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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428201/dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-lpd-rv0462-specific-t-cell-recall-responses-are-higher-in-healthy-household-contacts-of-tb-a-novel-immunodominant-antigen-from-m-tuberculosis
#1
Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
The partial effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), displayed by the existing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), highlights the need for novel vaccines to replace or improve BCG. In TB immunology, antigen-specific cellular immune response is frequently considered indispensable. Latency-associated antigens are intriguing as targets for TB vaccine development. The mycobacterial protein, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd; Rv0462), the third enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis to resist host reactive nitrogen intermediates...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416440/inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis
#2
XueXuan Zhang, TengYi Huang, Ying Wu, WenGuang Peng, HanBin Xie, MeiChen Pan, HuanBin Zhou, BoZhi Cai, YingE Wu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway changes and the proliferation of FoxP3(+)Treg cells in patients with active tuberculosis. METHODS: We isolated PBMCs and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg cells from peripheral blood collected from patients with active tuberculosis and healthy controls. We compared the proportion and MFI of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway components and PTEN by flow cytometry using specific cell-surface and intracellular markers. Moreover, we detected the specific secretory proteins ESAT-6 and Ag85B, cytokines IL-10, TGF-β1 and IL-35 in serum by ELISA...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415587/detection-of-a-combination-of-serum-igg-and-iga-antibodies-against-selected-mycobacterial-targets-provides-promising-diagnostic-signatures-for-active-tb
#3
Dolapo O Awoniyi, Ralf Baumann, Novel N Chegou, Belinda Kriel, Ruschca Jacobs, Martin Kidd, Andre G Loxton, Susanne Kaempfer, Mahavir Singh, Gerhard Walzl
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400213/investigation-of-8-ohdg-cyp1a-hsp70-and-transcriptional-analyses-of-antioxidant-defence-system-in-liver-tissues-of-rainbow-trout-exposed-to-eprinomectin
#4
Gonca Alak, Aslı Çilingir Yeltekin, Ismail Hakkı Taş, Arzu Ucar, Veysel Parlak, Ahmet Topal, Esat Mahmut Kocaman, Muhammed Atamanalp
Eprinomectin (EPM), a member of avermectin family, is a semi-synthetic antibiotic. It has been known that avermectin family enters the aquatic environments and adversely affects the aquatic organisms. Effects of EPM is fully unknown in aquatic organisms especially fish, thus the aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptional changes (sod, cat, gpx) and activities of some antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) and transcriptional changes of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A) in liver tissues of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal EPM concentration (0...
April 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399967/type-1-polarised-dendritic-cells-are-a-potent-immunogen-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Y Satake, Y Nakamura, M Kono, H Hozumi, T Nagata, K Tsujimura, N Enomoto, T Fujisawa, N Inui, T Fujiyama, Y Tokura, T Matsui, K Yokomura, M Shirai, H Hayakawa, T Suda
OBJECTIVE: Application of immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) is considered an effective treatment strategy against persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. With the goal of developing improved therapeutic vaccination strategies for patients with tuberculosis (TB), we tested the ability of ex vivo-generated DCs to induce an effective TB antigen-specific type-1 immune response. METHODS: Monocyte-derived DCs from TB patients were induced to mature using a 'standard' cytokine cocktail (interleukin [IL] 1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], IL-6 and prostaglandin E2) or a type 1-polarised DC (DC1) cocktail (IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon [IFN] α, IFN-γ and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid), and were loaded with the established TB antigen 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target protein (ESAT-6)...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392906/selection-of-single-chain-variable-fragments-specific-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esat-6-antigen-using-ribosome-display
#6
Shahrzad Ahangarzadeh, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the problematic infectious diseases in developing countries, especially in Iran. In the present study, we applied ribosome display technique to select single chain variable fragments (scFvs) specific for the 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a mouse scFv library. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gene encoding ESAT-6 was cloned into pET22b(+) plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392505/early-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-associated-iga-nephropathy-with-esat-6
#7
Nan Zhao, Jing-Yi Sun, Hai-Ping Xu, Fu-Yun Sun
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common cause of primary renal diseases worldwide, and the early secreted antigenic target of 6 (ESAT-6) which was secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) may be involved in the development and progression of IgAN. This study aimed to investigate the role of ESAT-6 for early diagnosis of IgAN caused by MTB infection. From 2011 to 2014, 21 patients with renal tuberculosis (RTB), 25 with IgAN, and 46 with IgAN infected with MTB (IgAN/MTB) were enrolled. Serum levels of antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A (Ag85A) were measured by ELISA...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392318/the-performance-of-the-tbag-pha-ratio-in-the-diagnosis-of-active-tb-disease-in-immunocompromised-patients
#8
Munyemana Jean Bosco, Hongyan Hou, Lie Mao, Xiaohui Wu, Kreeti Devi Ramroop, Yanfang Lu, Liyan Mao, Yu Zhou, Ziyong Sun, Feng Wang
OBJECTIVES: The results of the T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) assay are reduced in immunocompromised patients with active tuberculosis (ATB), and it is difficult for using T-SPOT results to distinguish ATB from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in this condition. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the TBAg/PHA ratio in T-SPOT assay in the diagnosis of ATB in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: One hundred and forty three immunocompromised ATB patients and 124 LTBI individuals were diagnosed according to conventional tests and T-SPOT assay...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387329/introducing-the-esat-6-free-igra-a-companion-diagnostic-for-tb-vaccines-based-on-esat-6
#9
Morten Ruhwald, Lena de Thurah, Davis Kuchaka, Mostafa Rafaat Zaher, Ahmed M Salman, Abdel-Rahman Abdel-Ghaffar, Faten Aly Shoukry, Sascha Wilk Michelsen, Bolette Soborg, Thomas Blauenfeldt, Stellah Mpagama, Søren T Hoff, Else Marie Agger, Ida Rosenkrands, Claus Aagard, Gibson Kibiki, Nabila El-Sheikh, Peter Andersen
There is a need for an improved vaccine for tuberculosis. ESAT-6 is a cardinal vaccine antigen with unique properties and is included in several vaccine candidates in development. ESAT-6 is also the core antigen in the IFN-γ release assays (IGRA) used to diagnose latent infection, rendering IGRA tests unspecific after vaccination. This challenge has prompted the development of a companion diagnostic for ESAT-6 based vaccines, an ESAT-6 free IGRA. We screened a panel of seven potential new diagnostic antigens not recognized in BCG vaccinated individuals...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374535/association-of-esat-6-cfp-10-induced-ifn-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-10-with-clinical-tuberculosis-evidence-from-cohorts-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-household-contacts-and-community-controls-in-an-endemic-setting
#10
F Abebe, M Belay, M Legesse, A Mihret, K S Franklin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) early secreted protein antigen 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are among candidate vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Results of experimental animal models show that these antigens are associated with induction of strong T cell immunity (IFN-γ production), while others report that these proteins as virulent factors involved in pathogenicity of Mtb infection. However, the role of ESAT-6/CFP-10 during natural Mtb infections in humans has not been established...
April 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347519/meta-analyses-of-the-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-ante-mortem-and-post-mortem-diagnostic-tests-for-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-uk-and-ireland
#11
Javier Nuñez-Garcia, Sara H Downs, Jessica E Parry, Darrell A Abernethy, Jennifer M Broughan, Angus R Cameron, Alasdair J Cook, Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech, Anthony V Goodchild, Jane Gunn, Simon J More, Shelley Rhodes, Simon Rolfe, Michael Sharp, Paul A Upton, H Martin Vordermeier, Eamon Watson, Michael Welsh, Adam O Whelan, John A Woolliams, Richard S Clifton-Hadley, Matthias Greiner
Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is a global health problem and eradication of the disease requires accurate estimates of diagnostic test performance to optimize their efficiency. The objective of this study was, through statistical meta-analyses, to obtain estimates of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp), for 14 different ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnostic tests for bTB in cattle. Using data from a systematic review of the scientific literature (published 1934-2009) diagnostic Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression models adjusting for confounding factors...
March 6, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345545/diagnostic-significance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-t-cell-assays-for-active-tuberculosis
#12
Wei-Xia Xuan, Ting-Ting Lu, Zheng Wang, Yun-Xia An, Xiao-Ju Zhang
BACKGROUND: Active tuberculosis (TB) with negative results of sputum smear is difficult to be identified. Till now, there is no effective and noninvasive diagnostic method. This study evaluated the diagnostic power of Mycobacterium tuberculosis T-cell (T.SPOT®.TB) assays for active TB. METHODS: We retrospectively screened 450 suspected TB patients that were hospitalized in the Respiratory Department of Henan Province People's Hospital from June 2015 to June 2016...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344331/basis-neutral-hilbert-space-analyzers
#13
Lane Martin, Davood Mardani, H Esat Kondakci, Walker D Larson, Soroush Shabahang, Ali K Jahromi, Tanya Malhotra, A Nick Vamivakas, George K Atia, Ayman F Abouraddy
Interferometry is one of the central organizing principles of optics. Key to interferometry is the concept of optical delay, which facilitates spectral analysis in terms of time-harmonics. In contrast, when analyzing a beam in a Hilbert space spanned by spatial modes - a critical task for spatial-mode multiplexing and quantum communication - basis-specific principles are invoked that are altogether distinct from that of 'delay'. Here, we extend the traditional concept of temporal delay to the spatial domain, thereby enabling the analysis of a beam in an arbitrary spatial-mode basis - exemplified using Hermite-Gaussian and radial Laguerre-Gaussian modes...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331078/tuberculin-skin-testing-boosts-interferon-gamma-responses-to-diva-reagents-in-mycobacterium-bovis-infected-cattle
#14
Gareth J Jones, Mick Coad, Bhagwati Khatri, Javier Bezos, Natalie A Parlane, Bryce M Buddle, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, R Glyn Hewinson, H Martin Vordermeier
BCG vaccination sensitises cattle to bovine tuberculin which compromises the use of the current bovine TB surveillance tests. Although the performance of a blood test (that utilises antigens expressed by Mycobacterium bovis but not by BCG) capable of discriminating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA interferon-gamma test, DIT) has been evaluated in naturally infected TB field reactors, there is a need to perform similar analysis in a BCG vaccinated/M. bovis infected population. Furthermore, we explored different scenarios under which a DIT may be implemented alongside BCG vaccination: (i) serial testing to resolve potential false positive skin test results; or (ii) standalone test to replace the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin skin test (SICCT)...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319170/antibody-response-against-phop-efficiently-discriminates-among-healthy-individuals-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-contacts
#15
Aurobind Vidyarthi, Nargis Khan, Tapan Agnihotri, Kaneez F Siddiqui, Girish R Nair, Ashish Arora, Ashok K Janmeja, Javed N Agrewala
Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most devastating global health problem. Its diagnosis will benefit in timely initiation of the treatment, cure and therefore reduction in the transmission of the disease. Tests are available, but none can be comprehensively relied on for its diagnosis; especially in TB-endemic zones. PhoP is a key player in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence but nothing has been known about its role in the diagnosis of TB. We monitored the presence of anti-PhoP antibodies in the healthy, patients and their contacts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316835/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-diabetic-macular-edema-in-turkey-a-real-life-registry-study-turk-dem
#16
Bora Eldem, Sengul Ozdek, Ali Osman Saatci, Emin Ozmert, Esat Ulay, Gulsah Nomak
Purpose. To evaluate the clinical and diagnostic characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed diabetic macular edema (DME) in Turkey in a real-life setting. Methods. A total of 945 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age: 61.3 (9.9) years, 55.2% male) with newly diagnosed DME were included. Data on patient demographics, comorbidities, ocular history, ophthalmic examination findings including type of DME, central macular thickness (CMT) via time domain (TD) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and planned treatments were recorded...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314076/lactococcus-lactis-carrying-a-dna-vaccine-coding-for-the-esat-6-antigen-increases-il-17-cytokine-secretion-and-boosts-the-bcg-vaccine-immune-response
#17
Vanessa Bastos Pereira, Vanessa Pecini da Cunha, Tatiane Melo Preisser, Bianca Mendes Souza, Meritxell Zurita Turk, Camila Prósperi De Castro, Marcela Santiago Pacheco Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi
AIMS: A regimen utilizing BCG and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In the present study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301284/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-bacille-calmette-guerin-strains-expressing-mycobacterium-antigens-ag85a-cfp10-esat-6-gm-csf-and-il-12p70
#18
Fu-Ying Dai, Jun-Fang Wang, Xue-Li Gong, Lang Bao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant bacille calmette-guerin (rBCG) strains expressing Ag85A (A), CFP10 (C), ESAT6 (E), IL-12p70 (I), and fusion protein GM-CSF (G). METHOD: rBCGs were established by integrating of A, C, E, I, G, AE, CE, IE, GC, GE and GCE into Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1173 and BCG-SH. The macro-effects of rBCGs on mice were evaluated by phenotype and weight. The immunogenicity of rBCGs was analyzed by lgG, lgG1 and lgG2a antibody titers, and IFN-γ and IL-4 contents through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274307/-esat-6-inhibits-autophagy-in-macrophages-and-promotes-the-growth-of-bcg
#19
Xuewei Xu, Runpeng Zhao, Rongbo Zhang, Jing Wu, Dong Hu, Yingru Xing, Shengfa Ni, Baoxian Tie
Objective To explore the interaction between 6 kD early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) and autophagy in order to provide an experimental basis for the immune evasion mediated by ESAT6. Methods RAW264.7 cell lines (mouse macrophages) were treated with Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS), and another cells were transfected by control plasmid pCMV-HA or recombinant plasmid pCMV-HA-ESAT6. Then we observed the growth of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in macrophages. Western blotting was used to detect the LC3 levels in RAW264...
March 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258490/relationship-of-spontaneous-pneumothorax-cases-seen-in-eastern-black-sea-region-with-meteorological-changes
#20
Mustafa Esat Yamac, Sami Karapolat, Atila Turkyilmaz, Kubra Nur Seyis, Celal Tekinbas
The relationship of climate changes or weather conditions with the incidence of pneumothorax has been explored for many years. We aimed at revealing the effects of meteorological changes on the incidence of pneumothorax in the Eastern Black Sea region where spontaneous pneumothorax cases are seen relatively more frequently. The records of 195 subjects (179 males and 16 females) who had been monitored and treated due to spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2006 and December 2012 at our clinic were reviewed retrospectively, and their relationship was investigated with the meteorological data obtained by going through the database archive records of the 11th Regional Meteorology Directorate for the years between 2006 and 2012...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
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