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Childhood TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157275/the-prevent-study-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-and-acceptability-of-a-community-based-intervention-to-prevent-childhood-tuberculosis-in-lesotho-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Andrea A Howard, Koen Frederix, Limakatso Lebelo, Anneke Hesseling, Sharon Nachman, Joanne E Mantell, Tsepang Lekhela, Llang Bridget Maama, Wafaa M El-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Effective, evidence-based interventions to prevent childhood tuberculosis (TB) in high TB/HIV-burden, resource-limited settings are urgently needed. There is limited implementation of evidence-based contact management strategies, including isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), for child contacts of TB cases in Lesotho. METHODS/DESIGN: This mixed-methods implementation science study utilizes a two-arm cluster-randomized trial design with randomization at the health facility level...
November 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147750/the-association-between-childhood-fractures-and-adolescence-bone-outcomes-a-population-based-study-the-troms%C3%A3-study-fit-futures
#2
T Christoffersen, N Emaus, E Dennison, A-S Furberg, L Gracia-Marco, G Grimnes, O A Nilsen, D Vlachopoulos, A Winther, L A Ahmed
Childhood fracture may predict persistent skeletal fragility, but it may also reflect high physical activity which is beneficial to bone development. We observe a difference in the relationship between previous fracture and bone outcome across physical activity level and sex. Further elaboration on this variation is needed. PURPOSE: Childhood fracture may be an early marker of skeletal fragility, or increased levels of physical activity (PA), which are beneficial for bone mineral accrual...
November 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140996/childhood-tuberculosis-is-associated-with-decreased-abundance-of-t-cell-gene-transcripts-and-impaired-t-cell-function
#3
Cheryl Hemingway, Maurice Berk, Suzanne T Anderson, Victoria J Wright, Shea Hamilton, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Myrsini Kaforou, Greg M Goldgof, Katy Hickman, Beate Kampmann, Johan Schoeman, Brian Eley, David Beatty, Sandra Pienaar, Mark P Nicol, Michael J Griffiths, Simon J Waddell, Sandra M Newton, Lachlan J Coin, David A Relman, Giovanni Montana, Michael Levin
The WHO estimates around a million children contract tuberculosis (TB) annually with over 80 000 deaths from dissemination of infection outside of the lungs. The insidious onset and association with skin test anergy suggests failure of the immune system to both recognise and respond to infection. To understand the immune mechanisms, we studied genome-wide whole blood RNA expression in children with TB meningitis (TBM). Findings were validated in a second cohort of children with TBM and pulmonary TB (PTB), and functional T-cell responses studied in a third cohort of children with TBM, other extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) and PTB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028223/are-scientific-research-outputs-aligned-with-national-policy-makers-priorities-a-case-study-of-tuberculosis-in-cambodia
#4
Lydia Boudarene, Richard James, Richard Coker, Mishal S Khan
With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. We first conducted a systematic review to compile all studies on TB in Cambodia published since 2000...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025486/using-15-dhs-surveys-to-study-epidemiological-correlates-of-tb-courtesy-stigma-and-health-seeking-behaviour
#5
E J J Rood, C Mergenthaler, M I Bakker, L Redwood, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) stigma is thought to delay or prevent the decision to seek health care, but the strength of this association and the prevalence of anticipated TB stigma in the general population in most countries is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine epidemiological, cultural and sociodemographic factors associated with TB courtesy stigma in 15 surveys across 13 countries, and its link to health seeking for cough in children under five. DESIGN: A multilevel survey weighted logistic regression model was used to analyse how individual characteristics and social contexts affect the occurrence of TB courtesy stigma...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025083/the-duration-of-protection-of-school-aged-bcg-vaccination-in-england-a-population-based-case-control-study
#6
Punam Mangtani, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Ruth H Keogh, Jonathan A C Sterne, Ibrahim Abubakar, Peter G Smith, Paul E M Fine, Emilia Vynnycky, John M Watson, David Elliman, Marc Lipman, Laura C Rodrigues
Background: Evidence of protection from childhood Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against tuberculosis (TB) in adulthood, when most transmission occurs, is important for TB control and resource allocation. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study of protection by BCG given to children aged 12-13 years against tuberculosis occurring 10-29 years later. We recruited UK-born White subjects with tuberculosis and randomly sampled White community controls...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018588/do-chain-pharmacies-perform-better-than-independent-pharmacies-evidence-from-a-standardised-patient-study-of-the-management-of-childhood-diarrhoea-and-suspected-tuberculosis-in-urban-india
#7
Rosalind Miller, Catherine Goodman
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacies and drug stores are frequently patients' first point of care in many low-income and middle-income countries, but their practice is often poor. Pharmacy retailing in India has traditionally been dominated by local, individually owned shops, but recent years have seen the growth of pharmacy chains. In theory, lower-powered profit incentives and self-regulation to preserve brand identity may lead to higher quality in chain stores. In practice, this has been little studied...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924198/bacteriological-diagnosis-of-childhood-tb-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Andrew J Brent, Daisy Mugo, Robert Musyimi, Agnes Mutiso, Susan Morpeth, Michael Levin, J Anthony G Scott
Childhood TB diagnosis is challenging. Studies in adults suggest Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) culture or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay might be used to expand bacteriological diagnosis. However data from children are more limited. We prospectively compared MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF with standard microscopy and culture using the BD MGIT 960 system among 1442 Kenyan children with suspected TB. 97 specimens from 54 children were TB culture-positive: 91 (94%) by MGIT and 74 (76%) by MODS (p = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912165/holistic-care-of-complicated-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings-with-limited-resources
#9
Trevor Duke, Sharon Kasa Tom, Harry Poka, Henry Welch
In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886729/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children-by-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-of-stool-samples-in-a-low-resource-setting
#10
Zahra Hasan, Sadia Shakoor, Fehmina Arif, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Marium Haider, Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE: Children with tuberculosis (TB) remain underdiagnosed due to difficulty in testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for respiratory and stool testing in children for pulmonary TB through a cross-sectional study at tertiary care facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty children aged 0-15 years screened by a modified Kenneth-Jones (KJ) score were included. Mycobacterial culture of respiratory samples was the microbiological standard against stool Xpert TB results...
September 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867962/vaccine-research-and-development-tuberculosis-as-a-global-health-threat
#11
REVIEW
Mohammed Maikudi Usman, Salmah Ismail, Teow Chong Teoh
One of the aims of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce the number of cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection by the year 2015. However, 9 million new cases were reported in 2013, with an estimated 480,000 new cases of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) globally. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most available and currently used candidate vaccine against tuberculosis; it prevents childhood TB, but its effectiveness against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents is disputed...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852808/technical-aspects-of-mediastinal-ultrasound-for-pediatric-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Kara-Lee Pool, Charlotte C Heuvelings, Sabine Bélard, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar, Dorothy Bulas, Brian Garra, Savvas Andronikou
Diagnosing childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may be challenging due to difficulties in obtaining adequate sputum samples, paucibacillary disease and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Chest radiography is an important diagnostic tool for pulmonary TB, but it involves radiation exposure, requires facilities that can house X-ray equipment and has poor inter-reader agreement. The cardinal radiologic finding of mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be detected using mediastinal ultrasound (US). We describe technical aspects of performing mediastinal US, which may assist diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary TB...
December 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851825/embryo-biopsy-and-development-the-known-and-the-unknown
#13
REVIEW
Federica Zacchini, Roberta Arena, Adam Abramik, Grazyna E Ptak
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been introduced in clinical practice as a tool for selecting 'healthy' embryos before their transfer in utero. PGD protocols include biopsy of cleaving embryos (blastomere biopsy (BB)) or blastocysts (trophectoderm biopsy (TB)), followed by genetic analysis to select 'healthy' embryos for transfer in utero. Currently, TB is replacing the use of BB in the clinical practice. However, based on the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Consortium reports, BB has been used in >87% of PGD cycles for more than 10 years...
November 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826449/a-community-based-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-childhood-tuberculosis-in-ethiopia
#14
D G Datiko, M A Yassin, S J Theobald, L E Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Although children in contact with adults with tuberculosis (TB) should receive isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT), this is rarely implemented. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a community-based approach to provide IPT at the household level improves uptake and adherence in Ethiopia. METHODS: Contacts of adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) were visited at home and examined by health extension workers (HEWs). Asymptomatic children aged <5 years were offered IPT and followed monthly...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817675/deaths-during-tuberculosis-treatment-among-paediatric-patients-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#15
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Muktar A Gadanya, Auwalu U Gajida, Taiwo G Amole, Imam W Bello, Safiya Gambo, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of children that started TB treatment between 2010 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777205/rapid-accurate-identification-of-tuberculous-meningitis-among-south-african-children-using-a-novel-clinical-decision-tool
#16
Anu Goenka, Prakash M Jeena, Koleka Mlisana, Tom Solomon, Kevin Spicer, Rebecca Stephenson, Arpana Verma, Barnesh Dhada, Michael J Griffiths
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is crucial to achieve optimum outcomes. There is no effective rapid diagnostic test for use in children. We aimed to develop a clinical decision tool to facilitate the early diagnosis of childhood TBM. METHODS: Retrospective case control study across 7 hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (2010-2014). We identified the variables most predictive of microbiologically confirmed TBM in children (3 months-15 years) by univariate analysis...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777204/better-completion-of-pediatric-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-using-4-months-of-rifampin-in-a-us-based-tuberculosis-clinic
#17
James Gaensbauer, Kaylynn Aiona, Michelle Haas, Randall Reves, Janine Young, Robert Belknap
BACKGROUND: Children less than five years of age have the highest age-specific rate of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease. Therefore, regimens for treatment of pediatric LTBI must be not only efficacious but practical enough to overcome the unique childhood barriers to regimen adherence. Since 2012, a 4-month regimen of daily rifampin (4R) has been the standard recommendation for pediatric LTBI at the Denver Metro Tuberculosis Clinic (DMTBC). METHODS: Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we compared treatment completion rates between 4R and 9-month isoniazid (9H) regimens for all pediatric patients treated for LTBI at the DMTBC between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2015, and assessed the influence of clinical and demographic characteristics on successful completion of the two regimens...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776520/a-neglected-infection-in-literature-childhood-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-most-influential-papers
#18
REVIEW
Michael Held, Marie-Fien Bruins, Sophie Castelein, Maritz Laubscher, Robert Dunn, Sven Hoppe
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is known to have a wide range of presentations, and if left untreated, primary TB may lead to bone and joint involvement. The literature on this topic is very scarce, and no comprehensive systematic review or meta-analysis of the current knowledge is available to date. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the literature with highest impact based on citation rate analysis. All databases of the Thomson and Reuters "Web of Knowledge" were used to conduct our search of the 100 most cited articles on this topic published between 1950 and 2014...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761601/childhood-tuberculosis-management-and-treatment-outcomes-among-children-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Zemene Tigabu Kebede, Belaynew Wasie Taye, Yohannes Hailu Matebe
INTRODUCTION: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) treatment is becoming a major challenge in the TB control efforts of the Ethiopian health system. This study assessed childhood tuberculosis management, and treatment outcomes among children who completed anti-TB treatment in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children who completed their anti-TB treatment in Gondar University Referral Hospital and 6 satellite health centers. Data from each child with tuberculosis were obtained from review of medical records...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754530/tuberculosis-in-children-from-diagnosis-to-decision-to-treat
#20
S Ramos, R Gaio, F Ferreira, J Paulo Leal, S Martins, J Vasco Santos, I Carvalho, R Duarte
SETTING: Confirmation of tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult, so clinicians use different procedures when deciding to treat. OBJECTIVE: Identify criteria to initiate and maintain TB treatment in children younger than 5 years-old, without diagnosis confirmation. DESIGN: A web-based survey was distributed by email to the corresponding authors of journal articles on childhood TB. The observations were clustered into disjoint groups, and analyzed by Ward's method...
July 25, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
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