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Childhood TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931215/why-the-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-must-become-a-guiding-framework-for-the-realization-of-the-rights-of-children-affected-by-tuberculosis
#1
Robindra Basu Roy, Nicola Brandt, Nicolette Moodie, Mitra Motlagh, Kumanan Rasanathan, James A Seddon, Anne K Detjen, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Until recently, paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has been relatively neglected by the broader TB and the maternal and child health communities. Human rights-based approaches to children affected by TB could be powerful; however, awareness and application of such strategies is not widespread. DISCUSSION: We summarize the current challenges faced by children affected by TB, including: consideration of their family context; the limitations of preventive, diagnostic and treatment options; paucity of paediatric-specific research; failure in implementation of interventions; and stigma...
December 8, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865396/mycobacterium-smegmatis-proteoliposome-induce-protection-in-a-murine-progressive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-model
#2
Yanely Tirado, Alina Puig, Nadine Alvarez, Reinier Borrero, Alicia Aguilar, Frank Camacho, Fatima Reyes, Sonsire Fernandez, Jose Luis Perez, Reynaldo Acevedo, Dulce Mata Espinoza, Jorge Alberto Barrios Payan, Maria de Los A Garcia, Ramlah Kadir, María E Sarmiento, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando, Mohd-Nor Norazmi, Armando Acosta
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity. The TB vaccine, BCG, is not fully protective against the adult form of the disease and is unable to prevent its transmission although it is still useful against severe childhood TB. Hence, the search for new vaccines is of great interest. In a previous study, we have shown that proteoliposomes obtained from Mycobacterium smegmatis (PLMs) induced cross reactive humoral and cellular response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865389/mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-as-a-booster-vaccine-enhances-bcg-induced-immunity-and-confers-higher-protection-in-animal-models-of-tuberculosis
#3
Mohd Saqib, Rahul Khatri, Bindu Singh, Ananya Gupta, Arvind Kumar, Sangeeta Bhaskar
BCG, the only approved vaccine protects against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but its protective efficacy wanes in adolescence. BCG has reduced the incidence of infant TB considerably in endemic areas; therefore prime-boost strategy is the most realistic measure for control of tuberculosis in near future. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) shares significant antigenic repertoire with Mtb and BCG and has been shown to impart significant protection in animal models of tuberculosis. In this study, MIP was given as a booster to BCG vaccine which enhanced the BCG mediated immune response, resulting in higher protection...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753763/pediatric-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-clinical-spectrum-risk-factors-and-diagnostic-challenges-in-a-low-prevalence-region
#4
Begoña Santiago-García, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Jesús Ruíz-Contreras, Jose M Bellón, Maria A Muñoz-Fernández, María J Mellado-Peña
BACKGROUND: Children are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) dissemination and extrapulmonary disease, contributing greatly to TB-associated morbidity and long-term sequelae. However, there are very few studies that assess the impact and clinical spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in low-prevalence regions. METHODS: Children <18 years of age diagnosed with TB in Madrid region (2005-2013) were reviewed. We compared the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and the performance of diagnostic tests in childhood extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740736/paediatric-tuberculosis-cases-increased-in-stockholm-from-1971-to-2015-following-the-rising-number-of-children-with-immigrant-backgrounds
#5
Rutger Bennet, Margareta Eriksson
AIM: This study described the epidemiology and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Stockholm over a 45-year period, when there was a resurge of tuberculosis concomitant with increased immigration. METHODS: We describe 220 children up to the age of 16 years with active TB, seen at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1971 to 2015. The study period was divided into three 15-year periods. RESULTS: Cases increased from ten children in 1971-1985 to 76 in 1986-2000 and 134 in 2001-2015, with overall incidence increasing from <1 to four per 100 000...
December 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725040/imci-indicators-of-childhood-tbm-at-primary-health-care-level-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#6
R Solomons, M Grantham, B J Marais, R van Toorn
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in children is often delayed, with disastrous consequences. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy aims to ensure the accurate assessment of ill children using simple yet reliable clinical signs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of 30 consecutive children aged 3 months to 5 years diagnosed with TBM at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical records were reviewed to assess diagnostic delay and identify IMCI indicators that were present at the time of initial presentation...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716523/layer-by-layer-nanocoating-of-live-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-mycobacteria-with-poly-i-c-and-chitosan-enhances-pro-inflammatory-activation-and-bactericidal-capacity-in-murine-macrophages
#7
Martin Tobias Speth, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major disease burden globally causing more than 1.5 million deaths per year. The attenuated live vaccine strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although providing protection against childhood TB, is largely ineffective against adult pulmonary TB. A major aim therefore is to increase the potency of the BCG vaccine to generate stronger and more sustained immunity against TB. Here, we investigated the use of layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating of the surface of live BCG with several layers of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a strong inducer of cell-mediated immunity, and the biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan to enhance BCG immunogenicity...
December 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704508/childhood-tuberculosis-a-descriptive-study-in-a-pneumo-pediatrics-department-in-tunisia
#8
Houda Snène, Anissa Berraies, Besma Hamdi, Jamel Ammar, Hanadi Ouali, Agnes Hamzaoui
Objective to assess the different localizations of tuberculosis (TB) in children in a pneumopediatric department in Tunisia and to describe its diagnosis tools since clinical investigations of childhood TB are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. Methods Forty-six cases of TB in children were studied between 2008 and 2013. Clinical history, examination and chest radiography were reported. Several investigations have been conducted to confirm the diagnosis of TB such as: tuberculin skin test (TST), bacteriological and histological investigations...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694091/tuberculosis-in-children-in-togo-epidemiology-diagnosis-treatment-and-outcome
#9
K A R Segbedji, K E Djadou, O-B Tchagbele, M Kpegouni, L K Bessi Kama, K D Azoumah, A D Agbèrè
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most lethal communicable diseases in the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). New strategies must be implemented to meet targets for 2035. OBJECTIVE: Describe the epidemiological and therapeutic aspects of tuberculosis in children in Togo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, descriptive cross-sectional study examined the files of children younger than 15 years who were diagnosed with TB and treatment in the Maritime region from 2008 to 2011...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685837/cd163-levels-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-of-monocytes-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Esin Aktas Cetin, Leyla Pur Ozyigit, Yusuf Metin Gelmez, Erkan Cakir, Ahmet Hakan Gedik, Gunnur Deniz
OBJECTIVES: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) comprises an important part of the world's TB burden. Monocytes set up the early phase of infection because of innate immune responses. Understanding the changes in monocyte subsets during multisystem infectious diseases may be important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monocyte phenotype together with the cytokine secretion profiles of children with pulmonary tuberculosis...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651243/radiological-patterns-of-childhood-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-a-developed-country-a-single-institution-s-experience-on-217-255-cases
#11
Paolo Tomà, Laura Lancella, Laura Menchini, Roberta Lombardi, Aurelio Secinaro, Alberto Villani
The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing in the developed world and children in particular represent a high-risk group for developing the disease. The aim of this review is to analyse the spectrum of radiological signs as reported in the recent literature, in light of our series over a 15-year period, to pinpoint the most common radiological patterns in a developed country and to determine the role played by the different chest imaging techniques in diagnosis improvement. Lung TB was present in 217 out of 255 patients (85 %): 146 patients were under 5 years of age (76 under 2 years) and 71 over 5 years (41 over 10 years)...
September 20, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633883/the-potential-impact-of-bcg-vaccine-supply-shortages-on-global-paediatric-tuberculosis-mortality
#12
Rebecca C Harris, Peter J Dodd, Richard G White
BACKGROUND: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is provided to over 100 million neonates annually to protect against childhood tuberculosis (TB). Recent BCG manufacturing interruptions highlight global supply risks. We estimated the potential impact of BCG shortfalls on global paediatric (<15 years) TB mortality. METHODS: A static mathematical model was employed to estimate the number of paediatric TB deaths avoided by usual levels of BCG coverage, and potential additional TB deaths in the first 15 years of life due to 1-year BCG supply shortfalls of 6...
2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622301/polyfunctional-cd4-t-cells-correlate-with-in-vitro-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-following-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccination-of-infants
#13
Steven G Smith, Andrea Zelmer, Rose Blitz, Helen A Fletcher, Hazel M Dockrell
BACKGROUND: Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) protects infants against childhood tuberculosis however the immune mechanisms involved are not well understood. Further elucidation of the infant immune response to BCG will aid with the identification of immune correlates of protection against tuberculosis and with the design of new improved vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate BCG-induced CD4+ T-cell responses in blood samples from infants for cytokine secretion profiles thought to be important for protection against tuberculosis and compare these to PBMC-mediated in vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521147/adherence-to-childhood-tuberculosis-treatment-in-mozambique
#14
Elisa Lopez-Varela, Victor Guillermo Sequera, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho Joaquim Augusto, Khatia Munguambe, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature regarding adherence rates for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We aimed to describe TB treatment outcomes and adherence as well as to evaluate associated factors to poor adherence in Mozambican children. METHODS: This is a sub-study of a community TB incidence study among children <3 years of age. Incomplete adherence included the sum of lost-to-follow-up cases plus those with a delay of > 3 weeks to treatment completion...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503786/-recommendations-for-the-preparation-and-administration-of-antituberculosis-drugs-in-children-second-phase-of-the-magistral-project-of-the-spanish-network-for-the-study-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-ptbred
#15
Roi Piñeiro Pérez, Begoña Santiago García, Belén Rodríguez Marrodán, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Cecilia M Fernández-Llamazares, María Goretti López-Ramos, Joan Vinent Genestar, David Gómez-Pastrana Durán, María José Mellado Peña
The Spanish Network for the Study of Paediatric Tuberculosis has shown a lack of national consensus on the treatment of tuberculosis in children, partly due to the unavailability of paediatric presentations of antituberculosis drugs. The harmonisation of tuberculosis treatment in children is a priority in Spain. A joint action is proposed by a group of Spanish experts in childhood tuberculosis and in the area of Paediatric Pharmacology. To this end, a pTBred-led workgroup of members from five scientific bodies has been created...
August 5, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451588/respiratory-tuberculosis-in-children-and-adolescents-assessment-of-radiological-severity-pattern-and-age-related-changes-within-two-decades
#16
Maria T A Buzan, Carmen Monica Pop, Mihaela Raduta, Monika Eichinger, Claus Peter Heussel
INTRODUCTION: Despite the global decline of tuberculosis (TB), the annual risk of TB infection in children from developing countries remains high. Giving the global and regional epidemiological context in the past 20 years and a recent classification, dividing childhood TB into severe and non-severe disease, our aim was to find possible differences regarding disease severity in the pediatric population, as assessed by chest radiography (CXR) over 2 decades. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A retrospective analysis of CXRs from newly confirmed respiratory TB patients was performed at the Pediatric Pulmonology Department of a tertiary-care university hospital that acts as a referral TB center in Transylvania...
October 2015: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443308/treatment-outcomes-of-childhood-tuberculosis-in-addis-ababa-a-five-year-retrospective-analysis
#17
Genene Tilahun, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills one child every 5 min. Childhood TB is given low priority in most national health programmes particularly in TB-endemic areas. TB among children is an indicator of a recent transmission of the disease in the community. Treatment outcome results serve as a proxy of the quality of treatment provided by a health care system. In Ethiopia, data on treatment outcomes of childhood TB are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the treatment outcomes of childhood TB in a hospital setting in Addis Ababa...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411409/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-turkey-a-review-of-8-years-period-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Gönül Tanır, Özge Metin, Hülya Şimsek, Türkan Aydın Teke, Fatma Nur Öz, Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli Aydın
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiological, microbiological characteristics, side effects of anti-TB drugs and treatment outcome of childhood definite or probable TB. The medical records of all childhood TB patients were investigated in the department of pediatric infectious disease of a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients who followed-up until the anti-TB treatment was completed were included in the study. One hundred forty four pediatric cases with active TB were included in the study (27 definite, 117 probable)...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393538/burden-of-disease-and-risk-factors-for-death-among-children-treated-for-tuberculosis-in-malawi
#19
R J Flick, M H Kim, K Simon, A Munthali, M C Hosseinipour, N E Rosenberg, P N Kazembe, J Mpunga, S Ahmed
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of childhood death. Patient-level data on pediatric TB in Malawi that can be used to guide programmatic interventions are limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe pediatric TB case burden, disease patterns, treatment outcomes, and risk factors for death and poor outcome. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing routine data. Odds ratios (ORs) for factors associated with poor outcome and death were calculated using generalized estimating equations...
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365958/tubercular-meningitis-in-children-clinical-pathological-and-radiological-profile-and-factors-associated-with-mortality
#20
Anil V Israni, Divya A Dave, Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh, Puneet K Sahi, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Arpita Shah
CONTEXT: Childhood tuberculosis is a major public health problem in developing countries with tubercular meningitis being a serious complication with high mortality and morbidity. AIM: To study the clinicopathological as well as radiological profile of childhood tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, observational study including children <14 years of age with TBM admitted in a tertiary care hospital from Western India...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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