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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899559/emergency-general-surgery-and-trauma-outcomes-from-the-first-consultant-led-service-in-singapore
#2
Sachin Mathur, Woan Wui Lim, Tiong Thye Goo
INTRODUCTION: There is a significant burden on public health systems from emergency surgical and trauma (ESAT) patients. In Western countries, the response has been to separate acute and elective surgery with the creation of a new sub-specialty: acute care surgery. Dedicated acute units have shown improvements in efficiency and clinical outcomes for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the results of the first such unit in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of a 12-month period of acute admissions between May 2014 and April 2015, with comparison of 6-months before and after the creation of the ESAT service...
September 5, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893919/antigen-localisation-influences-the-magnitude-and-kinetics-of-the-endogenous-adaptive-immune-response-to-recombinant-salmonella-vaccines
#3
Yanina R Sevastsyanovich, David R Withers, Claire L Marriott, Faye C Morris, Timothy J Wells, Douglas F Browning, Irene Beriotto, Ewan Ross, Hossam Omar Ali, Catherine A Wardius, Adam F Cunningham, Ian R Henderson, Amanda E Rossiter
The use of recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains is a promising strategy to present heterologous antigens to the mammalian immune system to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses. However, studies on RASV development differ in where heterologous antigens are expressed and localised within the bacterium and it is unclear how antigen localisation modulates the immune response. Previously, we exploited the plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) autotransporter system for accumulation of heterologous antigens in the cell culture supernatant...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881482/altered-expression-of-antigen-specific-memory-and-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-differentiate-latent-and-active-tuberculosis
#4
Balaji Pathakumari, Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
Though one-third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis, only 5-10% of the infected individuals will develop active TB disease and rest will remain infected with no symptoms known as latent TB infection (LTBI). Identifying biomarkers that differentiate latent and active TB disease enables effective TB control, since early detection, treatment of active TB and preventive treatment of LTBI individuals are crucial steps involved in TB control. Here, we have evaluated the frequency of antigen specific memory and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in 15 healthy household contacts (HHC) and 15 pulmonary TB patients (PTB) to identify biomarkers for differential diagnosis of LTBI and active TB...
September 7, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874412/isolation-of-a-membrane-protein-complex-for-type-vii-secretion-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Khaled A Aly, Mark Anderson, Ryan Jay Ohr, Dominique Missiakas
The ESAT6-like secretion system (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus promotes effector protein transport across the bacterial envelope. Genes in the ESS cluster are required for S. aureus establishment of persistent abscess lesions and the modulation of immune responses during blood stream infections. The biochemical functions of most of the ESS gene products, specifically the identity of secretion machine components, are however unknown. Earlier work demonstrated that deletion of essB, which encodes a membrane protein, abolishes S...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874142/risk-factors-for-increased-immune-reconstitution-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-in-tuberculosis-hiv-infected-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-patients
#6
Tatiana Pereira da Silva, Carmem Beatriz Wagner Giacoia-Gripp, Carolina A Schmaltz, Flavia Marinho Sant'Anna, Maria Helena Saad, Juliana Arruda de Matos, Julio Castro Alves de Lima E Silva, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the restoration of the specific immune response after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy introduction among TB-HIV patients. In this study, we examined the immune response of TB-HIV patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens to evaluate the response dynamics to different antigens over time. Moreover, we also evaluated the influence of two different doses of efavirenz and the factors associated with immune reconstitution...
September 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871153/omni-resonant-optical-micro-cavity
#7
Soroush Shabahang, H Esat Kondakci, Massimo L Villinger, Joshua D Perlstein, Ahmed El Halawany, Ayman F Abouraddy
Optical cavities transmit light only at discrete resonant frequencies, which are well-separated in micro-structures. Despite attempts at the construction of planar 'white-light cavities', the benefits accrued upon optically interacting with a cavity - such as resonant field buildup - have remained confined to narrow linewidths. Here, we demonstrate achromatic optical transmission through a planar Fabry-Pérot micro-cavity via angularly multiplexed phase-matching that exploits a bio-inspired grating configuration...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828509/dry-needling-in-lateral-epicondylitis-a-prospective-controlled-study
#8
Esat Uygur, Birol Aktaş, Afşar Özkut, Samet Erinç, Emime Gül Yilmazoglu
PURPOSE: Lateral epicondylitis (LE), a common disease, especially in middle age, causes decreased productivity and economic losses. The first-line treatment for LE is conservative and consists of topical and oral anti-inflammatory drugs, ice application, and brace use. If the first-line treatment fails, second-line treatment modalities, which are generally invasive, are offered. Second-line therapeutic regimens include saline, corticosteroid, or platelet-rich plasma injections. Dry needling is relatively new...
August 21, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827580/lattice-topology-dictates-photon-statistics
#9
H Esat Kondakci, Ayman F Abouraddy, Bahaa E A Saleh
Propagation of coherent light through a disordered network is accompanied by randomization and possible conversion into thermal light. Here, we show that network topology plays a decisive role in determining the statistics of the emerging field if the underlying lattice is endowed with chiral symmetry. In such lattices, eigenmode pairs come in skew-symmetric pairs with oppositely signed eigenvalues. By examining one-dimensional arrays of randomly coupled waveguides arranged on linear and ring topologies, we are led to a remarkable prediction: the field circularity and the photon statistics in ring lattices are dictated by its parity while the same quantities are insensitive to the parity of a linear lattice...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809880/incoherent-lensless-imaging-via-coherency-back-propagation
#10
Ahmed El-Halawany, Andre Beckus, H Esat Kondakci, Morgan Monroe, Nafiseh Mohammadian, George K Atia, Ayman F Abouraddy
The two-point complex coherence function constitutes a complete representation for scalar quasi-monochromatic optical fields. Exploiting dynamically reconfigurable slits implemented with a digital micromirror device, we report on measurements of the complex two-point coherence function for partially coherent light scattering from a "scene" composing one or two objects at different transverse and axial positions with respect to the source. Although the intensity shows no discernible shadows in the absence of a lens, numerically back-propagating the measured complex coherence function allows estimating the objects' sizes and locations and, thus, the reconstruction of the scene subject to the effects of occlusion and shadowing...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802407/immunological-characterization-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-low-endemic-country
#11
Roelof A de Paus, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Corine Prins, Margreet H Kamphorst, Sandra M Arend, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
The diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is based on detection of immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The tuberculin skin test (TST), the Quantiferon (QFT) and a prolonged lymphocyte stimulation test using either ESAT-6/CFP-10 (LST-EC) or PPD (LST-PPD) were evaluated in a cohort of 495 individuals, suspected to have LTBI, in a low endemic country. While the TST and LST-PPD were both positive in the majority (75%) of individuals, only one third responded in the LST-EC and in the QFT...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773901/monitoring-poisson-s-ratio-degradation-of-frp-composites-under-fatigue-loading-using-biaxially-embedded-fbg-sensors
#12
Erdem Akay, Cagatay Yilmaz, Esat S Kocaman, Halit S Turkmen, Mehmet Yildiz
The significance of strain measurement is obvious for the analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Conventional strain measurement methods are sufficient for static testing in general. Nevertheless, if the requirements exceed the capabilities of these conventional methods, more sophisticated techniques are necessary to obtain strain data. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have many advantages for strain measurement over conventional ones. Thus, the present paper suggests a novel method for biaxial strain measurement using embedded FBG sensors during the fatigue testing of FRP composites...
September 19, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772866/tuning-the-mechanical-and-antimicrobial-performance-of-a-cu-based-metallic-glass-composite-through-cooling-rate-control-and-annealing
#13
Victor M Villapún, F Esat, S Bull, L G Dover, S González
The influence of cooling rate on the wear and antimicrobial performance of a Cu52Z41Al₇ (at. %) bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite was studied and the results compared to those of the annealed sample (850 °C for 48 h) and to pure copper. The aim of this basic research is to explore the potential use of the material in preventing the spread of infections. The cooling rate is controlled by changing the mould diameter (2 mm and 3 mm) upon suction casting and controlling the mould temperature (chiller on and off)...
May 6, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772393/monitoring-the-damage-state-of-fiber-reinforced-composites-using-an-fbg-network-for-failure-prediction
#14
Esat Selim Kocaman, Erdem Akay, Cagatay Yilmaz, Halit Suleyman Turkmen, Ibrahim Burc Misirlioglu, Afzal Suleman, Mehmet Yildiz
A structural health monitoring (SHM) study of biaxial glass fibre-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under a constant, high strain uniaxial fatigue loading is performed using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors embedded in composites at various locations to monitor the evolution of local strains, thereby understanding the damage mechanisms. Concurrently, the temperature changes of the samples during the fatigue test have also been monitored at the same locations. Close to fracture, significant variations in local temperatures and strains are observed, and it is shown that the variations in temperature and strain can be used to predict imminent fracture...
January 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698665/antigens-rv0310c-and-rv1255c-are-promising-novel-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Liulin Luo, Lin Zhu, Jun Yue, Jianping Liu, Guoyuan Liu, Xuelian Zhang, Honghai Wang, Ying Xu
This study aimed to identify novel immunogenic epitopes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) that could be used in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics. To determine the diagnostic potential of mycobacterial antigens in serodiagnosis of TB, 256 patients were enrolled in a study and divided into two groups: 126 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (SPPT) and 130 smear-negative pulmonary TB patients (SNPT); 152 bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated healthy people were used as a control. Murine results showed that antigens Rv0310c-E from RD 8 and Rv1255c-E from RD 10 were strongly immunogenic to Th1 cells and induced a great humoral response...
July 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657598/secretion-of-ifn-%C3%AE-associated-with-galectin-9-production-by-pleural-fluid-cells-from-a-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
Jingge Zhao, Beata Shiratori, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Makoto Matsumoto, Toshiro Niki, Michinori Tanaka, Yayoi Takahashi, Osumu Usami, Yugo Ashino, Toshio Hattori
In this study, we investigated the role of a matricellular protein galectin-9 (Gal-9) in pleural effusion related to tuberculosis (TB). Plasma and pleural fluid of a patient with extrapulmonary TB were analyzed for cytokine content by ELISA and Luminex. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pleural fluid cells (PFCs) were examined for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay or IFN-γ ELISA, for apoptosis and necrosis by Cell Death Detection ELISA, and also underwent cell sorting...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655852/role-of-esat-6-in-renal-injury-by-regulating-microrna-155-expression-via-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway-in-mice-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#17
Zhong-Qi Zhou, Zhi-Kui Wang, Lei Zhang, Yue-Qin Ren, Zhong-Wei Ma, Nan Zhao, Fu-Yun Sun
The study aims to investigate the underlying mechanism involved in the early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) in renal injury through regulation of the expression of miR-155 through the oll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-infected mice. Sixty C57BL/6 mice with MTB-induced renal injury were randomly assigned into control, MTB, mimic, inhibitor, inhibitor + ESAT6, and inhibitor + ESAT6 + TAK242 groups. Body weight, the ratio of kidney weight to body weight (Kw/Bw), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) of mice were measured...
August 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651002/the-n-terminal-domain-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ppe17-rv1168c-protein-plays-a-dominant-role-in-inducing-antibody-responses-in-active-tb-patients
#18
Philip Raj Abraham, Niteen Pathak, Gourango Pradhan, Gaddam Sumanlatha, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
The PPE (proline-proline-glutamic acid) proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterized by a conserved N-terminal domain of approximately 180 amino acids and variable C-terminal domain. Since last decade, these proteins have gained much importance in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) as they act as a source of antigenic variation. We have demonstrated earlier that one of the PPE proteins PPE17 (Rv1168c) induces strong B-cell and T-cell responses in active TB disease and also displays a higher antibody titer compared to immunodominant antigens such as ESAT-6, Hsp60 and PPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630459/abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-cellularity-in-men-and-women
#19
D P Andersson, E Arner, D E Hogling, M Rydén, P Arner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women. METHODS: In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618268/antigen-availability-shapes-t-cell-differentiation-and-function-during-tuberculosis
#20
Albanus O Moguche, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Adam Penn-Nicholson, Courtney R Plumlee, Helen Mearns, Hennie Geldenhuys, Erica Smit, Deborah Abrahams, Virginie Rozot, One Dintwe, Søren T Hoff, Ingrid Kromann, Morten Ruhwald, Peter Bang, Ryan P Larson, Shahin Shafiani, Shuyi Ma, David R Sherman, Alessandro Sette, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Denise M McKinney, Holden Maecker, Willem A Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Peter Andersen, Thomas J Scriba, Kevin B Urdahl
CD4 T cells are critical for protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB). Yet to date, TB vaccine candidates that boost antigen-specific CD4 T cells have conferred little or no protection. Here we examined CD4 T cell responses to two leading TB vaccine antigens, ESAT-6 and Ag85B, in Mtb-infected mice and in vaccinated humans with and without underlying Mtb infection. In both species, Mtb infection drove ESAT-6-specific T cells to be more differentiated than Ag85B-specific T cells...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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