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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086955/evaluation-of-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-and-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-namibia
#2
Rooyen T Mavenyengwa, Emma Shaduka, Innocent Maposa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million people and infects around nine million worldwide annually. Its proper management, especially in resource-limited settings, has been hindered by the lack of rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tests. Sputum smear microscopy remains the cheapest, readily available diagnostic method but it only identifies less than half of the patients with a HIV/TB co-infection because the bacilli would have disseminated from the lungs to other areas of the body...
January 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#3
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073895/evaluation-of-genotypic-and-phenotypic-methods-to-detect-carbapenemase-production-in-gram-negative-bacilli
#4
Allison R McMullen, Melanie L Yarbrough, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Carey-Ann D Burnham
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) are an urgent and expanding public health threat. Rapid and accurate identification of these organisms facilitates infection prevention efforts in healthcare facilities. The objective of our study was to evaluate methods to detect and identify CP-GNB. METHODS: We examined 189 carbapenem-resistant GNB (CR-GNB), including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii complex, using 3 different methods: 2 methods to screen isolates of GNB for carbapenemase production [the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) and 2 chromogenic agars] and a molecular method (Cepheid GeneXpert Carba-R) to identify the mechanism of carbapenem resistance and the associated resistance genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaOXA-48-like, and blaVIM)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068347/microbiologically-confirmed-tuberculosis-factors-associated-with-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-and-time-to-treatment-initiation
#5
Judith Mwansa-Kambafwile, Boitumelo Maitshotlo, Andrew Black
BACKGROUND: The impact of new diagnostics on pre-treatment loss to follow up (Pre-treatment LTFU) has not been widely investigated. The reported rate of pre-treatment LTFU is however lower in studies where Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) has been used onsite as opposed to centrally. The use of the Xpert at point of care (POC) could have a role in reducing the pre-treatment LTFU rate among TB patients. We aimed to determine the pre-treatment LTFU rate and the time to treatment initiation as well as to describe associated factors in patients diagnosed with TB using POC Xpert or smear microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063795/effect-of-new-tuberculosis-diagnostic-technologies-on-community-based-intensified-case-finding-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Gregory L Calligaro, Lynn S Zijenah, Jonathan G Peter, Grant Theron, Virginia Buser, Ruth McNerney, Wilbert Bara, Tsitsi Bandason, Ureshnie Govender, Michele Tomasicchio, Liezel Smith, Bongani M Mayosi, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Inadequate case detection results in high levels of undiagnosed tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Data for the effect of new diagnostic tools when used for community-based intensified case finding are not available, so we investigated whether the use of sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and the Determine TB LAM urine test in two African communities could be effective. METHODS: In a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group trial with individual randomisation stratified by country, we compared sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF, and if HIV-infected, the Determine TB LAM urine test (novel diagnostic group), with laboratory-based sputum smear microscopy (routine diagnostic group) for intensified case finding in communities with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence in Cape Town, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe...
January 4, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063001/comparison-of-xpert-norovirus-and-ridagene-norovirus-assays-for-the-detection-of-noroviruses-in-clinical-fecal-specimens
#7
E Aho-Laukkanen, J J Hirvonen, K Saha
The purpose of this study was to investigate the usability and performance of the Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens. Of the 186 stool specimens, 53 (28.5%) were considered true-positive for norovirus (NoV). Of the true-positive specimens, Xpert detected 53 and RidaGene detected 52. The respective sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 91.0-98.5%] for the Xpert assay, and 98.1% (95% CI, 94.4-100%) and 97.0% (95% CI, 94...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#8
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057604/biological-markers-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#9
Bastien Mollo, Stéphane Jouveshomme, François Philippart, Benoît Pilmis
Tuberculosis is one of the main etiologies to evoke in the context of lymphocyte pleurisy. However, diagnosis is difficult and is based on mycobacteriology that is not enough sensitive and time-consuming, or on histology that requires invasive biopsy gesture. This literature review, carried out from Medline, summarizes the main meta-analyzes, reviews, and originator publications in English on biomarkers, classic and more innovative, studied for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Among the immuno-biochemical markers, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), isoenzyme of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) and total adenosine deaminase (ADA) seem the most relevant with respective sensitivities of 89% (87-91), 97...
January 5, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057041/rifampicin-resistance-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-among-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients-referred-to-debre-markos-referral-hospital-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu, Haimanot Ayele, Dereje Abate
BACKGROUND: Prevailing data on rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis is essential for early management of MDR-TB. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated factors among presumptive TB cases in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to March 2015. Detection of M. tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin was performed using Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056943/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-tuberculosis-care-among-health-workers-in-southern-mozambique
#11
Andrés Noé, Rafaela M Ribeiro, Rui Anselmo, Maria Maixenchs, Layce Sitole, Khatia Munguambe, Silvia Blanco, Peter le Souef, Alberto L García-Basteiro
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control is more likely to be achieved if the level of knowledge regarding TB is increased among health workers managing high-risk groups. No formal assessments regarding knowledge, attitudes and practises of health workers about TB have been published for Mozambique, a country facing challenges in the fight against TB, with a fragile health system and considerable work overload of health personnel. The main objective of the study was to determine the level of knowledge, identify attitudes and assess practices regarding TB care and control among health care workers of the district of Manhiça...
January 5, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053586/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-pcr-methods-for-detection-of-carbapenemases-production-by-enterobacteriaceae
#12
Maryam AlTamimi, Ali AlSalamah, Manal AlKhulaifi, Hisham AlAjlan
Dissemination of carbapenem resistance via Enterobacteriaceae, particularly among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, is a major public health concern. Rapid methods for determining antimicrobial susceptibility are important to ensure adequate and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and to limit the spread of these bacteria. In the current study, we compared the rapidity, sensitivity and specificity of traditional methods and molecular-based Xpert Carba-R PCR assay to identify sixty isolates, (26 E...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043630/effective-testing-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-using-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-stool-specimens-in-immunocompetent-pakistani-children
#13
Zahra Hasan, Fehmina Arif, Sadia Shakoor, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Akbar Kanji, Mussarat Ashraf, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in children with pulmonary TB cases, by performing comparative testing of GA and stool samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043626/comparison-of-two-molecular-methods-and-an-automated-liquid-culture-system-for-the-early-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-both-pulmonary-and-extrapulmonary-specimens-in-kuwait
#14
E M Mokaddas, H Saadaldeen, S Ahmad
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Molecular methods for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are widely used for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of two molecular techniques for the detection of MTB for both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens in comparison with conventional culture techniques in Kuwait and to correlate the results with clinical and histopathological diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 9,594 consecutive pulmonary (n=5,597) and extrapulmonary (n=3,997) specimens received by the Kuwait National TB Reference Laboratory from November 2011 to December 2015 were processed for direct smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli using a Zhiel-Neelsen stain, Xpert MTB/RIF assay, ProbTec polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and growth in fully automated MGIT 960 system tubes...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043620/implementation-of-new-tools-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-and-control
#15
Robin M Warren
Contrary to classical dogma, molecular epidemiological studies and mathematical modeling clearly show that the global drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is driven by transmission. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence demonstrating that amplification of resistance occurs during treatment, possibly as a result of insufficient active drugs being administered. To control the drug-resistant TB epidemic, it will be essential to implement new, rapid, and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic methods to decrease the diagnostic delay associated with culture-based testing...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043605/xpert-mtb-rif-for-rapid-detection-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#16
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Belayneh Dimah, Feyisa Efa, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Accurate and rapid detection of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) is critical for early initiation of treatment and for limiting the transmission of drug-resistant TB. Here, we investigated the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance, and whether this detection predicts the presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Smear- or culture-positive sputa obtained from TB patients with increased suspicion of drug resistance were included in this study...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043602/screening-new-tuberculosis-patients-in-mali-for-rifampicin-resistance-at-2months
#17
Bassirou Diarra, Aissata B Cissé, Ousmane Kodio, Moumine Sanogo, Bocar Baya, Antieme C G Togo, Amadou Somboro, Mohamed Tolofoudié, Boureima Degoga, Marie Laure Keita, Fatimata Diallo, Natacha Nguiakam, Gagni Coulibaly, Sidy Bane, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, Seydou Doumbia, Robert Leo Murphy, Souleymane Diallo, Bouke C Dejong
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The recent call for universal drug susceptibility testing (DST) for all tuberculosis (TB) patients will be difficult to meet in settings where Xpert rollout is limited, such as low prevalence of HIV and Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR) settings. As recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the success of TB treatment is measured by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy or auramine-rhodamine fluorescent microscopy (FM) on sputum, in which conversion to negative smear at 2months (M) is an important predictor of treatment success, defined as a negative smear at 5M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043601/best-approaches-to-drug-resistance-surveillance-at-the-country-level
#18
A M Cabibbe, D M Cirillo
In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation to include the endorsed rapid molecular technologies (Xpert MTB/RIF, line probe assays) into surveillance systems and surveys allowed the testing of more tuberculosis (TB) patients for drug resistance at country level than ever before. The whole genome sequencing (WGS) approach is emerging as a more powerful tool for epidemiological and drug-resistant routine surveillances, promising a rapid and simultaneous screening of all the clinically-relevant mutations for the determination of resistance to the first-, second-line, and new anti-TB drugs...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#19
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043543/investigation-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-with-or-without-coinfection-with-tuberculosis-in-iran
#20
Payam Tabarsi, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji, John Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Esmaeil Mortaz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths among adults in countries with resource limitations. The emergence of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular assay and its subsequent World Health Organization endorsement in 2010 transformed the TB-diagnostic landscape. Xpert provided diagnostic accuracy that was far superior to that of the sputum-smear microscopy test previously used. The detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine has emerged as a potential point-of-care test for TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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