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Childhood TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791553/epidemiological-aspects-clinical-manifestations-and-prevention-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-end-tb-strategy
#1
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740714/xpert-mtb-rif-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis-from-sputum-and-stool-samples-in-a-high-tb-hiv-prevalent-setting
#2
Patrick Orikiriza, Margaret Nansumba, Dan Nyehangane, Mathieu Bastard, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Denis Nansera, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Elias Kumbakumba, Maryline Bonnet
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a major advance for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries but is limited in children by their difficulty to produce sputum. We investigated TB in sputum and stool from children with the aim of improving paediatric TB diagnosis. A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB, provided two sputum or induced sputum at enrolment in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Stool was collected from those started on TB treatment. All specimen were tested for Xpert MTB/RIF, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), Lowenstein Jensen cultures and microscopy (except stool)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728429/interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-performance-for-tuberculosis-in-childhood
#3
Alexander W Kay, Shamim M Islam, Kristen Wendorf, Janice Westenhouse, Pennan M Barry
BACKGROUND: Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are important adjunctive tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) disease in children. METHODS: We analyzed California TB registry data for patients ≤18 years with laboratory-confirmed TB disease during 2010-2015 to identify case characteristics associated with test selection and performance and measure IGRA sensitivity. RESULTS: In total, 778 cases of TB were reported; 360 were laboratory confirmed...
May 4, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725073/author-correction-bacteriological-diagnosis-of-childhood-tb-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Andrew J Brent, Daisy Mugo, Robert Musyimi, Agnes Mutiso, Susan C Morpeth, Michael Levin, J Anthony G Scott
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670618/bcg-and-adverse-events-in-the-context-of-leprosy
#5
Renate Richardus, Anouk van Hooij, Susan J F van den Eeden, Louis Wilson, Korshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Annemieke Geluk
Background: Notwithstanding its beneficial immunoprophylactic outcomes regarding leprosy and childhood TB, BCG vaccination may cause adverse events, particularly of the skin. However, this local hyper-immune reactivity cannot be predicted before vaccination, nor is its association with protection against leprosy known. In this study we investigated the occurrence of adverse events after BCG (re)vaccination in contacts of leprosy patients and analyzed whether the concomitant systemic anti-mycobacterial immunity was associated with these skin manifestations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#6
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#7
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601899/longitudinal-changes-in-bone-parameters-in-young-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa
#8
Sheila Shepherd, Andreas Kyriakou, Mohamed Guftar Shaikh, Helen McDevitt, Charlotte Oakley, Michelle Thrower, S Faisal Ahmed, Avril Mason
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) during childhood and adolescence has been reported to adversely affect bone health, but few studies have investigated longitudinal changes. METHOD: DXA-derived bone parameters and body composition were retrospectively assessed in 111 young girls with AN with a median age of 15.4 years (10.9, 19.8). In 68 (61%) vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) was performed and in 31 (28%), a follow-up DXA was performed. Correlations with growth, changes in body composition and effects of illness duration and menstruation were examined...
March 27, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566781/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-cause-of-necrotising-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-case-series
#9
C Jacobs, P Goussard, R P Gie
Tertiary care hospital, Western Cape, South Africa.<br />DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of acase series of necrotising pneumonia (NP) in children associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis presenting over a 4-year period in a country with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) prevalence.<br />OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and radiological features of, and treatment regimens and outcomes in, children with NP.<br />RESULTS: Of 32 children (median age 16...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566651/complementary-surveillance-strategies-are-needed-to-better-characterise-the-epidemiology-care-pathways-and-treatment-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#10
Karen du Preez, H Simon Schaaf, Rory Dunbar, Elisabetta Walters, Alvera Swartz, Regan Solomons, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in young and HIV-infected children is frequently diagnosed at hospital level. In settings where general hospitals do not function as TB reporting units, the burden and severity of childhood TB may not be accurately reflected in routine TB surveillance data. Given the paucibacillary nature of childhood TB, microbiological surveillance alone will miss the majority of hospital-managed children. The study objective was to combine complementary hospital-based surveillance strategies to accurately report the burden, spectrum and outcomes of childhood TB managed at referral hospital-level in a high TB burden setting...
March 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514237/priorities-for-decreasing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#11
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511357/childhood-tuberculosis-in-nigeria-disease-presentation-and-treatment-outcomes
#12
Chidubem L Ogbudebe, Victor Adepoju, Christy Ekerete-Udofia, Ebere Abu, Ginika Egesemba, Nkem Chukwueme, Mustapha Gidado
Objectives: Understanding the factors that influence tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in children is key to designing interventions to address them. This study aimed to determine the case category distribution of childhood TB in Nigeria and assess which clinical and demographic factors are associated with different treatment outcomes in childhood TB. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records of children (0-14 years) with TB in 3 states in Nigeria in 2015...
2018: Health Services Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509803/catalysing-progressive-uptake-of-newer-diagnostics-by-health-care-providers-through-outreach-and-education-in-four-major-cities-of-india
#13
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Soumya Swaminathan, Sanjay Sarin, Virender Singh Salhotra, Aakshi Kalra, Ashwani Khanna, K K Chopra, M Hanif, K R Umadevi, Syed Hissar, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, C H Surya Prakash, B K Saha, Raghuram Rao, Claudia Denkinger, Catharina Boehme
BACKGROUND: Unlike in adults, diagnosis of TB can be challenging in children, as signs and symptoms of paediatric TB can be very non-specific and similar to other common childhood chest infections, which may lead to under or delayed diagnosis of TB disease. In spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics in public and private sectors, majority of paediatric TB cases are empirically diagnosed, without laboratory confirmation. To address these diagnostic challenges, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended upfront Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for the diagnosis of TB in paediatric presumptive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502937/managing-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-tuberculosis-in-children
#14
I Carvalho, D Goletti, S Manga, D R Silva, D Manissero, G Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this review is to describe the management of the child with TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To develop this article, a working group reviewed relevant epidemiological and other scientific studies and established practices in conducting LBTI and TB in children. The article describes how to manage the child with LTBI, considering transmission and infectiousness of tuberculosis, contact screening and prioritization of contacts and recommendations on treatment of children with LTBI and how to manage the child with TB considering the susceptibility of children to developing tuberculosis, epidemiology and classification of tuberculosis in children, diagnosis and treatment...
March 2018: Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496214/smaller-long-bone-cross-sectional-size-in-people-who-died-of-tuberculosis-insights-on-frailty-factors-from-a-19th-and-early-20th-century-finnish-population
#15
Liina Mansukoski, Vitale Stefano Sparacello
There is little research on how individuals suffering from tuberculosis may differ from those not infected in terms of overall skeletal morphology. Tuberculosis was endemic in 19th and early 20th century Finland making documented skeletal collections of Finns ideal to study effects of the disease on bone. The present study compares long bone cross-sectional total area between individuals who died of tuberculosis and those with another recorded cause of death in a Finnish sample. Adult male individuals (N = 105) were selected for analysis...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460738/prospective-observational-study-of-incidence-and-preventable-burden-of-childhood-tuberculosis-kenya
#16
Andrew J Brent, Christopher Nyundo, Joyce Langat, Caroline Mulunda, Joshua Wambua, Evasius Bauni, Joyce Sande, Kate Park, Thomas N Williams, Charles R J Newton, Michael Levin, J Anthony G Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459859/next-generation-vaccines-based-on-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#17
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major health threat. A live, attenuated mycobacterium known as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), derived from the causative agent of cattle TB, Mycobacterium bovis , has been in clinical use as a vaccine for 90 years. The current incidence of TB demonstrates that BCG fails to protect sufficiently against pulmonary TB, the major disease manifestation and source of dissemination. The protective efficacy of BCG is on average 50% but varies substantially with geographical location and is poorer in those with previous exposure to mycobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438536/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#18
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432385/economic-evaluation-of-selective-neonatal-bcg-vaccination-of-high-risk-infants-in-ireland
#19
Conor Teljeur, Patrick S Moran, Patricia Harrington, Karina Butler, Brenda Corcoran, Joan O'Donnell, Cara Usher, Darina O'Flanagan, Kevin Connolly, Máirín Ryan
BACKGROUND: In Western Europe, currently only Ireland and Portugal continue to provide universal neonatal BCG vaccination programmes, despite not being considered as high TB incidence countries. Other European countries only vaccinate infants considered at high risk of contracting TB. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of selective BCG vaccination compared to strategies of universal and no vaccination. METHODS: An economic model was used to simulate a cohort from birth to life expectancy, taking the perspective of the publicly-funded healthcare system...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391244/role-of-pcr-method-using-is6110-primer-in-detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-the-clinically-diagnosed-childhood-tuberculosis-patients-at-an-urban-hospital-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#20
Senjuti Kabir, Mohammad Khaja Mafij Uddin, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Tilka Fannana, Mohammad Enamul Haque, Muhammad Reaj Uddin, Sayera Banu, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: Better methods are needed for the accurate detection of child tuberculosis (TB). This study compared different laboratory tests and evaluated IS6110 PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among clinically diagnosed child TB patients. METHODS: A total of 102 paediatric patients (<15 years old) with clinically diagnosed TB were enrolled in this study. The patients were admitted to the icddr,b hospital in Dhaka between 2003 and 2005...
March 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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