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Lyle W Murray, Iman Satti, Jodi Meyerowitz, Matthew Jones, Christian B Willberg, James E Ussher, Dominique Goedhals, Jacob Hurst, Rodney E Phillips, Helen McShane, Cloete van Vuuren, John Frater
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have a higher risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals, but the mechanisms underpinning this are unclear. We hypothesized that depletion of specific components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses contributed to this increased risk. Methods: Mtb-specific T-cell responses in 147 HIV-infected and 44 HIV-uninfected control subjects in a TB-endemic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor P M G Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita L Michel
Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Davood Mardani, H Esat Kondakci, Lane Martin, Ayman F Abouraddy, George K Atia
Compressive sensing (CS) combines data acquisition with compression coding to reduce the number of measurements required to reconstruct a sparse signal. In optics, this usually takes the form of projecting the field onto sequences of random spatial patterns that are selected from an appropriate random ensemble. We show here that CS can be exploited in 'native' optics hardware without introducing added components. Specifically, we show that random sub-Nyquist sampling of an interferogram suffices to reconstruct the field modal structure despite the structural constraints of the measurement system set by its limited degrees of freedom...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Emad Hashish, Abdallah Merwad, Shimaa Elgaml, Ali Amer, Huda Kamal, Ahmed Elsadek, Ayman Marei, Mahmoud Sitohy
Mycobacterium marinum is an opportunistic pathogen inducing infection in fresh and marine water fish. This pathogen causes necrotizing granuloma like tuberculosis, morbidity and mortality in fish. The cell wall-associated lipid phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIM), phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and ESAT-6 secretion system 1 (ESX-1) are the conserved virulence determinant of the organism. Human infections with Mycobacterium marinum hypothetically are classified into four clinical categories (type I-type IV) and have been associated with the exposure of damaged skin to polluted water from fish pools or contacting objects contaminated with infected fish...
March 1, 2018: Veterinary Quarterly
Ayse V Dikmen, Cagri Guneri, Serdar Yalcin, Onur Acikgoz, Esat Ak, Sadettin Cetiner
A 74-year-old male patient with prostate cancer under remission was admitted with left inguinoscrotal swelling. He underwent scrotal ultrasound demonstrating a giant in-guinoscrotal hernia. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a left pelvic kidney associated with severe hydroureteronephrosis secondary to a ureteral inguinoscrotal hernia. Upon exploration with left inguinal incision, a paraperitoneal ureteral in-guinoscrotal hernia and a hypertrophic left spermatic cord were observed...
November 2017: Current Urology
Afsar T Ozkut, Yusuf Iyetin, Omer K Unal, M Salih Soylemez, Esat Uygur, Irfan Esenkaya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the midterm clinical and radiological outcomes of the medial approach using two intervals for developmental hip dysplasia (DDH). METHODS: The study involved 62 hips of 47 patients (41 girls, 6 boys) treated with medial approach for DDH from 1999 to 2010. The age of the patients at surgery was 18.7 ± 2.25 months. Follow up of the patients was 11.3 ± 3.07 years. The age of the patients at the last follow up was 12.6 ± 1.74 years. According to the Tönnis classification, 13 hips were grade II, 27 hips were grade III and 22 hips were grade IV...
February 14, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Hasan Kiziltoprak, Esat Yetkin, Kemal Tekin, Mustafa Koc, İrfan Akalin, Mehmet Yasin Teke
PURPOSE: To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with rubella retinopathy (RR) treated with intravitreal aflibercept. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year-old girl presented a complaint of visual decrease in her left eye. She had a history of hearing decrease since she was 1 year old in addition to patent ductus arteriosus. On ocular examination, the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left eye. Dilated fundus examinations revealed a classic salt-and-pepper appearance in both eyes and a whitish subretinal lesion with retinal hemorrhages in the left macula...
February 6, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Emel Kaya Aumann, Sadik Server, Bedriye Koyuncu Sokmen, Aysegul Oz, Esat Namal, Nagihan Inan Gurcan, Numan Cem Balci, Yaman Tokat
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters in the differential diagnosis of portal vein thrombus (PVT). METHODOLOGY: Thirty-five patients with PVT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Precontrast axial in-phase and out-of-phase T1-weighted (W) turbo field echo (TFE), axial and coronal T2-W single-shot turbo spin echo, IVIM with b values between 0 and 1300 s/mm2 and conventional DWI with b factors of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm2 with single-shot echo-planar imaging, and postcontrast dynamic T1-W volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination images obtained with 1...
February 7, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Christian Gortázar, Michele A Miller, W Ray Waters
Using multi-antigen print immunoassay and DPP® VetTB Assay approved in the United States for testing captive cervids and elephants, we analyzed antibody recognition of MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT-6 antigens in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fallow deer (Dama dama), elk (Cervus elaphus), and cattle (Bos taurus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Serum IgG reactivity to MPB83 was found in the vast majority of tuberculous cattle and cervid species among which white-tailed deer and elk also showed significant CFP10/ESAT-6 recognition rates with added serodiagnostic value...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Xiaoxin Wu, Yeping Wang, Tianhao Weng, Chenyu Hu, Frederick X C Wang, Zhigang Wu, Dongshan Yu, Huoquan Lu, Hangping Yao
The early secreted protein early secretory antigenic target 6(ESAT-6) and the culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are 2 antigens that are specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These 2 antigens are good targets for tuberculosis (TB) detection.To rapidly diagnose TB across a variety of samples, we developed colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips (ICSs) based on ESAT-6 and CFP-10.The strips were evaluated using 233 samples, including sputum, plasma, and pleural effusion samples.The positive detection rates for ICSs for ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in sputum (culture-positive for M tuberculosis) were 100% and 91...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zhigang Xu, Dezhou Li, Xinyu Chen, Zhiliang Duan, Jiayuan Mao, Jinsheng Wen
Objective To identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 protein esxN-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes and assess the diagnostic potential of the identified epitopes in pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods The esxN-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes were predicted by the T epitope prediction software SYFPEITHI and further synthesized. The binding affinity of the candidate epitopes for HLA-A*0201 was detected using MHC-peptide complex stabilization assay. The immunogenicity of candidate epitopes were assessed using ELISPOT in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice...
December 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Ah Young Leem, Joo Han Song, Eun Hye Lee, Hyejon Lee, Bora Sim, Song Yee Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Young Ae Kang
Multiple cytokines and inflammatory markers control TB infection. We aimed to investigate the changes in multiple cytokines and inflammatory markers in active TB patients following anti-TB drug therapy. Twenty-nine patients with active TB were recruited prospectively between December 2010 and July 2017. Blood samples were collected before (T0), after 2 months (T2), and at the end of anti-TB treatment (Tend). We measured the levels of Interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-10, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in supernatants collected from the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT-GIT), as well as the WBC, neutrophil, platelet count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in whole blood...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chang Liu, Christopher J Lyon, Yang Bu, Zaian Deng, Elisabetta Walters, Yan Li, Liqun Zhang, Anneke C Hesseling, Edward A Graviss, Ye Hu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB)10 cases primarily relies on methods that detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli or their DNA in patient samples (e.g., mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assays), but these tests have low clinical sensitivity for patients with paucibacillary TB disease. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical performance of a newly developed assay that can rapidly diagnose active TB cases by direct detection of Mtb-derived antigens in patients' blood samples...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
K Davies, M Bulsara, A S Ramelet, L Monteroso
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). BACKGROUND: Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
José L Steffani-Vallejo, Marion E Brunck, Erika Y Acosta-Cruz, Rafael Montiel, Francisco Barona-Gómez
Mycobacterium simiae (Karassova V, Weissfeiler J, Kraszanay E, Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung 12:275-82, 1965) is a slow-growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium species found in environmental niches, and recently evidenced as an opportunistic Human pathogen. We report here the genome of a clinical isolate of M. simiae (MsiGto) obtained from a patient in Guanajuato, Mexico. With a size of 6,684,413 bp, the genomic sequence of strain MsiGto is the largest of the three M. simiae genomes reported to date. Gene prediction revealed 6409 CDSs in total, including 6354 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes...
2018: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Balaji Pathakumari, Santhi Devasundaram, Prabhavathi Maddineni, Alamelu Raja
High global prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is a key challenge in distinguishing patients with active pulmonary TB (PTB) from those with LTBI. The functional profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokines produced as a response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens vary during the course of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We evaluated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokine response after overnight in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood with mycobacterial antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10, Rv2204c, Rv0753c and Rv0009 by flow cytometry...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jemal Hussein, Martha Zewdie, Lawrence Yamuah, Ahmed Bedru, Markos Abebe, Alemnew F Dagnew, Menberework Chanyalew, Asfawesen G Yohannes, Jemal Ahmed, Howard Engers, T Mark Doherty, Peter Bang, Ingrid Kromann, Søren T Hoff, Abraham Aseffa
BACKGROUND: H1/IC31® is a tuberculosis (TB) subunit vaccine candidate consisting of the fusion protein of Ag85B and ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the IC31® adjuvant. Previous trials have reported on the H1/IC31® vaccine in M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-naïve, BCG-vaccinated and previously Mtb-infected individuals. In this trial, conducted between December 2008 and April 2010, the safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31® was assessed in participants living in Ethiopia - a highly TB-endemic area...
January 10, 2018: Trials
Takahiro Ushigusa, Yoshiyuki Koyama, Tomoko Ito, Kenichi Watanabe, James K Chambers, Aya Hasegawa, Kazuyuki Uchida, Ryoji Kanegi, Shingo Hatoya, Toshio Inaba, Kikuya Sugiura
By using a complex of DNA, polyethylenimine and chondroitin sulfate, the in vivo transfection of early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) gene into tumor cells was found to cause significant suppression of the tumor growth. In order to apply the method in clinical cancer treatment in dogs and cats, mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects were investigated in a tumor-bearing mouse model. The transfection efficiency was only about 10%, but the transfection of ESAT-6 DNA nevertheless induced systemic immune responses against ESAT-6...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Takele Teklu, Kwon Keehwan, Biniam Wondale, Milkessa HaileMariam, Mengistu Legesse, Girmay Medhin, Aboma Zewude, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
Accurate diagnosis and early treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) are vital to prevent and control TB. The lack of specific biomarkers hinders these efforts. This study's purpose was to screen immunological markers that discriminate M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection outcomes in an endemic setting of Ethiopia. Whole blood from 90 participants was stimulated using the ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigen cocktail. The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-based QuantiFERON diagnostic test was used to distinguish between LTBI and uninfected control cases...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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