using whole blood finger-prick samples tested with and without a simple three minute spin using a clinic-room microcentrifuge. Two PoC assays were evaluated in 40 HIV-positive participants, 20 with detectable and 20 with undetectable plasma viral load (pVL) (<20 copies/ml). Using 100 µl finger-prick blood samples, the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load and HIV-1 Qual cartridges were compared with laboratory pVL assessment (TaqMan, Roche)...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056109/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-control-challenges-with-a-novel-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-a-tertiary-medical-center
#15
Parham Sendi, Adrian Egli, Marc Dangel, Reno Frei, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES To evaluate host characteristics, mode of infection acquisition, and infection control procedures in patients with a positive respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test result after the introduction of the GenXpert Influenza/RSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS Adults with a positive PCR test result for RSV who were hospitalized in a tertiary academic medical center between January 2015 and December 2016 were included in this study. Our infection control policy applies contact isolation precautions only for immunocompromised patients...
October 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053085/rifampicin-resistance-and-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-using-xpert-mtb-rif-in-wuhan-china-a-retrospective-study
#16
Hai Huang, Yanlin Zhang, Sheng Li, Jun Wang, Jun Chen, Zhiyun Pan, Hui Gan
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) can simultaneously detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA and rifampicin (RFP) resistance and can rapidly determine RFP resistance and predict multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In this study, we analyzed clinical examination results of a hospital specializing in TB treatment in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and examined the use of traditional culture and drug-sensitive test (DST) results as a gold standard to assess the diagnosis value of the Xpert MTB/RIF test in RFP resistance and MDR-TB...
October 20, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050773/detection-of-mycobacterial-infection-in-non-human-primates-using-the-xpert-mtb-rif-molecular-assay
#17
Duanne Alves da Silva, Amanda M Rêgo, Nicole V Ferreira, Manoela A S de Andrade, Aline R Campelo, Paulo César S Caldas, Márcia Aparecida S Pereira, Paulo Redner, Lucindo C de Pina, Felipe C Resende, Thalita A Pissinatti, Claudia A A Lopes, Tatiana Kugelmeier, Javier A S Perea, Igo V de Souza, Fábio A da Silva, Carla F Campos, Fátima C O Fandinho Montes, L Caetano M Antunes
Tuberculosis is a major public health concern, and diagnostic strategies applied to animal populations are scarce. As part of ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis dissemination at our animal facility, two non-human primates (NHP, Saimiri sciureus) presenting cutaneous lesions were examined for mycobacterial infection. Both animals tested positive for acid-fast bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a molecular assay (IS6110 PCR). Animals were euthanized and several samples were tested for M. tuberculosis using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050771/host-blood-rna-signatures-predict-the-outcome-of-tuberculosis-treatment
#18
Ethan G Thompson, Ying Du, Stephanus T Malherbe, Smitha Shankar, Jackie Braun, Joe Valvo, Katharina Ronacher, Gerard Tromp, David L Tabb, David Alland, Shubhada Shenai, Laura E Via, James Warwick, Alan Aderem, Thomas J Scriba, Jill Winter, Gerhard Walzl, Daniel E Zak
Biomarkers for tuberculosis treatment outcome will assist in guiding individualized treatment and evaluation of new therapies. To identify candidate biomarkers, RNA sequencing of whole blood from a well-characterized TB treatment cohort was performed. Application of a validated transcriptional correlate of risk for TB revealed symmetry in host gene expression during progression from latent TB infection to active TB disease and resolution of disease during treatment, including return to control levels after drug therapy...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037293/community-based-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-in-rural-western-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
C Chen, C-G Yang, X Gao, Z-Z Lu, F-X Tang, J Cheng, Q Gao, V Cárdenas
SETTING: Current passive case finding strategies are not effective at identifying tuberculosis (TB) patients in rural China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a community-based, active case finding (ACF) scheme in identifying symptomatic individuals with TB. DESIGN: We conducted door-to-door household visits of all residents aged 15 years at two rural sites to screen for TB symptoms. Individuals with symptoms were enrolled and asked to provide three sputum samples...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037292/accuracy-of-giant-african-pouched-rats-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-comparison-with-culture-and-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif
#20
C Mulder, G F Mgode, H Ellis, E Valverde, N Beyene, C Cox, S E Reid, A H Van't Hoog, T L Edwards
SETTING: Enhanced tuberculosis (TB) case finding using detection rats in Tanzania. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of detection rats compared with culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF, and to compare enhanced case-finding algorithms using rats in smear-negative presumptive TB patients. DESIGN: A fully paired diagnostic accuracy study in which sputum of new adult presumptive TB patients in Tanzania was tested using smear microscopy, 11 detection rats, culture and Xpert...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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