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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636465/evaluation-of-the-xpert-norovirus-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-norovirus-genogroups-i-and-ii-in-faecal-specimens-within-a-routine-laboratory-setting
#1
Oliver Cleary, Rose McNerney, Zoe Yandle, Cathal E O'Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633698/feasibility-of-a-streamlined-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-initiation-strategy
#2
P B Shete, T Nalugwa, K Farr, C Ojok, M Nantale, P Howlett, P Haguma, E Ochom, F Mugabe, M Joloba, L H Chaisson, D W Dowdy, D Moore, J L Davis, A Katamba, A Cattamanchi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a streamlined strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic evaluation and treatment initiation among patients with presumed TB. DESIGN: Single-arm interventional pilot study at five primary care health centers of a streamlined, SIngle-saMPLE (SIMPLE) TB diagnostic evaluation strategy: 1) examination of two smear results from a single spot sputum specimen using light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy, and 2) daily transportation of smear-negative sputum samples to Xpert® MTB/RIF testing sites...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628437/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-at-a-provincial-reference-hospital-cambodia
#3
Maryline Bonnet, Kim Chamroeun San, Yati Pho, Chandara Sok, Jean-Philippe Dousset, William Brant, Northan Hurtado, Khun Kim Eam, Elisa Ardizzoni, Seiha Heng, Sylvain Godreuil, Wing-Wai Yew, Cathy Hewison
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627302/taking-costs-and-diagnostic-test-accuracy-into-account-when-designing-prevalence-studies-an-application-to-childhood-tuberculosis-prevalence
#4
Zhuoyu Wang, Nandini Dendukuri, Madhukar Pai, Lawrence Joseph
BACKGROUND: When planning a study to estimate disease prevalence to a pre-specified precision, it is of interest to minimize total testing cost. This is particularly challenging in the absence of a perfect reference test for the disease because different combinations of imperfect tests need to be considered. We illustrate the problem and a solution by designing a study to estimate the prevalence of childhood tuberculosis in a hospital setting. METHODS: All possible combinations of 3 commonly used tuberculosis tests, including chest X-ray, tuberculin skin test, and a sputum-based test, either culture or Xpert, are considered...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622763/treatment-decisions-and-mortality-in-hiv-positive-presumptive-smear-negative-tb-in-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-era-a-cohort-study
#5
Sabine M Hermans, Juliet A Babirye, Olive Mbabazi, Francis Kakooza, Robert Colebunders, Barbara Castelnuovo, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: The Xpert™ MTB/RIF (XP) has a higher sensitivity than sputum smear microscopy (70% versus 35%) for TB diagnosis and has been endorsed by the WHO for TB high burden countries to increase case finding among HIV co-infected presumptive TB patients. Its impact on the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a routine care setting is unclear. We determined the change in diagnosis, treatment and mortality of smear-negative presumptive TB with routine use of Xpert MTB/RIF (XP). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive smear-negative presumptive TB patients during a 12-month period after XP implementation in a well-staffed and trained integrated TB/HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda...
June 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621047/clinical-value-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-detecting-group-b-streptococcus-during-labor
#6
Dorothea Maria Koppes, Antonius Arnoldus Cornelis Maria Vriends, Michiel van Rijn, Antonine Dimphne van Heesewijk
AIM: To reduce the intrapartum use of antibiotics in women with prolonged rupture of the membranes (PROM) by restriction of antibiotics to women who are colonized with group B streptococci (GBS), as identified with the Cepheid Gene Xpert polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting GBS. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among full-term delivering women with PROM. Fifty-four women were enrolled, based on a power calculation with a significance level of 5% and a power of 95%...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619229/cost-effectiveness-of-xpert-mtb-rif-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-south-africa-a-real-world-cost-analysis-and-economic-evaluation
#7
Anna Vassall, Mariana Siapka, Nicola Foster, Lucy Cunnama, Lebogang Ramma, Katherine Fielding, Kerrigan McCarthy, Gavin Churchyard, Alison Grant, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: In 2010 a new diagnostic test for tuberculosis, Xpert MTB/RIF, received a conditional programmatic recommendation from WHO. Several model-based economic evaluations predicted that Xpert would be cost-effective across sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of Xpert in the real world during national roll-out in South Africa. METHODS: For this real-world cost analysis and economic evaluation, we applied extensive primary cost and patient event data from the XTEND study, a pragmatic trial examining Xpert introduction for people investigated for tuberculosis in 40 primary health facilities (20 clusters) in South Africa enrolled between June 8, and Nov 16, 2012, to estimate the costs and cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted of introducing Xpert as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis, compared with sputum smear microscopy (the standard of care)...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611407/evaluation-of-the-mtbdrplus-2-0-assay-for-the-detection-of-multidrug-resistance-among-persons-with-presumptive-pulmonary-tb-in-china
#8
Yaoju Tan, Qiang Li, Qing Wang, Huiping Sun, Jin Chen, Xingshan Cai, Yinchai Yao, Xundi Bao, Chao Wang, Yuan Liu, Xia Wu, Yu Pang, Yanlin Zhao
We have conducted a multicenter study of the diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus 2.0 assay in compared with conventional and molecular reference standard in four tuberculosis (TB)-specialized hospitals of China. A total of 5038 patients were enrolled in this study. The overall sensitivity of the assay for the diagnosis of TB was 92.7% [1723/1858, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 91.5-93.9]. In smear-positive/culture-positive cases the sensitivity was 97.7% (995/1018, 95% CI: 96.6-98.6), whereas in smear-negative/culture-positive cases it was 86...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610793/a-novel-automatic-molecular-test-for-detection-of-multidrug-resistance-tuberculosis-in-sputum-specimen-a-case-control-study
#9
Qiang Li, Xi C Ou, Yu Pang, Hui Xia, Hai R Huang, Bing Zhao, Sheng F Wang, Yan L Zhao
MiniLab tuberculosis (ML TB) assay is a new automatic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was conducted with aims to know the performance of this assay. Sputum sample from 224 TB suspects was collected from tuberculosis suspects seeking medical care at Beijing Chest hospital. The sputum samples were directly used for smear and ML TB test. The left sputum sample was used to conduct Xpert MTB/RIF, Bactec MGIT culture and drug susceptibility test (DST). All discrepancies between the results from DST, molecular and phenotypic methods were confirmed by DNA Sequencing...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604481/comparative-evaluation-of-2-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-for-the-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-at-extragenital-sites
#10
Claire C Bristow, Mark R McGrath, Adam C Cohen, Laura J Anderson, Kristie K Gordon, Jeffrey D Klausner
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are frequently asymptomatic, requiring highly accurate diagnostic tests and proper management to prevent further transmission. We compared two nucleic acid tests, Xpert® CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) point-of-care platform and at an offsite clinical laboratory with Aptima Combo 2® (Hologic, Inc., San Diego, CA) assay, for the detection of extragenital infection in patients at an STI clinic in Hollywood, CA.We calculated concordance between the two assays and used the exact binomial method to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each specimen type and pathogen...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600949/effect-of-genomic-drift-of-influenza-pcr-tests
#11
Kathleen A Stellrecht, Seela M Nattanmai, Jumshan Butt, Vincente P Maceira, Alvin A Espino, Allan J Castro, Allen Landes, Nicolas Dresser, Shafiq A Butt
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid amplification assays have become the method of choice for influenza (Flu) testing due to superior accuracy and faster turnaround time. Although assays are designed to detect highly conserved genomic targets, mutations can influence test sensitivity. Most of the circulating viruses in the United States during the 2014-2015 season were associated with significant genetic drift; however, the effect on testing was unknown. OBJECTIVES AND STUDY DESIGN: We compared the performance of Prodesse ProFlu+/ProFAST+ (PFlu/PFAST), FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP), cobas(®) Influenza A/B test (cIAB), and Xpert(®) Flu (Xpt) in a retrospective analysis of consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens received for a two-week period during the winter of 2015...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592547/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-and-mtb-rif-inh-assays-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-coinfection-setting-in-south-africa
#12
Lesley Scott, Anura David, Lara Noble, Matilda Nduna, Pedro Da Silva, Andrew Black, Francois Venter, Wendy Stevens
Background: South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with HIV. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV viral load. This latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first line drug resistance screening, but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588939/cost-effectiveness-of-triage-testing-for-facility-based-systematic-screening-of-tuberculosis-among-ugandan-adults
#13
Matthew Murray, Adithya Cattamanchi, Claudia Denkinger, Anja Van't Hoog, Madhukar Pai, David Dowdy
BACKGROUND: Systematic screening is often proposed as a way to improve case finding for tuberculosis (TB), but the cost-effectiveness of specific strategies for systematic screening remains poorly studied. METHODS: We constructed a Markov-based decision analytic model to analyse the cost-effectiveness of triage testing for TB in Uganda, compared against passive case detection with Xpert MTB/RIF. We assumed a triage algorithm whereby all adults presenting to healthcare centres would be screened for cough, and those with cough of at least 2 weeks would receive the triage test, with positive triage results confirmed by Xpert MTB/RIF...
August 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583076/diagnostic-accuracy-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-naats-in-urine-for-genitourinary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Carlos Altez-Fernandez, Victor Ortiz, Majid Mirzazadeh, Luis Zegarra, Carlos Seas, Cesar Ugarte-Gil
BACKGROUND: Genitourinary tuberculosis is the third most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnosis is difficult because of unspecific clinical manifestations and low accuracy of conventional tests. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis impacts the urinary tract severely. Nucleic acid amplification tests yield fast results, and among these, new technologies can also detect drug resistance. There is lack of consensus regarding the use of these tests in genitourinary tuberculosis; we therefore aimed to assess the accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis and to evaluate the heterogeneity between studies...
June 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583016/a-comparison-of-enriched-culture-and-xpert-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-of-group-b-streptococcus-carrier-status-at-35-37-week-gestation-to-labor-onset-a-prospective-controlled-study
#15
Yuri Perlitz, Moshe Ben-Ami, Emanuel C Megory, Orna Nitzan, Tal Bouganim, Johnny S Younis, Nora Shapso, Avi Peretz
OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the accuracy of vagino-rectal enriched culture (EC) and a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of Group B streptococcus (GBS) carrier status at 35-37-week gestation and at onset of labor (2). To assess the conversion rate of GBS carrier status between 35-37 weeks to the onset of labor according to the EC/PCR tests. A prospective study was performed at a women's health clinic, referred to give birth at one medical center. STUDY POPULATION: low risk pregnant women at 35-37-week gestation who did not know their GBS carrier status...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580596/cervical-cancer-screening-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-pilot-study-on-an-hpv-based-screen-and-treat-approach
#16
Margot Kunckler, Fanny Schumacher, Bruno Kenfack, Rosa Catarino, Manuela Viviano, Eveline Tincho, Pierre-Marie Tebeu, Liliane Temogne, Pierre Vassilakos, Patrick Petignat
Cervical cancer (CC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily because of limited access to effective screening and preventive treatment. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of a human papillomavirus (HPV)-based CC screen-and-treat approach in a low-resource context. We recruited 1012 women aged 30-49 years through a CC screening campaign conducted in the District Hospital of Dschang, Cameroon. Participants performed HPV self-sampling, which was tested for high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA using the point-of-care Xpert HPV assay...
June 4, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577535/tuberculosis-screening-among-persons-with-diabetes-mellitus-in-pune-india
#17
Vidya Mave, Smita Nimkar, Haridas Prasad, Dileep Kadam, Sushant Meshram, Rahul Lokhande, Nikhil Gupte, Divyashri Jain, Amita Gupta, Jonathan E Golub
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk, and there is increasing concern over the public health implications of the convergence of these two epidemics. Screening for TB among people with DM is now recommended in India. METHODS: People with DM seeking care at a large public sector tertiary care hospital clinic in Pune, India, were screened for TB from June 2015 to May 2016. All consenting people with DM were screened for TB at each clinic visit using a five-item, WHO-recommended questionnaire and those with TB symptoms and/or risk factors were tested for active TB using sputum smear microscopty, Xpert® MTB/RIF and TB culture...
June 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573471/emergence-of-clostridium-difficile-tcdc-variant-078-in-marseille-france
#18
N Cassir, N Fahsi, G Durand, J-C Lagier, D Raoult, P-E Fournier
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the epidemiology of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile ribotypes from January 2013 to February 2017 in the Marseille area of southern France. By using the Xpert Clostridium difficile Epi polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and sequencing the tcdC gene, we characterised C. difficile isolates from symptomatic patients diagnosed with C. difficile infection (CDI) in Marseille university hospitals. We first tested retrospectively 278 C. difficile samples isolated from January 2013 to December 2014 and observed a high prevalence of isolates with tcdC mutations and deletions previously described in both hypervirulent ribotypes RT027 and RT078 (16...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564629/comparison-between-roche-and-xpert-in-hiv-1-rna-quantitation-a-high-concordance-between-the-two-techniques-except-for-a-crf02_ag-subtype-variant-with-high-viral-load-titters-detected-by-roche-but-undetected-by-xpert
#19
Boaz Avidor, Natalia Matus, Shirley Girshengorn, Svetlana Achsanov, Simona Gielman, Irene Zeldis, Inbal Schweitzer, Amos Adler, Dan Turner
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is important to predict viral progression and to monitor the response to antiretroviral therapy. New HIV-1 VL tests are continuously introduced to the market. Their performance is usually compared to Abbott and/or Roche HIV-1 VL assays, as reference. The Xpert HIV-1 VL test was recently introduced, but its performance compared to Roche has not been sufficiently studied. OBJECTIVES: To compare the Xpert assay with Roche and to assess its use in the HIV clinical laboratory...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558662/evaluation-of-gene-xpert-for-routine-diagnosis-of-hiv-associated-tuberculosis-in-nigeria-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Maxwell Oluwole Akanbi, Chad Achenbach, Babafemi Taiwo, John Idoko, Agatha Ani, Yetunde Isa, Oche Agbaji, Christiana Ukoli, Patrick Akande, Mamoudou Maiga, Robert Leo Murphy
BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) is described as a game changer in tuberculosis (TB) control. We evaluated the impact of Xpert on diagnosis, time to treatment, and treatment outcome among patients with HIV associated TB in Nigeria. METHODS: Adults with HIV being evaluated for pulmonary TB (PTB) were consecutively enrolled into the study cohort. At baseline, expectorated sputa were examined using Xpert and smear microscopy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and acid fast bacilli, respectively...
May 30, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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