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Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: Spinal tuberculosis (TB) is a common infectious disease prevalent in developing countries and an increasing issue in developed countries. The association of tuberculosis with spondylolisthesis is rarely reported in literature. The aim of our review is to analyze the clinical features and radiologic characteristics of TB spondylolisthesis and to provide a concise update on its surgical management, based on the literature. METHODS: A systematic review was performed after conducting a thorough search of the PubMed database...
June 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kamela Charmaine Ng, Conor Joseph Meehan, Gabriela Torrea, Léonie Goeminne, Maren Diels, Leen Rigouts, Bouke Catherine de Jong, Emmanuel André
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the highest-mortality infectious disease in the world and the main cause of death related to antimicrobial resistance, yet its surveillance is still paper-based. Rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is an urgent public health crisis. The World Health Organization has, since 2010, endorsed a series of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that enable rapid detection of drug-resistant strains and produce large volumes of data. In parallel, most high-burden countries have adopted connectivity solutions that allow linking of diagnostics, real-time capture, and shared repository of these test results...
February 27, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
H G Mamatha, V Shanthi
OBJECTIVES: Pre-existing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients is a major threat in treating MDR-TB. This study was conducted to assess the percentage of FQ resistance among MDR-TB patients and to determine whether there is complete cross-resistance between FQs [ofloxacin (OFX), levofloxacin (LVX) and moxifloxacin (MXF)] used as second-line drugs in MDR-TB treatment. METHODS: Among 879 MDR-TB suspects tested, 68 were confirmed to be MDR-TB and rifampicin (RIF) monoresistant...
March 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
D M P Ramalho, P F C Miranda, M K Andrade, T Brígido, M P Dalcolmo, E Mesquita, C F Dias, A N Gambirasio, J Ueleres Braga, A Detjen, P P J Phillips, I Langley, P I Fujiwara, S B Squire, M M Oliveira, A L Kritski
BACKGROUND: The implementation of rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) is a current global priority for TB control. However, data are scarce on patient-relevant outcomes for presumptive diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (pDR-TB) evaluated under field conditions in high burden countries. METHODS: Observational study of pDR-TB patients referred by primary and secondary health units. TB reference centers addressing DR-TB in five cities in Brazil. Patients age 18 years and older were eligible if pDR-TB, culture positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, if no prior DST results from another laboratory were used by a physician to start anti-TB treatment...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Edson W Mollel, Jaffu O Chilongola
PROBLEM: Factors related to MDRTB mortality in Tanzania have not been adequately explored and reported. OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic, clinical, radiographic, and laboratory factors associated with MDRTB mortality in a Tanzanian TB Referral Hospital. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study with 193 participants. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected, and their associations with mortality among MDRTB patients were determined...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Patrick G T Cudahy, Samuel G Schumacher, Karen R Steingart, Madhukar Pai, Claudia M Denkinger
Only 25% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases are currently diagnosed. Line probe assays (LPAs) enable rapid drug-susceptibility testing for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance and Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection. Genotype MTBDRplusV1 was WHO-endorsed in 2008 but newer LPAs have since been developed.This systematic review evaluated three LPAs: Hain Genotype MTBDRplusV1, MTBDRplusV2 and Nipro NTM+MDRTB. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2. Bivariate random-effects meta-analyses were performed for direct and indirect testing...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Arun Kumar Yadav, Ashok Kumar Mehrotra, S P Agnihotri, Shivani Swami
BACKGROUND: CAT IV regimen or the standardized drug regimen (SDR) under the Revised National Control Program (RNTCP) uses six second-line anti-tubercular drugs in the initial intensive phase (IP). These drugs have many side effects and toxicity; they are less efficacious and have poor acceptability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of Cat-IV regimen and the factors which influence the treatment outcome in MDR TB patients. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study, which was done in the CAT II treatment failure, LPA proven MDR TB patients, above the age of 18 years, who were referred to DOTS Plus center for treatment...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Alberto Matteelli, Rosella Centis, Giorgia Sulis, Marina Tadolini
The number of international migrants worldwide has continued to grow rapidly over the past fifteen years and the trend is expected to continue, making the health matters associated with migration a crucial public health challenges faced by governments and societies. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a paradigm of transmissible diseases that do not respect borders and poses a multifaceted and complex challenge on migrant health. The guiding principles for the health response are the respect of equity and human rights as well as the accurate analysis of epidemiological trends and determinants of TB in migrants...
November 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Parashuram Rao, Kiran Chawla, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies done earlier in India reveal the utility of real-time PCR in detecting drug resistance in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: The study was carried out to standardise real-time PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR, qPCR) targeting 16s RNA for the rapid detection of tuberculosis and its drug resistance from suspected TB patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sputum samples from 100 clinically suspected tuberculosis patients, after processing were subjected to microscopy, MGIT culture and qPCR...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, Sanjeev Saini, Ashwani Khanna, Srashty Sharma, Zeeshan Sidiq, Vasim Ahmed, Manoj Dubey, K K Chopra, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of the study were first, to determine the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative sputum samples through liquid culture (using MGIT 960) and solid culture (using LJ slant) and second, to screen multidrug-resistant isolates through line probe assay and further third, to identify XDR isolates through MGIT second-line DST from these positive MDR cultures in Delhi region...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Swapna Kanade, Gita Nataraj, Milind Ubale, Preeti Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of FDA vital staining method in detecting viability of acid fast bacilli in comparison with culture and also its correlation with conventional drug susceptibility testing results for isoniazid and rifampicin. DESIGN: The study was conducted from Jan 2014 to June 2015. Sputum samples of patients taking either Cat I or Cat II anti-TB treatment were tested by Ziehl Neelsen and FDA staining, culture and susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid at the end of intensive phase...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Ziqiang Li, Xiaoguang Bai, Qi Deng, Guoning Zhang, Lei Zhou, Yishuang Liu, Juxian Wang, Yucheng Wang
Following up the SAR study of triazolothiadiazoles for their antitubercular activities targeting Mt SD in our previous study, on the principle of scaffold hopping, the C3 and C6 positions of triazolothiadiazine were examined systematically to define a preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) with respect to biological activity. This study herein highlights the potential of two highly potent advanced leads 6c-3, 6g-3 and several other compounds with comparable potencies as promising new candidates for the treatment of TB (6c-3, MIC-H37Rv=0...
January 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Eduardo Ticona, Luz Huaroto, Daniela E Kirwan, Milagros Chumpitaz, César V Munayco, Mónica Maguiña, Marco A Tovar, Carlton A Evans, Roderick Escombe, Robert H Gilman
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) rates in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care facility increased by the year 2000-56% of TB cases, eight times the national MDRTB rate. We reported the effect of tuberculosis infection control measures that were introduced in 2001 and that consisted of 1) building a respiratory isolation ward with mechanical ventilation, 2) triage segregation of patients, 3) relocation of waiting room to outdoors, 4) rapid sputum smear microscopy, and 5) culture/drug-susceptibility testing with the microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yau-Lin Tseng, Jia-Ming Chang, Yi-Sheng Liu, Lili Cheng, Ying-Yuan Chen, Ming-Ho Wu, Chung-Lan Lu, Yi-Ting Yen
There are few reports regarding video-assisted thoracoscopic therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We reviewed our surgical results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) therapeutic resection for pulmonary TB with medical failure, and its correlation with image characteristics on chest computed tomography (CT) scan.Between January 2007 and December 2012, among the 203 patients who had surgery for TB, the medical records of 89 patients undergoing therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary TB were reviewed...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Doris Hillemann, Samuel G Schumacher, Birte Schlueter, Nazir Ismail, Shaheed Vally Omar, Welile Sikhondze, Joshua Havumaki, Eloise Valli, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
Less than 30% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients are currently diagnosed, due to laboratory constraints. Molecular diagnostics enable rapid and simplified diagnosis. Newer-version line probe assays have not been evaluated against the WHO-endorsed Hain GenoType MTBDRplus (referred to as Hain version 1 [V1]) for the rapid detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. A two-phase noninferiority study was conducted in two supranational reference laboratories to allow head-to-head comparisons of two new tests, Hain Genotype MTBDRplus version 2 (referred to as Hain version 2 [V2]) and Nipro NTM+MDRTB detection kit 2 (referred to as Nipro), to Hain V1...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
David A J Moore
The diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in any individual is the beginning of a prolonged and difficult therapeutic journey. It also marks the moment from which to begin consideration of how to manage close contacts. Preventive therapy for drug-susceptible latent tuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to be effective at reducing the risk of future disease; the stakes are higher when considering prevention of MDR-TB because treatment of active disease is more prolonged and toxic and much less effective...
April 1, 2016: BMC Medicine
Radha Munje, Rajesh Deshmukh, Kondeshwar Tumane
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a major public health concern and threat for tuberculosis control efforts worldwide. Globally, 3.6% of new TB cases and 20.2% of previously treated cases, are estimated to have MDR-TB. The prevalence of MDR-TB in India has been estimated to be 1-3% in new TB cases and around 12-14% in previously treated TB cases. There is limited information of the trends of MDRTB among various types of previously treated cases, i.e. relapse, treatment after failure, treatment after default and other cases...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Luita Nice Café Oliveira, Jairo da Silva Muniz-Sobrinho, Luiz Alexandre Viana-Magno, Sônia Cristina Oliveira Melo, Antonio Macho, Fabrício Rios-Santos
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) is a serious world health problem that limits public actions to control tuberculosis, because the most used anti-tuberculosis first-line drugs fail to stop mycobacterium spread. Consequently, a quick detection through molecular diagnosis is essential to reduce morbidity and medical costs. Despite the availability of several molecular-based commercial-kits to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, their diagnostic value might diverge worldwide since Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic variability differs according to geographic location...
March 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dalal Saleh Al-Rubaye, Grace Henihan, Ameraa K Abas Al-Abasly, Amie-Louise Seagar, Azhar Ab F Al-Attraqchi, Holger Schulze, Dhafer Salman Hashim, Jinan Khalid Kamil, Ian F Laurenson, Till T Bachmann
We report on a molecular investigation carried out to ascertain the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the specific gene mutations responsible for resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) in Iraq. In total, 110 clinical isolates from category II TB cases from Baghdad (58%) and several Iraqi provinces (42%) were analysed using colorimetric, low-cost and low-density (LCD) microarrays (MYCO-Direct and MYCO-Resist LCD array kits) to identify the point mutations responsible for resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
February 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Susana David, A R A Mateus, Elsa L Duarte, José Albuquerque, Clara Portugal, Luísa Sancho, João Lavinha, Guilherme Gonçalves
Major contributions from pathogen genome analysis and host genetics have equated the possibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-evolution with its human host leading to more stable sympatric host-pathogen relationships. However, the attribution to either sympatric or allopatric categories depends on the resolution or grain of genotypic characterization. We explored the influence on the sympatric host-pathogen relationship of clinical (HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis [MDRTB]) and demographic (gender and age) factors in regards to the genotypic grain by using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) for classification of M...
2015: PloS One
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