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Philipp Leinen, Matthew F B Green, Taner Esat, Christian Wagner, F Stefan Tautz, Ruslan Temirov
Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Himanshu Pandey, Sarita Tripathi, Kanchan Srivastava, Dinesh K Tripathi, Mrigank Srivastava, Surya Kant, Kishore K Srivastava, Ashish Arora
BACKGROUND: We have characterized two immunogenic proteins, Rv1197 and Rv1198, of the Esx-5 system of the ESAT-6 family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. METHODS: The complex formation between Rv1197 and Rv1198 was characterized by biophysical techniques. The reactivity of serum from TB patients towards these proteins was characterized by ELISA. Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine induction were followed in restimulated splenocytes from immunized mice by using MTT assay and CBA flowcytometry, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Na Yi, Bock-Gie Jung, Xisheng Wang, RamaKrishna Vankayalapati, Buka Samten
Abnormalities in hematopoiesis are common in tuberculosis patients and highly prevalent in AIDS patients with tuberculosis coinfection. To explore the potential role of the early secreted antigenic target of 6-kD (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in abnormal hematopoiesis in tuberculosis, we studied the effect of ESAT-6 on proliferation and differentiation of in vitro-expanded CD34(+) cells isolated from the peripheral blood of the healthy donors. ESAT-6 but not control protein antigen 85A (Ag85A) of Mtb inhibited the proliferation of CD34(+) cell derived peripheral blood stem/progenitor cells (PBSPC) in a dose dependent manner when determined by MTT-assay...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Du Toit Loots, Conrad C Swanepoel, Mae Newton-Foot, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius
The ESX-1 gene cluster, encoding the Type-VII secretion (T7S) system and its virulence associated proteins, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, is thought to be responsible for the transport of extracellular proteins across the hydrophobic and highly impermeable, cell envelope of Mycobacterium, and is involved in virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Using a GCxGC-TOFMS metabolomics approach, a M. smegmatis ESX-1 knock-out strain (ΔESX-1ms) was compared to that of the M. smegmatis wild-type parent strain, and the metabolite markers due to the presence or absence of the ESX-1 gene cluster were identified...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Omer Karti, Mehmet Ozgur Zengin, Esat Cinar, Merve Tutuncu, Eyyup Karahan, Asl Celik, Cem Kucukerdonmez
PURPOSE: To study the effect of 1- and 6-hour-delayed corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) on wound-healing of experimental alkali burns of the cornea. METHODS: Twenty-four albino rabbits were used. Alkali burns were created using 1 M NaOH. The animals were divided randomly into 2 groups: group 1 (control group, n = 6) and group 2 (experimental group, n = 18). The experimental group was further divided into 3 subgroups as follows: group 2A, untreated (non-CXL) subgroup; group 2B, 1-hour-delayed CXL treatment subgroup; and group 2C, 6-hour-delayed CXL treatment subgroup...
October 12, 2016: Cornea
Gokce Dundar, Gokhan Gokce, Kaan Gokcen, Esat Korgali, Aydemir Asdemir, Kenan Kaygusuz
PURPOSE: Pediatric stone disease is an important clinical problem in pediatric urology practice. We aimed to compare mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (miniperc) and micro-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc) in pediatric patients who underwent unsuccesful SWL procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A number of 43 pediatric patients, aged 17 years or younger, were treated with miniperc or microperc procedures due to renal calculi by a single surgeon. In group 1, there were 27 patients who underwent miniperc procedure...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) diagnostic test for latent tuberculosis infection is based on a cell-mediated response to the Mycobacteria tuberculosis antigens, ESAT-6 and/or CFP-10, producing an "interferon-gamma footprint". We investigated the within-sample and within-subject variability of positive TSPOT assays due to the individual assay antigens' reactivity. METHODS: Positive TSPOT assay frequencies due to ESAT-6 or CFP-10 among health care workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals for 18 months were compared...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Jorge Pinheiro, Olga Reis, Ana Vieira, Ines M Moura, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Filipe Carvalho, M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Bacterial pathogenicity deeply depends on the ability to secrete virulence factors that bind specific targets on host cells and manipulate host responses. The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that remains a serious public health concern. To transport proteins across its cell envelope, this facultative intracellular pathogen engages a set of specialized secretion systems. Here we show that L. monocytogenes EGDe uses a specialized secretion system, named ESX-1, to secrete EsxA, a homologue of the virulence determinants ESAT-6 and EsxA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Virulence
Pinar Solmaz Hasdemir, Mahmud Ozkut, Tevfik Guvenal, Melis Aylin Uner, Esat Calik, Semra Oruc Koltan, Faik Mumtaz Koyuncu, Kemal Ozbilgin
AIM: To study the efficacy of pirfenidone for prevention of postoperative adhesion formation in an adhesion rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen female Wistar rats were subjected to right-sided parietal peritoneum and right uterine horn adhesion model. Rats were randomized into three groups: group 1 (control) (closure of midline abdominal incision without any agent administration), group 2 (closure of incision after intraperitoneal administration of pirfenidone), and group 3 (closure of incision and only oral administration of pirfenidone for 14 days)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Nancy Gupta, Satish Vedi, Dennis Y Kunimoto, Babita Agrawal, Rakesh Kumar
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterial cause of tuberculosis, is a leading infectious agent worldwide. The development of a new vaccine against Mtb is essential to control global spread of tuberculosis, since the current vaccine BCG is not very effective and antibiotic resistance is a serious, burgeoning problem. ESAT-6 is a secreted protein of Mtb, which is absent in BCG but has been implicated in inducing protective immunity against Mtb. Peptide based subunit vaccines are attractive due to their safety and high specificity in eliciting immune responses, but small synthetic peptides are usually not very immunogenic...
September 29, 2016: Vaccine
S H Downs, J M Broughan, A V Goodchild, P A Upton, P A Durr
Field surveillance of British cattle using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test shows a higher incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy compared to beef herds, but a lower probability of post-mortem examination confirmed (PMC) Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare animal level differences in bTB detection between dairy and non-dairy cattle in Great Britain. During the period from 2002 to 2005, 200 (41% dairy) reactors in the SICCT test (standard interpretation) were randomly selected, and 200 in-contact cattle (43% dairy) were purposively selected from bTB-infected herds...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Esin Aktas Cetin, Leyla Pur Ozyigit, Yusuf Metin Gelmez, Erkan Cakir, Ahmet Hakan Gedik, Gunnur Deniz
OBJECTIVES: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) comprises an important part of the world's TB burden. Monocytes set up the early phase of infection because of innate immune responses. Understanding the changes in monocyte subsets during multisystem infectious diseases may be important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monocyte phenotype together with the cytokine secretion profiles of children with pulmonary tuberculosis...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
François Leroy, Alexis Ruet, Antoine Desvergee, Pamela Le Magnen, Jean Marie Durand
Disabled people see, as the general population, increased life expectancy. The advanced age of the disabled person is reflected by two characteristics: the occurrence of new disabilities related to age per se but also a possible increase of previous impairments. This summation of the effects must be known, recognized and anticipated. Following the work coordinated by Patrick Gohet, we investigated the responses to date on the following topics included in the national report: anticipation of the phenomenon, prevention of consequences, marking the onset of the effects of advanced age, accompanying the installation of the effects of this advanced age...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Santhi Devasundaram, Akilandeswari Gopalan, Sulochana D Das, Alamelu Raja
In vitro mimicking conditions are thought to reflect the environment experienced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside the host granuloma. The majority of in vitro dormancy experimental models use laboratory-adapted strains H37Rv or Erdman instead of prevalent clinical strains involved during disease outbreaks. Thus, we included the most prevalent clinical strains (S7 and S10) of M. tuberculosis from south India in addition to H37Rv for our in vitro oxygen depletion (hypoxia) experimental model. Cytosolic proteins were prepared from hypoxic cultures, resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein spots were characterized by mass spectrometry...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yi Sak Kim, Chul-Su Yang, Loi T Nguyen, Jin Kyung Kim, Hyo Sun Jin, Jin Ho Choe, Soo Yeon Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Mingyu Jung, Jin-Man Kim, Myung Hee Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Ji-Chan Jang
Mycobacterial ESX systems are often related to pathogenesis during infection. However, little is known about the function of ESX systems of Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). This study focuses on the Mab ESX-3 cluster, which contains major genes such as esxH (Rv0288, low molecular weight protein antigen 7; CFP-7) and esxG (Rv0287, ESAT-6 like protein). An esx-3 (MAB 2224c-2234c)-deletional mutant of Mab (Δesx) was constructed and used to infect murine and human macrophages. We then investigated whether Mab Δesx modulated innate host immune responses in macrophages...
September 13, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Walter Chingwaru, Richard H Glashoff, Jerneja Vidmar, Petrina Kapewangolo, Samantha L Sampson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections have remained a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in Southern Africa. Yet our understanding of the molecular interactions between the pathogens has remained poor due to lack of suitable preclinical models for such studies. We reviewed the use, this far, of mammalian cell culture models in HIV-MTB interaction studies. Studies have described the use of primary human cell cultures, including (1) monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) fractions of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), alveolar macrophages (AM), (2) cell lines such as the monocyte-derived macrophage cell line (U937), T lymphocyte cell lines (CEMx174, ESAT-6-specific CD4(+) T-cells) and an alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) and (3) special models such as stem cells, three dimensional (3D) or organoid cell models (including a blood-brain barrier cell model) in HIV-MTB interaction studies...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Cristal Reyna, Felix Mba Medie, Matthew M Champion, Patricia A Champion
Mass spectrometry (MS) for the detection of proteins is an indispensable tool for evaluating the biological processes of the proteome. Proteomics frequently requires proteolysis of proteins into peptide fragments. Proteins can be refractory to ideal proteolysis at the sequence level rendering them difficult to analyze by routine proteomics methods. EsxA (ESAT-6, Early Secreted Antigen, 6kDa) is a major virulence determinant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of human tuberculosis. EsxA is routinely used to evaluate mycobacterial virulence in the laboratory and as a biomarker for tuberculosis in humans...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bruce E Wexler, Markus Iseli, Seth Leon, William Zaggle, Cynthia Rush, Annette Goodman, A Esat Imal, Emily Bo
Cognitive operations are supported by dynamically reconfiguring neural systems that integrate processing components widely distributed throughout the brain. The inter-neuronal connections that constitute these systems are powerfully shaped by environmental input. We evaluated the ability of computer-presented brain training games done in school to harness this neuroplastic potential and improve learning in an overall study sample of 583 second-grade children. Doing a 5-minute brain-training game immediately before math or reading curricular content games increased performance on the curricular content games...
2016: Scientific Reports
J S Woodworth, S B Cohen, A O Moguche, C R Plumlee, E M Agger, K B Urdahl, P Andersen
The capacity of CD4 T cells to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is governed by their ability to localize to the lung site of infection. Subunit vaccine H56/CAF01, a liposome-adjuvanted fusion protein of Mtb antigens Ag85B, ESAT-6, and Rv2660, conferred durable protection and elicited polyfunctional CD4 T cells that preferentially localized to the lung parenchyma. These lung-resident T cells had reduced KLRG1 and increased CXCR3 expression, an intermediate state of Th1 differentiation that has been associated with Mtb protection...
August 24, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Manli Wu, Min Li, Yan Yue, Wei Xu
DNA-based vaccine is a promising candidate for immunization and induction of a T-cell-focused protective immune response against infectious pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). To induce multi-functional T response against multi-TB antigens, a multi-epitope DNA vaccine and a 'protein backbone grafting' design method is adopted to graft five discontinuous T-cell epitopes into HSP65 scaffold protein of M. tb for enhancement of epitope processing and immune presentation. A DNA plasmid with five T-cell epitopes derived from ESAT-6, Ag85B, MTB10...
September 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
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