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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533576/ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-2-responses-to-recombinant-aladh-against-esat-6-cfp-10-fusion-antigens-in-the-diagnosis-of-latent-versus-active-tuberculosis-infection
#1
Bahram Movahedi, Pooneh Mokarram, Mina Hemmati, Nader Mosavari, Razie Zare, Leila Safaee Ardekani, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour
BACKGROUND: Discriminating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from active TBI may be challenging. The objective of this study was to produce the recombinant L-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) antigen and evaluate individuals with LTBI, those with active TBI, and uninfected individuals by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) in order to distinguish LTBI from active TBI. METHODS: This exploratory study was performed in the Iranian city of Shiraz from 2014 to 2015...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531231/utility-of-th1-cell-immune-responses-for-distinguishing-active-tuberculosis-from-non-active-tuberculosis-a-case-control-study
#2
Lifan Zhang, Xinhe Cheng, Sainan Bian, Yanhua Song, Qiang Li, Mengqiu Gao, Yueqiu Zhang, Xiaochun Shi, Xiaoqing Liu
Currently available Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) cannot reliably differentiate active TB (ATB) from non-active TB (non-ATB). A study was performed to evaluate the value of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific Th1 cell immune responses which test IFN-γ and IL-2 simultaneous for differentiating ATB from non-ATB. Forty-nine newly diagnosed inpatients with ATB (26 pulmonary TB and 23 extrapulmonary TB) were enrolled as the ATB group. Forty-five volunteers with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and twenty with evidence of previous TB were enrolled during the same period as the non-ATB group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529509/a-novel-esat-6-secretion-system-secreted-protein-esxx-of-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-lineage-st398-contributes-to-immune-evasion-and-virulence
#3
Yingxin Dai, Yanan Wang, Qian Liu, Qianqian Gao, Huiying Lu, Hongwei Meng, Juanxiu Qin, Mo Hu, Min Li
The ESAT-6 secretion system (ESS) has been reported to contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of several Staphylococcus aureus strains such as USA300 and Newman. However, the role of the ESS in community-associated S. aureus (CA-SA) lineage ST398 in China is not well understood. By comparing the ess locus of ST398 with the published S. aureus sequence in the NCBI database, we found one gene in the ess locus encoding a novel WXG superfamily protein that is highly conserved only in ST398. LC-MS/MS and Western blot analysis revealed that this protein is a novel secreted protein controlled by the ST398 ESS, and we named the protein EsxX...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513416/the-role-of-esx-1-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pathogenesis
#4
Ka-Wing Wong
In this article, we have described several cellular pathological effects caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-1. The effects include induction of necrosis, NOD2 signaling, type I interferon production, and autophagy. We then attempted to suggest that these pathological effects are mediated by the cytosolic access of M. tuberculosis-derived materials as a result of the phagosome-disrupting activity of the major ESX-1 substrate ESAT-6. Such activity of ESAT-6 is most likely due to its pore-forming activity at the membrane...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512011/modulation-of-alpha-oscillations-is-required-for-the-suppression-of-semantic-interference-to-avoid-false-memories-in-short-term
#5
Natalia Melnik, Igor Mapelli, Tolga Esat Özkurt
Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information. Human memory may be prone to internal distortions being caused by semantic relatedness between the memory items to be encoded. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon and its possible outcome known as false memories. In this direction, Deese-Roediger-McDermott word lists were appropriated for a modified Sternberg paradigm in auditory modality...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502122/humanized-nog-mice-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis-vaccine-induced-immunity-a-comparative-analysis-with-the-mouse-and-guinea-pig-models-of-tuberculosis
#6
Ajay Grover, Amber Troy, Jenny Rowe, JoLynn M Troudt, Elizabeth Creissen, Jennifer McLean, Prabal Banerjee, Gerold Feuer, Angelo A Izzo
The humanized mouse model has been developed as a model to identify and characterize human immune responses to human pathogens and has been used to better identify vaccine candidates. In the current studies, the humanized mouse was used to determine the ability of a vaccine to affect the immune response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells responded to infection in humanized mice as a result of infection. In humanized mice vaccinated with either BCG or with CpG-C, a liposome-based formulation containing the M...
May 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483404/mycobacteria-specific-cytokine-responses-as-correlates-of-treatment-response-in-active-and-latent-tuberculosis
#7
Vanessa Clifford, Marc Tebruegge, Christel Zufferey, Susie Germano, Ben Forbes, Lucy Cosentino, Emma McBryde, Damon Eisen, Roy Robins-Browne, Alan Street, Justin Denholm, Nigel Curtis
OBJECTIVES: A biomarker indicating successful tuberculosis (TB) therapy would assist in determining appropriate length of treatment. This study aimed to determine changes in mycobacteria-specific antigen-induced cytokine biomarkers in patients receiving therapy for latent or active TB, to identify biomarkers potentially correlating with treatment success. METHODS: A total of 33 adults with active TB and 36 with latent TB were followed longitudinally over therapy...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461452/esx-systems-and-the-mycobacterial-cell-envelope-what-s-the-connection
#8
Rachel E Bosserman, Patricia A Champion
Mycobacterial ESX- (ESAT-6 system) exporters transport proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Many proteins transported by ESX systems are then translocated across the mycobacterial cell envelope and secreted from the cell. Although the mechanism underlying protein transport across the mycolate outer membrane remains elusive, the ESX systems are closely connected with and localize to the cell envelope. Links between ESX-associated proteins, cell wall synthesis, and the maintenance of cell envelope integrity have been reported...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454652/selection-characterization-and-application-of-dna-aptamers-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-secreted-protein-mpt64
#9
Marzhan Sypabekova, Aliya Bekmurzayeva, Ronghui Wang, Yanbin Li, Claude Nogues, Damira Kanayeva
Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), an etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is important for global control of this disease. Aptamers have emerged as a potential rival for antibodies in therapeutics, diagnostics and biosensing due to their inherent characteristics. The aim of the current study was to select and characterize single-stranded DNA aptamers against MPT64 protein, one of the predominant secreted proteins of Mtb pathogen. Aptamers specific to MPT64 protein were selected in vitro using systematic evolution of ligands through exponential enrichment (SELEX) method...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443247/evaluation-of-a-new-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis-in-a-high-incidence-setting
#10
Gen Li, Feng Li, Hui-Min Zhao, Han-Li Wen, Hai-Cong Li, Chun-Ling Li, Ping Ji, Peng Xu, Kang Wu, Zhi-Dong Hu, Shui-Hua Lu, Douglas B Lowrie, Jian-Xin Lv, Xiao-Yong Fan
Blood-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) have been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, IGRAs have not been recommended for clinical practice in most low-income settings due to cost-intensive limitations and shortage of clinical data available. The established T-SPOT. TB assay containing Mtb-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP10 are widely used for immunodiagonsis of Mtb infection, but the high cost is one of the restricting factors against its clinical application in the developing countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428201/dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-lpd-rv0462-specific-t-cell-recall-responses-are-higher-in-healthy-household-contacts-of-tb-a-novel-immunodominant-antigen-from-m-tuberculosis
#11
Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
The partial effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), displayed by the existing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), highlights the need for novel vaccines to replace or improve BCG. In TB immunology, antigen-specific cellular immune response is frequently considered indispensable. Latency-associated antigens are intriguing as targets for TB vaccine development. The mycobacterial protein, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd; Rv0462), the third enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis to resist host reactive nitrogen intermediates...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416440/inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis
#12
XueXuan Zhang, TengYi Huang, Ying Wu, WenGuang Peng, HanBin Xie, MeiChen Pan, HuanBin Zhou, BoZhi Cai, YingE Wu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway changes and the proliferation of FoxP3(+)Treg cells in patients with active tuberculosis. METHODS: We isolated PBMCs and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)Treg cells from peripheral blood collected from patients with active tuberculosis and healthy controls. We compared the proportion and MFI of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway components and PTEN by flow cytometry using specific cell-surface and intracellular markers. Moreover, we detected the specific secretory proteins ESAT-6 and Ag85B, cytokines IL-10, TGF-β1 and IL-35 in serum by ELISA...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415587/detection-of-a-combination-of-serum-igg-and-iga-antibodies-against-selected-mycobacterial-targets-provides-promising-diagnostic-signatures-for-active-tb
#13
Dolapo O Awoniyi, Ralf Baumann, Novel N Chegou, Belinda Kriel, Ruschca Jacobs, Martin Kidd, Andre G Loxton, Susanne Kaempfer, Mahavir Singh, Gerhard Walzl
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400213/investigation-of-8-ohdg-cyp1a-hsp70-and-transcriptional-analyses-of-antioxidant-defence-system-in-liver-tissues-of-rainbow-trout-exposed-to-eprinomectin
#14
Gonca Alak, Aslı Çilingir Yeltekin, Ismail Hakkı Tas, Arzu Ucar, Veysel Parlak, Ahmet Topal, Esat Mahmut Kocaman, Muhammed Atamanalp
Eprinomectin (EPM), a member of avermectin family, is a semi-synthetic antibiotic. It has been known that avermectin family enters the aquatic environments and adversely affects the aquatic organisms. Effects of EPM is fully unknown in aquatic organisms especially fish, thus the aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptional changes (sod, cat, gpx) and activities of some antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) and transcriptional changes of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A) in liver tissues of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal EPM concentration (0...
April 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399967/type-1-polarised-dendritic-cells-are-a-potent-immunogen-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Y Satake, Y Nakamura, M Kono, H Hozumi, T Nagata, K Tsujimura, N Enomoto, T Fujisawa, N Inui, T Fujiyama, Y Tokura, T Matsui, K Yokomura, M Shirai, H Hayakawa, T Suda
OBJECTIVE: Application of immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) is considered an effective treatment strategy against persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. With the goal of developing improved therapeutic vaccination strategies for patients with tuberculosis (TB), we tested the ability of ex vivo-generated DCs to induce an effective TB antigen-specific type-1 immune response. METHODS: Monocyte-derived DCs from TB patients were induced to mature using a 'standard' cytokine cocktail (interleukin [IL] 1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], IL-6 and prostaglandin E2) or a type 1-polarised DC (DC1) cocktail (IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon [IFN] α, IFN-γ and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid), and were loaded with the established TB antigen 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target protein (ESAT-6)...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392906/selection-of-single-chain-variable-fragments-specific-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esat-6-antigen-using-ribosome-display
#16
Shahrzad Ahangarzadeh, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the problematic infectious diseases in developing countries, especially in Iran. In the present study, we applied ribosome display technique to select single chain variable fragments (scFvs) specific for the 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a mouse scFv library. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gene encoding ESAT-6 was cloned into pET22b(+) plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392505/early-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-associated-iga-nephropathy-with-esat-6
#17
Nan Zhao, Jing-Yi Sun, Hai-Ping Xu, Fu-Yun Sun
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common cause of primary renal diseases worldwide, and the early secreted antigenic target of 6 (ESAT-6) which was secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) may be involved in the development and progression of IgAN. This study aimed to investigate the role of ESAT-6 for early diagnosis of IgAN caused by MTB infection. From 2011 to 2014, 21 patients with renal tuberculosis (RTB), 25 with IgAN, and 46 with IgAN infected with MTB (IgAN/MTB) were enrolled. Serum levels of antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A (Ag85A) were measured by ELISA...
April 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392318/the-performance-of-the-tbag-pha-ratio-in-the-diagnosis-of-active-tb-disease-in-immunocompromised-patients
#18
Munyemana Jean Bosco, Hongyan Hou, Lie Mao, Xiaohui Wu, Kreeti Devi Ramroop, Yanfang Lu, Liyan Mao, Yu Zhou, Ziyong Sun, Feng Wang
OBJECTIVES: The results of the T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) assay are reduced in immunocompromised patients with active tuberculosis (ATB), and it is difficult using T-SPOT results to distinguish ATB from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in this condition. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the TBAg/PHA ratio in T-SPOT assay in the diagnosis of ATB in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: One hundred and forty three immunocompromised ATB patients and 124 LTBI individuals were diagnosed according to conventional tests and T-SPOT assay...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387329/introducing-the-esat-6-free-igra-a-companion-diagnostic-for-tb-vaccines-based-on-esat-6
#19
Morten Ruhwald, Lena de Thurah, Davis Kuchaka, Mostafa Rafaat Zaher, Ahmed M Salman, Abdel-Rahman Abdel-Ghaffar, Faten Aly Shoukry, Sascha Wilk Michelsen, Bolette Soborg, Thomas Blauenfeldt, Stellah Mpagama, Søren T Hoff, Else Marie Agger, Ida Rosenkrands, Claus Aagard, Gibson Kibiki, Nabila El-Sheikh, Peter Andersen
There is a need for an improved vaccine for tuberculosis. ESAT-6 is a cardinal vaccine antigen with unique properties and is included in several vaccine candidates in development. ESAT-6 is also the core antigen in the IFN-γ release assays (IGRA) used to diagnose latent infection, rendering IGRA tests unspecific after vaccination. This challenge has prompted the development of a companion diagnostic for ESAT-6 based vaccines, an ESAT-6 free IGRA. We screened a panel of seven potential new diagnostic antigens not recognized in BCG vaccinated individuals...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374535/association-of-esat-6-cfp-10-induced-ifn-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-10-with-clinical-tuberculosis-evidence-from-cohorts-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-household-contacts-and-community-controls-in-an-endemic-setting
#20
F Abebe, M Belay, M Legesse, A Mihret, K S Franklin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) early secreted protein antigen 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are among candidate vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Results of experimental animal models show that these antigens are associated with induction of strong T cell immunity (IFN-γ production), while others report that these proteins as virulent factors involved in pathogenicity of Mtb infection. However, the role of ESAT-6/CFP-10 during natural Mtb infections in humans has not been established...
April 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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