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Childhood TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817675/deaths-during-tuberculosis-treatment-among-paediatric-patients-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#1
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Muktar A Gadanya, Auwalu U Gajida, Taiwo G Amole, Imam W Bello, Safiya Gambo, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of children that started TB treatment between 2010 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777205/rapid-accurate-identification-of-tuberculous-meningitis-among-south-african-children-using-a-novel-clinical-decision-tool
#2
Anu Goenka, Prakash M Jeena, Koleka Mlisana, Tom Solomon, Kevin Spicer, Rebecca Stephenson, Arpana Verma, Barnesh Dhada, Michael J Griffiths
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is crucial to achieve optimum outcomes. There is no effective rapid diagnostic test for use in children. We aimed to develop a clinical decision tool to facilitate the early diagnosis of childhood TBM. METHODS: Retrospective case control study across 7 hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (2010-2014). We identified the variables most predictive of microbiologically confirmed TBM in children (3 months-15 years) by univariate analysis...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777204/better-completion-of-pediatric-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-using-4-months-of-rifampin-in-a-us-based-tuberculosis-clinic
#3
James Gaensbauer, Kaylynn Aiona, Michelle Haas, Randall Reves, Janine Young, Robert Belknap
BACKGROUND: Children less than five years of age have the highest age-specific rate of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease. Therefore, regimens for treatment of pediatric LTBI must be not only efficacious but practical enough to overcome the unique childhood barriers to regimen adherence. Since 2012, a 4-month regimen of daily rifampin (4R) has been the standard recommendation for pediatric LTBI at the Denver Metro Tuberculosis Clinic (DMTBC). METHODS: Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we compared treatment completion rates between 4R and 9-month isoniazid (9H) regimens for all pediatric patients treated for LTBI at the DMTBC between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2015, and assessed the influence of clinical and demographic characteristics on successful completion of the two regimens...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776520/a-neglected-infection-in-literature-childhood-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-most-influential-papers
#4
REVIEW
Michael Held, Marie-Fien Bruins, Sophie Castelein, Maritz Laubscher, Robert Dunn, Sven Hoppe
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is known to have a wide range of presentations, and if left untreated, primary TB may lead to bone and joint involvement. The literature on this topic is very scarce, and no comprehensive systematic review or meta-analysis of the current knowledge is available to date. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the literature with highest impact based on citation rate analysis. All databases of the Thomson and Reuters "Web of Knowledge" were used to conduct our search of the 100 most cited articles on this topic published between 1950 and 2014...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761601/childhood-tuberculosis-management-and-treatment-outcomes-among-children-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Zemene Tigabu Kebede, Belaynew Wasie Taye, Yohannes Hailu Matebe
INTRODUCTION: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) treatment is becoming a major challenge in the TB control efforts of the Ethiopian health system. This study assessed childhood tuberculosis management, and treatment outcomes among children who completed anti-TB treatment in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children who completed their anti-TB treatment in Gondar University Referral Hospital and 6 satellite health centers. Data from each child with tuberculosis were obtained from review of medical records...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754530/tuberculosis-in-children-from-diagnosis-to-decision-to-treat
#6
S Ramos, R Gaio, F Ferreira, J Paulo Leal, S Martins, J Vasco Santos, I Carvalho, R Duarte
SETTING: Confirmation of tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult, so clinicians use different procedures when deciding to treat. OBJECTIVE: Identify criteria to initiate and maintain TB treatment in children younger than 5 years-old, without diagnosis confirmation. DESIGN: A web-based survey was distributed by email to the corresponding authors of journal articles on childhood TB. The observations were clustered into disjoint groups, and analyzed by Ward's method...
July 25, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738015/observational-study-to-estimate-the-changes-in-the-effectiveness-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-with-time-since-vaccination-for-preventing-tuberculosis-in-the-uk
#7
Punam Mangtani, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Ruth H Keogh, Lucy Trinder, Peter G Smith, Paul Em Fine, Jonathan Sterne, Ibrahim Abubakar, Emilia Vynnycky, John Watson, David Elliman, Marc Lipman, Laura C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Until recently, evidence that protection from the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination lasted beyond 10 years was limited. In the past few years, studies in Brazil and the USA (in Native Americans) have suggested that protection from BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) in childhood can last for several decades. The UK's universal school-age BCG vaccination programme was stopped in 2005 and the programme of selective vaccination of high-risk (usually ethnic minority) infants was enhanced...
July 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729186/-tuberculosis-treatment-for-children-an-update
#8
María José Mellado Peña, Begoña Santiago García, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, David Moreno Pérez, Roi Piñeiro Pérez, Ana Méndez Echevarría, José Tomás Ramos Amador, David Gómez-Pastrana Durán, Antoni Noguera Julian
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease...
July 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722691/structural-basis-of-bone-fragility-in-young-subjects-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-high-resolution-pqct-study-of-the-swiss-ibd-cohort-sibdc
#9
Jessica Pepe, Sophie Zawadynski, Francois R Herrmann, Pascal Juillerat, Pierre Michetti, Sylvie Ferrari-Lacraz, Dominique Belli, Osman Ratib, René Rizzoli, Thierry Chevalley, Serge L Ferrari
BACKGROUND: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during childhood/adolescence compromises peak bone mass acquisition and predisposes to fractures later in life. However, the structural basis for bone fragility in young adults with IBD remains unknown. METHODS: One hundred two young subjects from the Swiss IBD cohort were included. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at distal radius, hip, and spine as well as morphometric vertebral fractures were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique...
August 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722570/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-close-childhood-contacts-of-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-is-increased-by-secondhand-exposure-to-tobacco
#10
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Lindsay Kendall, Simon Donkor, Moses D Lugos, Abdulrahman S Hammond, Patrick K Owiafe, Martin O C Ota, Roger H Brookes, Philip C Hill
Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of M. tuberculosis infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood household contacts aged ≤ 14 years of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. The intensity of exposure to the case was categorized according to whether contacts slept in the same room, same house, or a different house as the case...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719497/serologic-responses-in-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Bareng A S Nonyane, Mark P Nicol, Nicholas J Andreas, Stefanie Rimmele, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Lesley J Workman, Mark D Perkins, Thomas Joos, Tobias Broger, Jerrold J Ellner, David Alland, Beate Kampmann, Susan E Dorman, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunoproteome and antigens associated with serologic responses in adults has renewed interest in developing a serologic test for childhood tuberculosis (TB). We investigated IgG antibody responses against M. tuberculosis antigens in children with well-characterized TB. METHODS: We studied archived sera obtained from hospitalized children with suspected pulmonary TB, and classified as having confirmed TB (culture-confirmed), unlikely TB (clinical improvement without TB treatment), or unconfirmed TB (all others)...
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634479/whole-blood-profiling-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-trained-innate-immunity-in-infants-identifies-epidermal-growth-factor-il-6-platelet-derived-growth-factor-ab-bb-and-natural-killer-cell-activation
#12
Steven G Smith, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Mihai G Netea, Hazel M Dockrell
Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598771/barriers-to-initiating-tuberculosis-treatment-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-focused-on-children-and-youth
#13
Brittney J Sullivan, B Emily Esmaili, Coleen K Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease globally, with 10.4 million people infected and more than 1.8 million deaths in 2015. TB is a preventable, treatable, and curable disease, yet there are numerous barriers to initiating treatment. These barriers to treatment are exacerbated in low-resource settings and may be compounded by factors related to childhood. OBJECTIVE: Timely initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is critical to reducing disease transmission and improving patient outcomes...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511392/the-diagnostic-value-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-antigen-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#14
Agustin Iskandar, Erlin Nursiloningrum, Maimun Zulhaidah Arthamin, Ery Olivianto, Mas Slamet Chandrakusuma
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502224/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-an-insight-review
#15
Nityananda Mandal, Parveen Kumar Anand, Subhash Gautam, Shritam Das, Tahziba Hussain
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. It constitutes more than 20% of TB incidence. Pediatric TB exists in the shadow of adult TB. The clinicians concentrate on pulmonary manifestation of TB, whereas it is a major problem in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections. The rate of infection with this disease is mostly associated with poverty, social disruption and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482958/care-seeking-and-treatment-related-delay-among-childhood-tuberculosis-patients-in-delhi-india
#16
A Kalra
OBJECTIVE: To examine delays in treatment initiation among child tuberculosis (TB) patients and to identify associated factors. METHOD: A multistage cluster random sampling strategy was used to select 175 parents/care givers of childhood TB patients from eight district TB centres covered by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Delhi for interview in a cross-sectional survey. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446486/delayed-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-13-year-old-malawian-boy
#17
Niall Johnston, Nichola Sandys
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a significant global health burden. There are more than 1 million new cases of childhood TB annually. Despite this, many national TB control programs largely focus on identification and treatment of smear positive adults. Early case detection is essential if childhood TB is to be controlled and eradicated.Delayed diagnosis of TB is associated with more advanced disease and worse treatment outcomes. Younger children who go undiagnosed for long periods are at risk of developing severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, such as meningitis...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410697/multifocal-pure-tubercular-osteomyelitis-an-unusual-presentation-in-childhood
#18
Sananda Pati, Sangita De, Tarak Nath Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti Ghosh
Tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing world. One-third of children infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis have extra pulmonary involvement. Skeletal tuberculosis occurs in 1-6% of them with vertebra being the commonest site. Pure tubercular osteomyelitis without joint involvement occurs in only 2-3% cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis. Common sites are femur, tibia, and fibula. Disseminated skeletal involvement is very rare in children (7%) and calvarial osteomyelitis is even rarer (1%)...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399975/survey-of-health-care-worker-knowledge-about-childhood-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-centers-in-botswana
#19
T Arscott-Mills, L Masole, R Ncube, A P Steenhoff
BACKGROUND: Quantifying health care workers' (HCWs') knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) informs educational interventions. We assessed HCWs' knowledge about childhood TB in Botswana. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCWs at 46 sites around Botswana using a piloted instrument. Transcripts were double-coded using a coding schema. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus and a systematic thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: The sites (42 clinics and 4 hospitals) were urban (n = 9, 20%), semi-urban (n = 10, 22%) and rural (n = 27, 58%)...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359325/early-versus-late-bcg-vaccination-in-hiv-1-exposed-infants-in-uganda-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Victoria Nankabirwa, James K Tumwine, Olive Namugga, Thorkild Tylleskär, Grace Ndeezi, Bjarne Robberstad, Mihai G Netea, Halvor Sommerfelt
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Though the available scientific literature is mostly from observational studies, and is fraught with controversy, BCG vaccination at birth may protect infants in high-mortality populations against serious infections other than TB. Yet, other studies indicate that giving BCG later in infancy may modify immune responses to non-TB antigens and potentially enhance immunity, potentially also against tuberculosis (TB)...
March 31, 2017: Trials
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