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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913312/crossborder-travel-and-multidrugresistant-tuberculosis-mdrtb-in-europe
#1
Alberto Matteelli, Rosella Centis, Giorgia Sulis, Marina Tadolini
The number of international migrants worldwide has continued to grow rapidly over the past fifteen years and the trend is expected to continue, making the health matters associated with migration a crucial public health challenges faced by governments and societies. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a paradigm of transmissible diseases that do not respect borders and poses a multifaceted and complex challenge on migrant health. The guiding principles for the health response are the respect of equity and human rights as well as the accurate analysis of epidemiological trends and determinants of TB in migrants...
November 29, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865235/role-of-real-time-pcr-for-detection-of-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance-directly-from-clinical-samples
#2
Parashuram Rao, Kiran Chawla, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies done earlier in India reveal the utility of real-time PCR in detecting drug resistance in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: The study was carried out to standardise real-time PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR, qPCR) targeting 16s RNA for the rapid detection of tuberculosis and its drug resistance from suspected TB patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sputum samples from 100 clinically suspected tuberculosis patients, after processing were subjected to microscopy, MGIT culture and qPCR...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865234/rapid-detection-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-tb-strains-from-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-cases-isolated-from-smear-negative-pulmonary-samples-in-an-intermediate-reference-laboratory-in-india
#3
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, Sanjeev Saini, Ashwani Khanna, Srashty Sharma, Zeeshan Sidiq, Vasim Ahmed, Manoj Dubey, K K Chopra, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of the study were first, to determine the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative sputum samples through liquid culture (using MGIT 960) and solid culture (using LJ slant) and second, to screen multidrug-resistant isolates through line probe assay and further third, to identify XDR isolates through MGIT second-line DST from these positive MDR cultures in Delhi region...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847013/fluorescein-diacetate-vital-staining-for-detecting-viability-of-acid-fast-bacilli-in-patients-on-antituberculosis-treatment
#4
Swapna Kanade, Gita Nataraj, Milind Ubale, Preeti Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of FDA vital staining method in detecting viability of acid fast bacilli in comparison with culture and also its correlation with conventional drug susceptibility testing results for isoniazid and rifampicin. DESIGN: The study was conducted from Jan 2014 to June 2015. Sputum samples of patients taking either Cat I or Cat II anti-TB treatment were tested by Ziehl Neelsen and FDA staining, culture and susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid at the end of intensive phase...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810439/preliminary-sar-and-biological-evaluation-of-antitubercular-triazolothiadiazine-derivatives-against-drug-susceptible-and-drug-resistant-mtb-strains
#5
Ziqiang Li, Xiaoguang Bai, Qi Deng, Guoning Zhang, Lei Zhou, Yishuang Liu, Juxian Wang, Yucheng Wang
Following up the SAR study of triazolothiadiazoles for their antitubercular activities targeting Mt SD in our previous study, on the principle of scaffold hopping, the C3 and C6 positions of triazolothiadiazine were examined systematically to define a preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) with respect to biological activity. This study herein highlights the potential of two highly potent advanced leads 6c-3, 6g-3 and several other compounds with comparable potencies as promising new candidates for the treatment of TB (6c-3, MIC-H37Rv=0...
October 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621303/impact-of-infection-control-measures-to-control-an-outbreak-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-ward-peru
#6
Eduardo Ticona, Luz Huaroto, Daniela E Kirwan, Milagros Chumpitaz, César V Munayco, Mónica Maguiña, Marco A Tovar, Carlton A Evans, Roderick Escombe, Robert H Gilman
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) rates in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care facility increased by the year 2000-56% of TB cases, eight times the national MDRTB rate. We reported the effect of tuberculosis infection control measures that were introduced in 2001 and that consisted of 1) building a respiratory isolation ward with mechanical ventilation, 2) triage segregation of patients, 3) relocation of waiting room to outdoors, 4) rapid sputum smear microscopy, and 5) culture/drug-susceptibility testing with the microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149451/the-role-of-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-therapeutic-resection-for-medically-failed-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
Yau-Lin Tseng, Jia-Ming Chang, Yi-Sheng Liu, Lili Cheng, Ying-Yuan Chen, Ming-Ho Wu, Chung-Lan Lu, Yi-Ting Yen
There are few reports regarding video-assisted thoracoscopic therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We reviewed our surgical results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) therapeutic resection for pulmonary TB with medical failure, and its correlation with image characteristics on chest computed tomography (CT) scan.Between January 2007 and December 2012, among the 203 patients who had surgery for TB, the medical records of 89 patients undergoing therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary TB were reviewed...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076658/multicenter-noninferiority-evaluation-of-hain-genotype-mtbdrplus-version-2-and-nipro-ntm-mdrtb-line-probe-assays-for-detection-of-rifampin-and-isoniazid-resistance
#8
Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Doris Hillemann, Samuel G Schumacher, Birte Schlueter, Nazir Ismail, Shaheed Vally Omar, Welile Sikhondze, Joshua Havumaki, Eloise Valli, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
Less than 30% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients are currently diagnosed, due to laboratory constraints. Molecular diagnostics enable rapid and simplified diagnosis. Newer-version line probe assays have not been evaluated against the WHO-endorsed Hain GenoType MTBDRplus (referred to as Hain version 1 [V1]) for the rapid detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. A two-phase noninferiority study was conducted in two supranational reference laboratories to allow head-to-head comparisons of two new tests, Hain Genotype MTBDRplus version 2 (referred to as Hain version 2 [V2]) and Nipro NTM+MDRTB detection kit 2 (referred to as Nipro), to Hain V1...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039310/what-can-we-offer-to-3-million-mdrtb-household-contacts-in-2016
#9
REVIEW
David A J Moore
The diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in any individual is the beginning of a prolonged and difficult therapeutic journey. It also marks the moment from which to begin consideration of how to manage close contacts. Preventive therapy for drug-susceptible latent tuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to be effective at reducing the risk of future disease; the stakes are higher when considering prevention of MDR-TB because treatment of active disease is more prolonged and toxic and much less effective...
April 1, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970460/multidrug-resistant-tb-among-previously-treated-tb-cases-a-retrospective-study-in-nagpur-india
#10
Radha Munje, Rajesh Deshmukh, Kondeshwar Tumane
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a major public health concern and threat for tuberculosis control efforts worldwide. Globally, 3.6% of new TB cases and 20.2% of previously treated cases, are estimated to have MDR-TB. The prevalence of MDR-TB in India has been estimated to be 1-3% in new TB cases and around 12-14% in previously treated TB cases. There is limited information of the trends of MDRTB among various types of previously treated cases, i.e. relapse, treatment after failure, treatment after default and other cases...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26874220/detection-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-in-brazil-using-a-multimarker-genetic-assay-for-katg-and-rpob-genes
#11
Luita Nice Café Oliveira, Jairo da Silva Muniz-Sobrinho, Luiz Alexandre Viana-Magno, Sônia Cristina Oliveira Melo, Antonio Macho, Fabrício Rios-Santos
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) is a serious world health problem that limits public actions to control tuberculosis, because the most used anti-tuberculosis first-line drugs fail to stop mycobacterium spread. Consequently, a quick detection through molecular diagnosis is essential to reduce morbidity and medical costs. Despite the availability of several molecular-based commercial-kits to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, their diagnostic value might diverge worldwide since Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic variability differs according to geographic location...
March 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26555649/genotypic-assessment-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-baghdad-and-other-iraqi-provinces-using-low-cost-and-low-density-dna-microarrays
#12
Dalal Saleh Al-Rubaye, Grace Henihan, Ameraa K Abas Al-Abasly, Amie-Louise Seagar, Azhar Ab F Al-Attraqchi, Holger Schulze, Dhafer Salman Hashim, Jinan Khalid Kamil, Ian F Laurenson, Till T Bachmann
We report on a molecular investigation carried out to ascertain the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the specific gene mutations responsible for resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) in Iraq. In total, 110 clinical isolates from category II TB cases from Baghdad (58%) and several Iraqi provinces (42%) were analysed using colorimetric, low-cost and low-density (LCD) microarrays (MYCO-Direct and MYCO-Resist LCD array kits) to identify the point mutations responsible for resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
February 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26529092/determinants-of-the-sympatric-host-pathogen-relationship-in-tuberculosis
#13
Susana David, A R A Mateus, Elsa L Duarte, José Albuquerque, Clara Portugal, Luísa Sancho, João Lavinha, Guilherme Gonçalves
Major contributions from pathogen genome analysis and host genetics have equated the possibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-evolution with its human host leading to more stable sympatric host-pathogen relationships. However, the attribution to either sympatric or allopatric categories depends on the resolution or grain of genotypic characterization. We explored the influence on the sympatric host-pathogen relationship of clinical (HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis [MDRTB]) and demographic (gender and age) factors in regards to the genotypic grain by using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) for classification of M...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444417/comparison-of-characteristics-and-mortality-in-multidrug-resistant-mdr-and-non-mdr-tuberculosis-patients-in-china
#14
Yanni Sun, David Harley, Hassan Vally, Adrian Sleigh
BACKGROUND: We conducted a cohort study to compare the characteristics of MDR-TB with non-MDR-TB patients and to measure long term (9-year) mortality rate and determine factors associated with death in China. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 250 TB cases from a 2001 survey to compare 100 MDR-TB patients with 150 non-MDR-TB patients who were treated in 2001-2002. Baseline attributes extracted from the records were compared between the two cohorts and long-term mortality and risk factors were determined at nine-year follow-up in 2010...
2015: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26301748/patient-and-provider-reported-reasons-for-lost-to-follow-up-in-mdrtb-treatment-a-qualitative-study-from-a-drug-resistant-tb-centre-in-india
#15
Rajesh D Deshmukh, D J Dhande, Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva, Achuthan Sreenivas, A M V Kumar, Srinath Satyanarayana, Malik Parmar, Patrick K Moonan, Terrence Q Lo
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) is emerging public health concern globally. Lost to follow-up (LTFU) is one of the key challenge in MDRTB treatment. In 2013, 18% of MDR TB patients were reported LTFU in India. A qualitative study was conducted to obtain better understanding of both patient and provider related factors for LTFU among MDR TB treatment. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured personal interviews were conducted with 20 MDRTB patients reported as LTFU and 10 treatment providers in seven districts linked to Nagpur Drug resistant TB Centre (DRTBC) during August 2012-February 2013...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26164355/resistance-profile-and-risk-factors-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-the-baltic-countries
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Olga Ignatyeva, Yanina Balabanova, Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Ekaterina Koshkarova, Birute Radiulyte, Edita Davidaviciene, Vija Riekstina, Kadri Jaama, Manfred Danilovits, Cristina M Popa, Francis A Drobniewski
The rates of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (X/MDRTB) in the Baltic countries are the highest within the European Union hampering recent achievements of national TB control programmes. We included all consecutive culture-confirmed X/MDRTB patients registered for treatment in 2009 in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia into this multicenter case-control study. Cases were compared with randomly selected controls with non-MDRTB registered for treatment in the same year across these sites. Of 495 MDRTB patients, 243 (49...
September 2015: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26103620/transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-and-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis-within-households-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Louis Grandjean, Robert H Gilman, Laura Martin, Esther Soto, Beatriz Castro, Sonia Lopez, Jorge Coronel, Edith Castillo, Valentina Alarcon, Virginia Lopez, Angela San Miguel, Neyda Quispe, Luis Asencios, Christopher Dye, David A J Moore
BACKGROUND: The "fitness" of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among the contacts of drug-susceptible index patients...
June 2015: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26047953/evaluation-of-microscopic-observation-drug-susceptibility-mods-and-the-string-test-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hiv-aids-patients-in-bolivia
#18
Meredith H Lora, Melissa J Reimer-McAtee, Robert H Gilman, Daniel Lozano, Ruth Saravia, Monica Pajuelo, Caryn Bern, Rosario Castro, Magaly Espinoza, Maya Vallejo, Marco Solano, Roxana Challapa, Faustino Torrico
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people worldwide. Diagnosing TB is difficult, and is more challenging in resource-scarce settings where culture-based diagnostic methods rely on poorly sensitive smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study examining the diagnostic utility of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility liquid culture (MODS) versus traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and Lowenstein Jensen culture (LJ) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in HIV-infected patients in Bolivia...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25908975/tackling-challenges-of-tb-mdrtb-in-china-concerted-actions-are-imperative
#19
Shenglan Tang
China is the second largest TB epidemic with the most number of people infected with multi-drug resistant (MDR). Over the past decade, a large number of TB control projects have been funded by the government of China and international organizations, and epidemic in China has been effectively controlled. However TB control in China still faced many challenges. Strategies to address these challenges may include integrating the national TB control program into health insurance schemes, strengthening TB case management through involving the Chinese hospital in national TB control program, and reforming payment methods for TB care as part of health system reform in China...
2015: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25794675/effect-of-a-comprehensive-programme-to-provide-universal-access-to-care-for-sputum-smear-positive-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-china-a-before-and-after-study
#20
Renzhong Li, Yunzhou Ruan, Qiang Sun, Xiexiu Wang, Mingting Chen, Hui Zhang, Yanlin Zhao, Jin Zhao, Cheng Chen, Caihong Xu, Wei Su, Yu Pang, Jun Cheng, Junying Chi, Qian Wang, Yunting Fu, Shitong Huan, Lixia Wang, Yu Wang, Daniel P Chin
BACKGROUND: China has a quarter of all patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) worldwide, but less than 5% are in quality treatment programmes. In a before-and-after study we aimed to assess the effect of a comprehensive programme to provide universal access to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up for MDRTB in four Chinese cities (population 18 million). METHODS: We designated city-level hospitals in each city to diagnose and treat MDRTB. All patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in Center for Disease Control (CDC) clinics and hospitals were tested for MDRTB with molecular and conventional drug susceptibility tests...
April 2015: Lancet Global Health
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