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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430807/diagnosis-of-smear-negative-tuberculosis-is-greatly-improved-by-xpert-mtb-rif
#1
Giulia Lombardi, Valentina Di Gregori, Nicolò Girometti, Marina Tadolini, Francesco Bisognin, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pulmonary (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in smear-negative patients can be difficult. We assessed retrospectively the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF system (Xpert, Cepheid) in diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), which represents the most common form of TB in a low incidence setting. METHODS: Performance of Xpert was compared to acid-fast microscopic examination using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain in patients with culture-confirmed TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425873/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-and-sputum-smear-negative-pulmonary-suspects-using-xpert-mtb-rif
#2
Irfan Ullah, Arshad Javaid, Haleema Masud, Mazhar Ali, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Faisal Younis, Rehana Yasmin, Afsar Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Masroor Husain, Zahid Ahmad Butt
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of drug resistance are very important for timely and appropriate management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance in extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413202/conventional-versus-molecular-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-among-males-in-a-sexually-transmitted-infections-clinic
#3
S F Situ, C H Ding, S Nawi, A Johar, R Ramli
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are important bacterial pathogens of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. This study sought to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of conventional methods against a rapid molecular method in detecting STIs caused by these bacteria. METHODS: Ninety five first-time male attendees of the Genito-urinary Medicine Clinic in Hospital Kuala Lumpur were included in this cross-sectional study...
April 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413105/investigation-of-omnigene%C3%A2-sputum-performance-in-delayed-tuberculosis-testing-by-smear-culture-and-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rif-assays-in-uganda
#4
Cassandra D Kelly-Cirino, P S Curry
OMNIgene·SPUTUM (OM-S) is a sample transport reagent designed to work with all tuberculosis diagnostics while eliminating the need for cold chain. OM-S-treated sputum samples were assayed in several tests after multiday holds. Raw sputa from 100 patients underwent direct smear microscopy, were manually split and assigned to the OM-S group [OM-S added at collection (no other processing required) and tested after 0- to 5-day holds at room temperature] or standard-of-care (SOC) group (NaOH/N-acetyl l-cysteine decontamination, all tested on day of collection)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411078/performance-of-the-xpert-%C3%A2-carba-r-v2-in-the-daily-workflow-of-a-hygiene-unit-in-a-country-with-a-low-prevalence-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#5
Yannick Hoyos, Souad Ouzani, Laurent Dortet, Nicolas Fortineau, Thierry Naas
Early detection of patients colonised with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is crucial for implementing proper infection control measures. Here we evaluated the biological performance of the Xpert(®) Carba-R v2 (Cepheid) in the daily workflow of a hygiene unit in a country with a low CPE prevalence. Patients repatriated from countries known for high CPE prevalence or contact patients of a known CPE carrier were targeted as being 'high-risk patients' for CPE carriage. Between September 2015 and March 2016, 241 'high-risk patients' for CPE carriage were screened using the Xpert(®) Carba-R v2 and by plating on chromID(®) CARBA Smart medium (bioMérieux) with and without ertapenem-containing enrichment culture for 24 h...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399964/pooling-sputum-samples-to-improve-the-feasibility-of-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-in-systematic-screening-for-tuberculosis
#6
J Ho, P Jelfs, P T B Nguyen, V Sintchenko, G J Fox, G B Marks
SETTING: Systematic screening for tuberculosis (TB) using Xpert® MTB/RIF. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pooling sputum samples for Xpert testing may improve the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of Xpert by reducing the number of Xpert tests required. DESIGN: Mycobacterium tuberculosis-spiked sputum samples at low organism concentrations were used to mimic samples that are more likely to be found in the screening, compared to the diagnostic, setting...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399963/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-cycle-threshold-level-to-predict-smear-positivity-a-meta-analysis
#7
B Lange, P Khan, G Kalmambetova, H A Al-Darraji, D Alland, U Antonenka, T Brown, M E Balcells, R Blakemore, C M Denkinger, K Dheda, H Hoffmann, A Kadyrov, N Lemaitre, M B Miller, V Nikolayevskyy, E N Ntinginya, N Ozkutuk, J J Palacios, E B Popowitch, J M Porcel, J Teo, G Theron, K Kranzer
SETTING: Xpert® MTB/RIF is the most widely used molecular assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The number of polymerase chain reaction cycles after which detectable product is generated (cycle threshold value, CT) correlates with the bacillary burden.OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between Xpert CT values and smear status through a systematic review and individual-level data meta-analysis. DESIGN: Studies on the association between CT values and smear status were included in a descriptive systematic review...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391384/the-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-spondylodiscitis
#8
Justin Arockiaraj, Joy S Michael, Rohit Amritanand, Kenny Samuel David, Venkatesh Krishnan
PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of tubercular spondylodiscitis and to identify its role in detecting Rifampicin resistance in patients with infective spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A retrospective study including 348 patients suspected to have infective spondylodiscitis was done. Tissue/pus samples obtained were sent for culture, histopathology and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. All patients who were confirmed to have tubercular spondylodiscitis and those patients who were suspected on clinico-radiological basis were also treated with anti-tuberculous chemotherapy for a period of 9 months...
April 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380276/microscopic-observation-drug-susceptibility-assay-vs-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-a-rural-african-setting-a-cost-utility-analysis
#9
Philip Erick Wikman-Jorgensen, Jara Llenas-García, Tomàs María Pérez-Porcuna, Michael Hobbins, Jochen Ehmer, Manuel Aly Mussa, Carlos Ascaso
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-utility of Microscopic Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay (MODS) and Xpert(®) MTB/RIF implementation for TB diagnosis in rural northern Mozambique. METHODS: Stochastic transmission compartmental TB model from the health care provider perspective with parameter input from direct measurements, systematic literature reviews, and expert opinion. MODS and Xpert(®) MTB/RIF were evaluated as replacement test of smear microscopy (SM) or as an add-on test after a negative SM...
April 5, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372894/the-additional-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-the-diagnosis-of-intrathoracic-tuberculous-lymphadenitis
#10
Jinwoo Lee, Sun Mi Choi, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Jae-Joon Yim, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young Sik Park
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis remains a challenge because of difficulties in obtaining adequate tissue and the lack of a sensitive test. Recently, Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary TB, but it has not yet been widely validated in intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis. The aim of this study was to assess the additional role of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) specimen...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358797/evaluation-of-automated-molecular-testing-rollout-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-using-routinely-collected-surveillance-data-uganda-2012-2015
#11
Colleen Scott, Simon Walusimbi, Bruce Kirenga, Moses Joloba, Muttamba Winters, Nyombi Abdunoor, Rommel Bain, Heather Alexander, Tom Shinnick, Sean Toney, Rosemary Odeke, Christine Mwangi, Estella Birabwa, Seyoum Dejene, Frank Mugabe, Mukadi YaDiul, J Sean Cavanaugh
In 2012, Uganda introduced the use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA), a sensitive, automated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based platform for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, for programmatic use among children, adults with presumptive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated TB, and symptomatic persons at risk for rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB. The effect of using the platform's Xpert MTB/RIF assay on TB care and control was assessed using routinely collected programmatic data; in addition, a retrospective review of district quarterly summaries using abstracted TB register data from purposively selected facilities in the capital city of Kampala was conducted...
March 31, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356417/use-of-ancillary-carbapenemase-tests-to-improve-specificity-of-phenotypic-definitions-for-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#12
Shelley A Miller, Janet A Hindler, Angelo Chengcuenca, Romney M Humphries
Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are a significant threat to public health. In 2015, CDC revised the surveillance definition for CPE to include all Enterobacteriaceae resistant to any carbapenem tested. However, this definition is associated with poor specificity. We evaluated the performance of this definition for a collection of 125 Enterobacteriaceae, as compared to carbapenemase PCR. We also investigated the impact of ancillary testing for carbapenemase of isolates that met the CDC CPE surveillance definition...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356081/the-prevalence-of-hiv-among-adults-with-pulmonary-tb-at-a-population-level-in-zambia
#13
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Eveline Klinkenberg, Martin P Grobusch, Frank Cobelens
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection is one of the main drivers of poor outcome for both diseases in Zambia. HIV infection has been found to predict TB infection/disease and TB has been reported as a major cause of death among individuals with HIV. Improving case detection of TB/HIV co-infection has the potential to lead to early treatment of both conditions and can impact positively on treatment outcomes. This study was conducted in order to determine the HIV prevalence among adults with tuberculosis in a national prevalence survey setting in Zambia, 2013-2014...
March 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351283/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-hospital-in-china
#14
Tingyu Tang, Fang Liu, Xiaoling Lu, Qingdong Huang
Objective To evaluate the performance of GeneXpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in China. Methods This cross-sectional study included sputum specimens of 240 suspected TB cases. Specimens were examined by light microscopy for the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which were cultured by the BACTEC MGIT 960 (M960) system and detected by the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. The positive rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and average turnaround time of methods were evaluated...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#15
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 PCR platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PEP) and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321579/performance-of-three-generations-of-xpert-mrsa-in-routine-practice-approaching-the-aim
#16
H Jacqmin, A Schuermans, S Desmet, J Verhaegen, V Saegeman
The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the performance of the Xpert MRSA assay in routine practice and its current use in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting of our hospital, since a pre-emptive isolation strategy has been applied. A total of 6473 patients were routinely screened with ESwab for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using three generations of rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Cepheid GeneXpert) over three consecutive periods of time. Performance was evaluated using broth enrichment culture as the reference method...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320384/diagnostic-accuracy-incremental-yield-and-prognostic-value-of-determine-tb-lam-for-routine-diagnostic-testing-for-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-requiring-acute-hospital-admission-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort
#17
Stephen D Lawn, Andrew D Kerkhoff, Rosie Burton, Charlotte Schutz, Andrew Boulle, Monica Vogt, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Mark P Nicol, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of urine-based, routine, point-of-care TB screening is an attractive intervention that might be facilitated by use of a simple, low-cost diagnostic tool, such as the Determine TB-LAM lateral-flow rapid test for HIV-associated TB...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318702/antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-clinical-characteristics-and-the-presence-of-clostridium-difficile
#18
A Rodríguez-Varón, O M Muñoz, J Pulido-Arenas, S B Amado, M Tobón-Trujillo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Evidence in Colombia and Latin America has been insufficient for establishing the clinical characteristics of patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). The present study attempts to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with AAD and to determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with AAD, managed at the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio in Bogotá, Colombia, were evaluated...
March 18, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317811/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#19
Pascal Polepole, Mwila Kabwe, Mpanga Kasonde, John Tembo, Aaron Shibemba, Justin O'Grady, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which accounts for 10%-40% of the global burden of TB, with the highest incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosing EPTB is challenging, and recently, there has been a concerted effort to evaluate the latest molecular diagnostics for diagnosing TB in a range of specimen types. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is one such technology, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317800/are-who-approved-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-causing-large-scale-false-identification-of-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-programmatic-experience-from-south-india
#20
Praveen Sanker, Anusree P Ambika, Vishnu T Santhosh, Ramya Puthukkudi Kottuthodi, Ravikrishnan Balakrishnan, Sunil Kumar Mrithunjayan, Hisham Moosan
INTRODUCTION: The nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs): Line probe assay and GeneXpert (Xpert) have evolved as the primary tool for identification of rifampicin (RIF)-resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, primarily because of the ease and speed. We rechecked RR isolates identified by NAATs from presumptive RR TB cases belonging to South India by the Revised National TB Control Program, India using multiple RIF concentrations on Bactec MGIT system and compared the mutation patterns with the resistance levels...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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