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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866772/h1-ic31-vaccination-is-safe-and-induces-long-lived-tnf-%C3%AE-il-2-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-and-uninfected-adolescents-a-randomized-trial
#1
Helen Mearns, Hennie D Geldenhuys, Benjamin M Kagina, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Francesca Little, Frances Ratangee, Hassan Mahomed, Willem A Hanekom, Søren T Hoff, Morten Ruhwald, Ingrid Kromann, Peter Bang, Mark Hatherill, Peter Andersen, Thomas J Scriba
BACKGROUND: Control of the tuberculosis epidemic requires a novel vaccine that is effective in preventing tuberculosis in adolescents, a key target population for vaccination against TB. METHODS: Healthy adolescents, stratified by M. tuberculosis-infection status, were enrolled into this observer-blinded phase II clinical trial of the protein-subunit vaccine candidate, H1:IC31, comprising a fusion protein (H1) of Ag85B and ESAT-6, formulated with the IC31 adjuvant...
November 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862137/t-cell-responses-and-regulation-and-the-impact-of-in-vitro-il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-modulation-during-treatment-of-active-tuberculosis
#2
Siri L Feruglio, Dag Kvale, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is particularly challenging for the immune system being an intracellular pathogen, and a variety of T cell subpopulations are activated by the host defense mechanism. In the present study we investigated T cell responses and regulation in active TB patients with drug-sensitive Mtb (n=18) during 24 weeks of efficient anti-TB therapy. T cell activation, differentiation, regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets, Mtb induced T cell proliferation and in vitro IL-10 and TGF-β modulation were analysed by flow cytometry at baseline and after 8 and 24 weeks of therapy, while soluble cytokines in culture supernatants were analysed by a 9-plex Luminex assay...
November 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859892/discovery-of-the-type-vii-esx-1-secretion-needle
#3
Louis Ates, And Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis harbours five ESAT-6/type VII secretion (ESX/T7S) systems. The first esx gene clusters were identified during the genome-sequencing project of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Follow-up studies revealed additional genes playing important roles in ESX/T7S systems. Among the latter genes, one can find those that encode Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) proteins as well as a gene cluster that is encoded > 260 kb upstream of the esx-1 locus and encodes ESX-1 secretion-associated proteins EspA (Rv3616c), EspC (Rv3615c) and EspD (Rv3614c)...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815271/immunogenic-properties-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-producing-surface-displayed-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens
#4
Katarzyna Kuczkowska, Charlotte R Kleiveland, Rajna Minic, Lars F Moen, Lise Øverland, Rannei Tjåland, Harald Carlsen, Tor Lea, Geir Mathiesen, Vincent G H Eijsink
: Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the most deadly diseases in the world. The only available vaccine against tuberculosis is the BCG vaccine, which does not ensure full protection in adults. The development of an effective vaccine preventing disease transmission remains a global urgency and requires novel approaches. We are exploring the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a vector for antigen delivery to mucosal sites. Here, we demonstrate successful expression and surface display of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion antigen (Ag85B&ESAT-6;, referred to as AgE6) in Lactobacillus plantarum The AgE6 fusion antigen was targeted to the bacterial surface using two different anchors, a lipoprotein anchor directing the protein to the cell membrane and a covalent cell wall anchor...
November 4, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811254/deep-sea-corals-feel-the-flow
#5
Yusuke Yokoyama, Tezer M Esat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810839/anatomical-region-specific-in-vivo-wireless-communication-channel-characterization
#6
Ali Fatih Demir, Qammer Abbasi, Zekeriyya Esat Ankarali, Akram Alomainy, Khalid Qaraqe, Erchin Serpedin, Huseyin Arslan
In vivo wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their associated technologies are shaping the future of healthcare by providing continuous health monitoring and noninvasive surgical capabilities, in addition to remote diagnostic and treatment of diseases. To fully exploit the potential of such devices, it is necessary to characterize the communication channel which will help to build reliable and high-performance communication systems. This paper presents an in vivo wireless communication channel characterization for male torso both numerically and experimentally (on a human cadaver) considering various organs at 915 MHz and 2...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799930/increased-tnf-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-il-2-and-decreased-tnf-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-central-memory-t-cells-are-associated-with-protective-responses-against-bovine-tuberculosis-following-bcg-vaccination
#7
Mayara F Maggioli, Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, Hans Martin Vordermeier, Jodi L McGill, Adam O Whelan, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, W Ray Waters
Central memory T cell (Tcm) and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB); however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector/memory populations from bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves by flow cytometry prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795323/essd-a-nuclease-effector-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-ess-pathway
#8
Ryan Jay Ohr, Mark Anderson, Miaomiao Shi, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
: Specialized secretion systems of bacteria evolved for selective advantage, either killing microbial competitors or implementing effector functions during parasitism. Earlier work characterized the ESAT-6 Secretion System (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus and demonstrated its contribution to staphylococcal persistent infection of vertebrate hosts. Here we identify a novel secreted effector of the ESS pathway, EssD, that functions as a nuclease and cleaves DNA, but not RNA. EssI, a protein of the DUF600 family, binds EssD to block its nuclease activity in the staphylococcal cytoplasm...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795322/esse-promotes-staphylococcus-aureus-ess-dependent-protein-secretion-to-modify-host-immune-responses-during-infection
#9
Mark Anderson, Ryan Jay Ohr, Khaled A Aly, Salvatore Nocadello, Hwan K Kim, Chloe E Schneewind, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
: Staphylococcus aureus, an invasive pathogen of humans and animals, requires a specialized ESS secretion system to secrete proteins (EsxA, EsxB, EsxC and EsxD) during infection. Expression of ess genes is required for S. aureus establishment of persistent abscess lesions following bloodstream infection, however the mechanisms whereby effectors of the ESS pathway implement their virulence strategies were heretofore not known. Here, we show that EssE forms a complex with other members of the ESS secretion pathway and its substrates, promoting the secretion of EsxA, EsxB, EsxC, EsxD and EssD...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776487/the-cox-inhibitor-indomethacin-reduces-th1-effector-and-t-regulatory-cells-in-vitro-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#10
Kristian Tonby, Ida Wergeland, Nora V Lieske, Dag Kvale, Kjetil Tasken, Anne M Dyrhol-Riise
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes a major burden on global health with long and cumbersome TB treatment regimens. Host-directed immune modulating therapies have been suggested as adjunctive treatment to TB antibiotics. Upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling pathway may cause a dysfunctional immune response that favors survival and replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from patients with latent TB (n = 9) and active TB (n = 33) before initiation of anti-TB chemotherapy...
October 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775544/anatomical-region-specific-i-in-vivo-i-wireless-communication-channel-characterization
#11
Ali Fatih Demir, Qammer Abbasi, Zekeriyya Esat Ankarali, Akram Alomainy, Khalid Qaraqe, Erchin Serpedin, Huseyin Arslan
In vivo wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their associated technologies are shaping the future of healthcare by providing continuous health monitoring and noninvasive surgical capabilities, in addition to remote diagnostic and treatment of diseases. To fully exploit the potential of such devices, it is necessary to characterize the communication channel which will help to build reliable and high-performance communication systems. This paper presents an in vivo wireless communication channel characterization for male torso both numerically and experimentally (on a human cadaver) considering various organs at 915 MHz and 2...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768084/hand-controlled-manipulation-of-single-molecules-via-a-scanning-probe-microscope-with-a-3d-virtual-reality-interface
#12
Philipp Leinen, Matthew F B Green, Taner Esat, Christian Wagner, F Stefan Tautz, Ruslan Temirov
Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751956/characterization-of-culture-filtrate-proteins-rv1197-and-rv1198-of-esat-6-family-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv
#13
Himanshu Pandey, Sarita Tripathi, Kanchan Srivastava, Dinesh K Tripathi, Mrigank Srivastava, Surya Kant, Kishore K Srivastava, Ashish Arora
BACKGROUND: We have characterized two immunogenic proteins, Rv1197 and Rv1198, of the Esx-5 system of the ESAT-6 family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. METHODS: The complex formation between Rv1197 and Rv1198 was characterized by biophysical techniques. The reactivity of serum from TB patients towards these proteins was characterized by ELISA. Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine induction were followed in restimulated splenocytes from immunized mice by using MTT assay and CBA flowcytometry, respectively...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745787/the-early-secreted-antigenic-target-of-6-kd-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-peripheral-blood-cd34-cells
#14
Na Yi, Bock-Gie Jung, Xisheng Wang, RamaKrishna Vankayalapati, Buka Samten
Abnormalities in hematopoiesis are common in tuberculosis patients and highly prevalent in AIDS patients with tuberculosis coinfection. To explore the potential role of the early secreted antigenic target of 6-kD (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in abnormal hematopoiesis in tuberculosis, we studied the effect of ESAT-6 on proliferation and differentiation of in vitro-expanded CD34(+) cells isolated from the peripheral blood of the healthy donors. ESAT-6 but not control protein antigen 85A (Ag85A) of Mtb inhibited the proliferation of CD34(+) cell derived peripheral blood stem/progenitor cells (PBSPC) in a dose dependent manner when determined by MTT-assay...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744102/a-metabolomics-investigation-of-the-function-of-the-esx-1-gene-cluster-in-mycobacteria
#15
Du Toit Loots, Conrad C Swanepoel, Mae Newton-Foot, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius
The ESX-1 gene cluster, encoding the Type-VII secretion (T7S) system and its virulence associated proteins, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, is thought to be responsible for the transport of extracellular proteins across the hydrophobic and highly impermeable, cell envelope of Mycobacterium, and is involved in virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Using a GCxGC-TOFMS metabolomics approach, a M. smegmatis ESX-1 knock-out strain (ΔESX-1ms) was compared to that of the M. smegmatis wild-type parent strain, and the metabolite markers due to the presence or absence of the ESX-1 gene cluster were identified...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741014/effect-of-1-and-6-hour-delayed-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-on-corneal-healing-in-a-rabbit-alkali-burn-model-clinical-and-histological-observations
#16
Omer Karti, Mehmet Ozgur Zengin, Esat Cinar, Merve Tutuncu, Eyyup Karahan, Asl Celik, Cem Kucukerdonmez
PURPOSE: To study the effect of 1- and 6-hour-delayed corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) on wound-healing of experimental alkali burns of the cornea. METHODS: Twenty-four albino rabbits were used. Alkali burns were created using 1 M NaOH. The animals were divided randomly into 2 groups: group 1 (control group, n = 6) and group 2 (experimental group, n = 18). The experimental group was further divided into 3 subgroups as follows: group 2A, untreated (non-CXL) subgroup; group 2B, 1-hour-delayed CXL treatment subgroup; and group 2C, 6-hour-delayed CXL treatment subgroup...
October 12, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734423/microperc-versus-miniperc-for-treatment-of-renal-stones-smaller-than-2-cm-in-pediatric-patients
#17
Gokce Dundar, Gokhan Gokce, Kaan Gokcen, Esat Korgali, Aydemir Asdemir, Kenan Kaygusuz
PURPOSE: Pediatric stone disease is an important clinical problem in pediatric urology practice. We aimed to compare mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (miniperc) and micro-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc) in pediatric patients who underwent unsuccesful SWL procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A number of 43 pediatric patients, aged 17 years or younger, were treated with miniperc or microperc procedures due to renal calculi by a single surgeon. In group 1, there were 27 patients who underwent miniperc procedure...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727133/differential-positive-tspot-assay-responses-to-esat-6-and-cfp-10-in-health-care-workers
#18
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) diagnostic test for latent tuberculosis infection is based on a cell-mediated response to the Mycobacteria tuberculosis antigens, ESAT-6 and/or CFP-10, producing an "interferon-gamma footprint". We investigated the within-sample and within-subject variability of positive TSPOT assays due to the individual assay antigens' reactivity. METHODS: Positive TSPOT assay frequencies due to ESAT-6 or CFP-10 among health care workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals for 18 months were compared...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723420/listeria-monocytogenes-encodes-a-functional-esx-1-secretion-system-whose-expression-is-detrimental-to-in-vivo-infection
#19
Jorge Pinheiro, Olga Reis, Ana Vieira, Ines M Moura, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Filipe Carvalho, M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Bacterial pathogenicity deeply depends on the ability to secrete virulence factors that bind specific targets on host cells and manipulate host responses. The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that remains a serious public health concern. To transport proteins across its cell envelope, this facultative intracellular pathogen engages a set of specialized secretion systems. Here we show that L. monocytogenes EGDe uses a specialized secretion system, named ESX-1, to secrete EsxA, a homologue of the virulence determinants ESAT-6 and EsxA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715339/effect-of-pirfenidone-on-vascular-proliferation-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-an-abdominal-adhesion-rat-model
#20
Pinar Solmaz Hasdemir, Mahmud Ozkut, Tevfik Guvenal, Melis Aylin Uner, Esat Calik, Semra Oruc Koltan, Faik Mumtaz Koyuncu, Kemal Ozbilgin
AIM: To study the efficacy of pirfenidone for prevention of postoperative adhesion formation in an adhesion rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen female Wistar rats were subjected to right-sided parietal peritoneum and right uterine horn adhesion model. Rats were randomized into three groups: group 1 (control) (closure of midline abdominal incision without any agent administration), group 2 (closure of incision after intraperitoneal administration of pirfenidone), and group 3 (closure of incision and only oral administration of pirfenidone for 14 days)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
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