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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209712/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esxl-inhibit-mhc-ii-expression-by-promoting-hypermethylation-in-class-ii-transactivator-loci-in-macrophages
#1
Srabasti Sengupta, Saba Naz, Ishani Das, Abdul Ahad, Avinash Padhi, Sumanta Naik, Geetanjali Ganguli, Kaliprasad Patnaik, Sunil Kumar Raghav, Vinay Nandicoori, Avinash Sonawane
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is known to modulate the host immune responses to facilitate its persistence inside the host cells. One of the key mechanisms includes repression of class-II transactivator (CIITA) and MHC-II expression in infected macrophages. However, the precise mechanism of CIITA and MHC-II down-regulation is not well studied. Mtb 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) is a known potent virulence and antigenic determinant. Mtb genome encodes 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins. We herein report that Mtb and M...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193909/rv2299c-a-novel-dendritic-cell-activating-antigen-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-fused-esat-6-subunit-vaccine-confers-improved-and-durable-protection-against-the-hypervirulent-strain-hn878-in-mice
#2
Han-Gyu Choi, Seunga Choi, Yong Woo Back, Seungwha Paik, Hye-Soo Park, Woo Sik Kim, Hongmin Kim, Seung Bin Cha, Chul Hee Choi, Sung Jae Shin, Hwa-Jung Kim
Understanding functional interactions between DCs and antigens is necessary for achieving an optimal and desired immune response during vaccine development. Here, we identified and characterized protein Rv2299c (heat-shock protein 90 family), which effectively induced DC maturation. The Rv2299c-maturated DCs showed increased expression of surface molecules and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Rv2299c induced these effects by binding to TLR4 and stimulating the downstream MyD88-, MAPK- and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways...
February 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193504/strong-anti-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-or-cytomegalovirus-cmv-cellular-immune-responses-predict-survival-and-a-favourable-response-to-anti-tuberculosis-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Tumaini Nagu, Said Aboud, Martin Rao, Mecky Matee, Rebecca Axelsson, Davide Valentini, Ferdinand Mugusi, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: Intact immune responses to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) represent a biologically and clinically relevant correlate of 'immunological fitness' in humans. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning anti-EBV or anti-CMV responses in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), in whom aberrant immune responses may promote progression of clinical disease. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from at the time of (sputum smear positive) pulmonary TB diagnosis...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#4
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159608/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-c-tb-skin-test-to-diagnose-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-compared-with-an-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-and-the-tuberculin-skin-test-a-phase-3-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Morten Ruhwald, Henrik Aggerbeck, Rafael Vázquez Gallardo, Søren T Hoff, José I Villate, Bettine Borregaard, José A Martinez, Ingrid Kromann, Antón Penas, Luis L Anibarro, Maria Luiza de Souza-Galvão, Francisca Sánchez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Xavier Martínez-Lacasa, Maria Victoria Tuñez, Virginia Leiro Fernández, Joan P Millet, Antonio Moreno, Nazaret Cobos, José M Miró, Llanos Roldan, Angels Orcau, Peter Andersen, Joan A Caylá
BACKGROUND: Targeted screening and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection substantially reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis. C-Tb (Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark) is a novel specific skin test based on ESAT-6 and CFP10 antigens. We investigated the safety and diagnostic potential of C-Tb compared with established tests in the contact-tracing setting. METHODS: Negative controls, close contacts, occasional contacts, and patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at 13 centres in Spain...
January 31, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135876/analysis-of-the-association-between-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-immunoglobulin-a-nephropathy-by-early-secreted-antigenic-target-6-detection-in-renal-biopsies-a-prospective-study
#6
Sun Li, Teng Siyuan, Feng Jiangmin, Wang Hailong, Yao Li, Ma Jianfei, Wang Lining
OBJECTIVES: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent cause of primary renal disease, and clarifying the pathogenesis of IgAN is of great importance for its diagnosis and treatment. It is well known that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can infect the urinary tract and result in the typical symptoms of cystitis. However, MTB can also affect the kidney more insidiously. Patients may present with glomerular disease, and sometimes with advanced renal failure. This study was to investigate the association between MTB infection and IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and the early diagnosis of MTB-mediated IgAN by means of early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) detection in renal biopsies...
January 30, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123491/ag85b-synergizes-with-esat-6-to-induce-efficient-and-long-term-immunity-of-c57bl-6-mice-primed-with-recombinant-bacille-calmette-guerin
#7
Wei Liu, Ying Xu, Jingran Yan, Hongbo Shen, Enzhuo Yang, Honghai Wang
The latest probable scenario in vaccination strategies is to prime one live attenuated vaccine candidate followed by boost dose of second vaccine candidate. In the present study, we primed the mice with a recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) comprising Ag85B and ESAT-6 followed by boost doses of Ag85B, ESAT-6 and Ag85B-ESAT-6 fusion protein in the DDA adjuvant, separately. After boost doses of 8 and 12 weeks, the levels of antigen-stimulated T cells secreting interferon (IFN)-γ, the content of the IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4 in the splenocytes in vitro culture supernatant, the antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G titer from mouse serum, IgG subclass and the population of antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122644/mtb-specific-lymphocyte-responses-are-impaired-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-pulmonary-cavities
#8
Jun Wang, Yaping Dai, Jun Liu, Yongmei Yin, Hao Pei
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is a global health problem. Because the failing immune response in the lung can lead to formation of a pulmonary cavity, this study was designed to clarify MTB-specific lymphocyte responses in TB patients with pulmonary cavities. METHODS: We utilized culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) and early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) as immunogenic MTB antigens following overnight stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119503/mycobacterial-esx-1-secretion-system-mediates-host-cell-lysis-through-bacterium-contact-dependent-gross-membrane-disruptions
#9
William H Conrad, Morwan M Osman, Jonathan K Shanahan, Frances Chu, Kevin K Takaki, James Cameron, Digby Hopkinson-Woolley, Roland Brosch, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum are thought to exert virulence, in part, through their ability to lyse host cell membranes. The type VII secretion system ESX-1 [6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) secretion system 1] is required for both virulence and host cell membrane lysis. Both activities are attributed to the pore-forming activity of the ESX-1-secreted substrate ESAT-6 because multiple studies have reported that recombinant ESAT-6 lyses eukaryotic membranes. We too find ESX-1 of M...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115506/characterization-of-t-cells-specific-for-cfp-10-and-esat-6-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques
#10
Amy Ellis, Alexis Balgeman, Mark Rodgers, Cassaundra Updike, Jaime Tomko, Pauline Maiello, Charles A Scanga, Shelby L O'Connor
Nonhuman primates can be used to study host immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs) are a unique group of animals that have limited MHC genetic diversity, such that MHC-identical animals can be infected with Mtb. Two MCMs homozygous for the relatively common M1 MHC haplotype were bronchoscopically infected with 41 colony-forming units (CFU) Mtb, Erdman strain. Four other MCMs, which had at least one copy of the M1 MHC haplotype, were infected with a lower dose of 3 CFU Mtb...
January 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108375/the-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-lung-sarcoidosis
#11
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Atefhe Abedini, Arda Kiani, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Infection, genetic factors, autoimmunity and an aberrant innate immune system have been explored as potential causes of sarcoidosis. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, and it is thought that it might be caused by an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed, susceptible host. Inflammation results from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures of pathogens (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and/or from reaction to tissue damage associated patterns (DAMPs) through recognition by a limited number of germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106119/early-secreted-antigenic-target-of-6-kda-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-stimulates-il-6-production-by-macrophages-through-activation-of-stat3
#12
Bock-Gie Jung, Xisheng Wang, Na Yi, Justin Ma, Joanne Turner, Buka Samten
As early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an essential virulence factor and macrophages are critical for tuberculosis infection and immunity, we studied ESAT-6 stimulated IL-6 production by macrophages. ESAT-6 stimulated significantly higher IL-6 secretion by murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) compared to culture filtrate protein 10 kDa (CFP10) and antigen 85A. Polymyxin B, an LPS blocker, did not affect ESAT-6 stimulated macrophage IL-6 production...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095608/esx-1-and-phthiocerol-dimycocerosates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-act-in-concert-to-cause-phagosomal-rupture-and-host-cell-apoptosis
#13
Jacques Augenstreich, Ainhoa Arbues, Roxane Simeone, Evert Haanappel, Alice Wegener, Fadel Sayes, Fabien Le Chevalier, Christian Chalut, Wladimir Malaga, Christophe Guilhot, Roland Brosch, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker
Although phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) are major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, little is known about their mechanism of action. Localized in the outer membrane of mycobacterial pathogens, DIM are predicted to interact with host cell membranes. Interaction with eukaryotic membranes is a property shared with another virulence factor of Mtb, the early secretory antigenic target EsxA (also known as ESAT-6). This small protein, which is secreted by the type VII secretion system ESX-1 (T7SS/ESX-1), is involved in phagosomal rupture and cell death induced by virulent mycobacteria inside host phagocytes...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087528/engineering-mycobacteria-for-the-production-of-self-assembling-biopolyesters-displaying-mycobacterial-antigens-for-use-as-a-tuberculosis-vaccine
#14
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, Bernd H A Rehm, Bryce M Buddle, Axel Heiser
: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and still remains one of the world's biggest global health burdens. Recently, engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biobeads that were produced in both Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis and displayed mycobacterial antigens were found to induce significant cell-mediated immune responses in mice. We observed that such PHA beads contained host cell proteins as impurities, which we hypothesized to have the potential to induce immunity...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072845/tuberculosis-detection-in-paratuberculosis-vaccinated-calves-new-alternatives-against-interference
#15
Miriam Serrano, Natalia Elguezabal, Iker A Sevilla, María V Geijo, Elena Molina, Rakel Arrazuria, Alfonso Urkitza, Gareth J Jones, Martin Vordermeier, Joseba M Garrido, Ramón A Juste
Paratuberculosis vaccination in cattle has been restricted due to its possible interference with the official diagnostic methods used in tuberculosis eradication programs. To overcome this drawback, new possibilities to detect Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle in paratuberculosis vaccinated animals were studied under experimental conditions. Three groups of 5 calves each were included in the experiment: one paratuberculosis vaccinated group, one paratuberculosis vaccinated and M. bovis infected group and one M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043632/mycobacterial-coinfection-and-persisting-bovine-tuberculosis-has-the-time-arrived-for-a-policy-review
#16
Nader Mosavari, Morad Moradi Geravand, Keyvan Tadayon, Rohollah Keshavarz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTb) is mainly a disease of cattle, although it continues to infect human populations across the world. Operation of a test and slaughter plan in Iran since 1981 has lowered the frequency of BTb from >5% to <0.14% at the national scale. In 2015, unusual uncontrollable epidemics of BTb were detected in two cattle farms in municipal suburbs of Qazvin and Isfahan. These farms had a tuberculin-test-certified record of BTb-free status for the past 5 consecutive years, with no new cattle registered with either of the two herds during this time period...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043631/the-first-population-structure-and-comparative-genomics-analysis-of-mycobacterium-africanum-strains-from-ghana-reveals-higher-diversity-of-lineage-5
#17
Isaac D Otchere, Simon R Harris, Sanches L Busso, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Stephen Osei-Wusu, Kwadwo Koram, Julian Parkhill, Sebastien Gagneux, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) remains an important TB causing pathogen in West Africa; however, little is known about its population structure and actual diversity which may have implications for diagnostics and vaccines. We carried out comparative genomics analysis of candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and MAF using whole genome sequencing. METHODS: Clinical MTB complex strains (n=187) comprising L4 (n=22), L5 (n=126), and L6 (n=39) isolated over 8years from Ghana were whole genome sequenced...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043591/evaluation-of-specific-antibodies-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-recombinant-antigens-for-detection-of-recent-infection
#18
Majid Tebianian, Nader Mosavari, Morteza Taghizadeh, Seyyed Mahmoud Ebrahimi
INTRODUCTION: Since an accurate test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis early infection is urgently needed, this study was designed for development of an efficient screening test in diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, two recombinant proteins CFP-10, ESAT-6 were tested as antigens for the diagnosis of recent tuberculosis. The proteins were produced in Escherichia coli, purified and tested in indirect ELISAs with sera from 63 subjects with positive clinical results...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043588/characterization-of-the-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-response-in-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-plus-kit
#19
Elisa Petruccioli, Teresa Chiacchio, Ilaria Pepponi, Valentina Vanini, Rocco Urso, Gilda Cuzzi, Lucia Barcellini, Fabrizio Palmieri, Daniela M Cirillo, Giuseppe Ippolito, Delia Goletti
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) is an interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assay designed to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Although QFT-GIT has several advantages (mainly that it is not affected by the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination), it has a poor sensitivity in immune-compromised individuals as it involves an immune response-based detection. Recently, QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) assay has been proposed as a new generation of QFT-GIT...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025511/immunological-roles-of-elevated-plasma-levels-of-matricellular-proteins-in-japanese-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
Beata Shiratori, Jingge Zhao, Masao Okumura, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Hideki Yanai, Kazue Mizuno, Takashi Yoshiyama, Tadashi Idei, Yugo Ashino, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Toshio Hattori
Elevated matricellular proteins (MCPs), including osteopontin (OPN) and galectin-9 (Gal-9), were observed in the plasma of patients with Manila-type tuberculosis (TB) previously. Here, we quantified plasma OPN, Gal-9, and soluble CD44 (sCD44) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and another 29 cytokines by Luminex assay in 36 patients with pulmonary TB, six subjects with latent tuberculosis (LTBI), and 19 healthy controls (HCs) from Japan for a better understanding of the roles of MCPs in TB. All TB subjects showed positive results of enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOTs)...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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