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I Khan, N Ndubuka, K Stewart, V McKinney, I Mendez
Background: Saskatchewan is a province of over one million people and over 13% are Indigenous peoples, many of whom live on reserve lands. Despite continued efforts, access to health care remains a significant challenge for these Indigenous people, especially those in the North. Objective: To address this challenge, Saskatchewan's health care providers have been incorporating the use of technology for various health services. This paper describes various ways technology has been used in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Elena B Popowitch, Melissa B Miller
Molecular diagnostics for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have become commonplace and a variety of tests and systems have been FDA-cleared for use in the United States. We performed a retrospective study to compare the Cepheid Xpress Flu/RSV assay to the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay, using laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) as the reference method. The Xpress assay was 100% accurate as compared to the LDTs, while the Xpert Flu/RSV XC was 96.0% accurate. The Xpress test was determined to be faster and more sensitive than the XC...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Thania Luiza de Andrade Sieiro, Rafaela Baroni Aurílio, Elizabeth Cristina C Soares, Silvia S Chiang, Clemax Couto Sant Anna
INTRODUCTION: The teste rápido molecular para tuberculose (TRM-TB) was introduced in 2014 in Brazil for tuberculosis screening. However, its role in adolescents in Brazil has not been studied. METHODS: A descriptive study of adolescents with suspected tuberculosis using National Laboratory software. RESULTS: Of 852 (15.4%) suspected cases, 131 were positive by TRM-TB and 2% were resistant to rifampicin. Among TRM-TB-positive cases, 105 (91...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Katrina J Stime, Nigel Garrett, Yukteshwar Sookrajh, Jienchi Dorward, Ntuthu Dlamini, Ayo Olowolagba, Monisha Sharma, Ruanne V Barnabas, Paul K Drain
BACKGROUND: Many clinics in Southern Africa have long waiting times. The implementation of point-of-care (POC) tests to accelerate diagnosis and improve clinical management in resource-limited settings may improve or worsen clinic flow and waiting times. The objective of this study was to describe clinic flow with special emphasis on the impact of POC testing at a large urban public healthcare clinic in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: We used time and motion methods to directly observe patients and practitioners...
May 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Gar-Hing Lee, Stanley Pang, Geoffrey W Coombs
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium with the capacity to cause a variety of clinical syndromes.….
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Patrick Orikiriza, Margaret Nansumba, Dan Nyehangane, Mathieu Bastard, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Denis Nansera, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Elias Kumbakumba, Maryline Bonnet
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a major advance for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries but is limited in children by their difficulty to produce sputum. We investigated TB in sputum and stool from children with the aim of improving paediatric TB diagnosis. A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB, provided two sputum or induced sputum at enrolment in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Stool was collected from those started on TB treatment. All specimen were tested for Xpert MTB/RIF, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), Lowenstein Jensen cultures and microscopy (except stool)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jeongmin Hong, Seung Hyun Lee, Byung-Han Ryu, Min Jae Kim, Kyung-Wook Jo, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Tae Sun Shim, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Guirong Wang, Shuqi Wang, Guanglu Jiang, Yuhong Fu, Yuanyuan Shang, Hairong Huang
Background: Due to the non-homogeneity of specimens collected from tuberculosis (TB) suspects, repeated Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) may have potential clinical benefits. Incremental cost-effectiveness was analyzed for the second Xpert assay to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. Methods: Specimens were collected from 1,063 pulmonary TB (PTB) and 398 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) suspects, who had two Xpert tests sequentially within one week...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Manuela Viviano, Phuong Lien Tran, Bruno Kenfack, Rosa Catarino, Mohamed Akaaboune, Liliane Temogne, Eveline Tincho Foguem, Pierre Vassilakos, Patrick Petignat
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is a suitable tool for primary cervical cancer (CC) screening and follow-up in low-resource settings. Vaginal samples taken by women themselves (Self-HPV) are an interesting alternative to physician-performed sampling (Dr-HPV). Our aim was to assess the performance of Self-HPV and Dr-HPV at 6 and 12 months following a CC screening campaign. Methods: This study was carried out at the Dschang District Hospital, Cameroon...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Andrew R DiNardo, Alexander W Kay, Gugu Maphalala, Nadine M Harris, Celia Fung, Godwin Mtetwa, Pilar Ustero, Sindisiwe Dlamini, Ngan Ha, Edward A Graviss, Rojelio Mejia, Anna M Mandalakas
A quantifiable, stool-based, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) test has potential complementary value to respiratory specimens. Limit of detection (LOD) was determined by spiking control stool. Clinical test performance was evaluated in a cohort with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) ( N = 166) and asymptomatic household TB child contacts ( N = 105). Stool-quantifiable polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results were compared with sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert MTB/RIF), and cultures...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Y Merid, Y Woldeamanuel, M Abebe, D G Datiko, T Hailu, G Habtamu, G Assefa, R R Kempker, H M Blumberg, A Aseffa
SETTING: Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). RESULTS: Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Martha Kestler, Patricia Muñoz, Miriam Mateos, Daniel Adrados, Emilio Bouza
BACKGROUND: information on the role of RSV in adult patients with influenza-like syndrome is scarce. AIM: To assess the clinical characteristics of RSV in adult patients with respiratory manifestations during a regular influenza season. METHODS: Prospective study in a tertiary Spanish hospital from December 2015 to February 2016. Study population included only adult patients with either community-acquired or hospital/healthcare-associated influenza-like illness, accordingly to the ECDC criteria...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Xiaofu Pan, Shoufeng Yang, Margaret A Deighton, Yue Qu, Liang Hong, Feifei Su
Introduction: The Xpert MTB/RIF is recommended by the World Health Organization as a first line rapid test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); however, China does not routinely use this test, partially due to the lack of a sufficient number of systematic evaluations of this assay in local patients. The aims of this study were to comprehensively assess the diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, either alone or in combination with conventional assays for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in adult Chinese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
W Ng'ambi, S Gugsa, H Tweya, B Girma, H Kanyerere, I Dambe, Y Babaye, J Mpunga, S Phiri
Setting: Public health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in Malawi. Objectives: Using routinely collected health service delivery data to describe trends in HIV ascertainment and use of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay to diagnose TB among HIV-positive presumptive TB cases. Design: This was an implementation study of presumptive TB cases who sought care from 21 facilities between April 2014 and June 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise patient, facility and service level characteristics...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
Husain Poonawala, Surbhi Leekha, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Mala Filippell, J Kristie Johnson, Robert R Redfield, Kapil K Saharia
BACKGROUNDHospitalized patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) are placed in airborne isolation until 3 sputum smear samples are negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay ("Xpert") nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and resistance to rifampicin is superior to AFB sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of TB.OBJECTIVETo compare the performance of a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy for time to airborne infection isolation (AII) discontinuation...
May 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
M Gidado, N Nwokoye, P Nwadike, P Ajiboye, R Eneogu, S Useni, J Onazi, A Lawanson, E Elom, A Tubi, J Kuye
Setting: Nigeria, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. Objective: To study the rate, distribution and causes of unsuccessful Xpert® MTB/RIF test outcomes, with the aim of identifying key areas that need to be strengthened for optimal performance of the assay. Design: This was a retrospective analysis of data uploaded between January and December 2015 from Xpert facilities to the central server using GXAlert. Result: Of 52 219 test results uploaded from 176 Xpert machines, 22.5% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 10...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Ignacio Monedero-Recuero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Fenella Beynon, Grant Theron, Durval Respeito, Edson Mambuque, Belen Saavedra, Helder Bulo, Sergi Sanz, Keertan Dheda, Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro
Traditionally, smear microscopy has been used as a point-of-care measure of bacillary burden in tuberculosis patients to inform infection control and contact tracing. Xpert MTB/RIF has the potential to replace smear. However, data to support the use of its quantitative output [cycle threshold (CT )] as an alternate point-of-care measure of bacillary burden are limited. This study assessed the correlation (Spearman's) between CT , smear, culture time-to-positivity (TTP), and clinical factors in patients with Xpert-positive sputum from Mozambique (n = 238) and South Africa (n = 462)...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gerhard Walzl, Ruth McNerney, Nelita du Plessis, Matthew Bates, Timothy D McHugh, Novel N Chegou, Alimuddin Zumla
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and detection of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis is essential for achieving global tuberculosis control. Despite the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the first-line rapid tuberculosis diagnostic test, the gap between global estimates of incidence and new case notifications is 4·1 million people. More accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests are needed to improve case detection...
March 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Ali A Rabaan, Shatha A Alfaraj, Mohammed A Alkhalifah
PURPOSE: Cytological and histological cervical screening methods for human papillomavirus may be subjective. Current guidelines recommend the use of direct human papillomavirus screening by molecular methods in conjunction with cytology for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus types with carcinogenic potential. In this study, we compared the performance of the molecular Cepheid Xpert HPV test to the FDA-approved HC2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test on samples from patients presenting for cervical screening, regardless of the cytology results, in which cervical cell samples were originally collected for Papanicolaou (Pap) smear specimens in Becton Dickinson (BD) SurePath preservative fluid...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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