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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146275/beat-to-beat-variations-in-activation-recovery-interval-derived-from-the-right-ventricular-electrogram-can-monitor-arrhythmic-risk-under-anesthetic-and-awake-conditions-in-the-canine-chronic-atrioventricular-block-model
#1
Sofieke C Wijers, David J Sprenkeler, Alexandre Bossu, Albert Dunnink, Jet D M Beekman, Rosanne Varkevisser, Alfonso Aranda Hernández, Mathias Meine, Marc A Vos
BACKGROUND: In the chronic atrioventricular block (CAVB) dog model, beat-to-beat variation of repolarization in the left ventricle (LV) quantified as short-term variability of the left monophasic action potential duration (STVLVMAPD) increases abruptly upon challenge with a pro arrhythmic drug. This increase occurs before the first ectopic beat (EB), specifically in subjects that demonstrate subsequent repetitive Torsade de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP). OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate that STV is feasible to monitor arrhythmic risk through the use of the intracardiac electrogram (EGM) derived from the right ventricle (RV) lead from pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD)...
November 13, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144433/the-influence-of-family-dog-ownership-and-parental-perceived-built-environment-measures-on-children-s-physical-activity-within-the-washington-dc-area
#2
Jennifer D Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Cortney Grisham, Rashawn Ray
Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are significant contributors to youth obesity in the United States. Neighborhood dog walking is an outlet for physical activity (PA). Therefore, understanding the relationship between built environment, dog ownership, and youth PA is essential. This study examined the influence of dog ownership and parental built environment perceptions on children's PA in the Washington, D.C. area. In 2014, questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents to assess family dog ownership; children's outdoor dog walking or playing; and parental perceived built environment measures...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139068/minor-corral-changes-and-adoption-of-good-handling-practices-can-improve-the-behavior-and-reduce-cortisol-release-in-nellore-cows
#3
Maria Lúcia Pereira Lima, João Alberto Negrão, Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz, Temple Grandin
Inadequate corral facilities and improper handling are major causes of stress in beef cattle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of minor changes in the corral and adoption of good handling practices on the behavior, cortisol release, and time spent taking blood samples in Nellore cows. Minor corral changes included obstructing the cow's vision when the handler walked deep into the animal's flight zone and the elimination of bright objects, color contrasts, puddles, shadows, and darkness in the corral...
November 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124059/evaluation-of-three-hydration-strategies-in-detection-dogs-working-in-a-hot-environment
#4
Cynthia M Otto, Elizabeth Hare, Jess L Nord, Shannon M Palermo, Kathleen M Kelsey, Tracy A Darling, Kasey Schmidt, Destiny Coleman
Physical activity in hot environments can increase the risk of heat stress or heat stroke in dogs. Heat tolerance is influenced by acclimatization to the environment, physical fitness, and hydration state. Three common strategies to promote hydration in working dogs are free access to water (W), oral electrolyte solutions (OESs), and administration of subcutaneous fluids (SQs). None of these methods have been compared for safety or efficacy in a working environment. In a cross-over design, seven vehicle-screening canines were randomly assigned to each of the three hydration strategies during working shifts at the Sarita, TX checkpoint...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116816/can-dogs-assist-children-with-severe-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-complying-with-challenging-demands-an-exploratory-experiment-with-a-live-and-a-robotic-dog
#5
Karine Silva, Mariely Lima, André Santos-Magalhães, Carla Fafiães, Liliana de Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Prompted by the need to find effective ways to enhance compliance in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and building on the increasing interest in dog-assisted interventions for this population, this study provides an exploratory test on whether dogs may assist children with severe ASD in complying with challenging demands while also decreasing behavioral and cardiovascular distress. DESIGN: A within-subject design was used. Depending on condition, participants were allowed to engage with a particular stimulus-their preferred toy, a live dog, or a robotic dog-before being exposed to a demanding task in which they had to wait for permission to eat a desired food item ("prohibition task")...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108553/rhinarium-temperature-dynamics-in-domestic-dogs
#6
Ronald Heinz Herbert Kröger, Aitor Bereber Goiricelaya
Many mammals have specialized nose-tips with glabrous and often wet skin, called rhinaria. The function of the rhinarium is unknown in most species. Rhinaria differ not only in shape and skin structure, but also in skin temperature. They are considerably colder in carnivorans than in herbivorous artio- and perissodactyls. Domestic dogs are carnivorans and their noses often feel cold, such that they can be used as an abundant and easily accessible model species. We performed a study on rhinarium temperature in dogs under various ambient temperatures as well as in different behavioral and physiological contexts, breeds, and age groups...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105787/kinematic-behavior-of-a-novel-pedicle-screw-rod-fixation-system-for-the-canine-lumbosacral-joint
#7
Claudia Zindl, Alan S Litsky, Noel Fitzpatrick, Matthew J Allen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the biomechanical behavior of a novel distraction-stabilization system, consisting of an intervertebral distraction bolt, polyaxial screws, and connecting rods, in the canine lumbosacral spine. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cadaveric canine lumbosacral spines (L4-Cd3) (N = 8). METHODS: Cadaveric lumbosacral spines were harvested, stripped of musculature, mounted on a 4-point bending jig, and tested in extension, flexion, and lateral bending using nondestructive compressive axial loads (0-150 N)...
November 6, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104225/addressing-the-challenges-of-conducting-observational-studies-in-sheep-abattoirs
#8
REVIEW
Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy
The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined spaces, as well as in commercial settings...
November 1, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089919/nasal-oxytocin-treatment-biases-dogs-visual-attention-and-emotional-response-toward-positive-human-facial-expressions
#9
Sanni Somppi, Heini Törnqvist, József Topál, Aija Koskela, Laura Hänninen, Christina M Krause, Outi Vainio
The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline) nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089642/the-effects-of-static-and-dynamic-loading-on-biodegradable-magnesium-pins-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Youngmi Koo, Hae-Beom Lee, Zhongyun Dong, Ruben Kotoka, Jagannathan Sankar, Nan Huang, Yeoheung Yun
Here we systematically assess the degradation of biodegradable magnesium pins (as-drawn pure Mg, as-cast Mg-Zn-Mn, and extruded Mg-Zn-Mn) in a bioreactor applying cyclical loading and simulated body fluid (SBF) perfusion. Cyclical mechanical loading and interstitial flow accelerated the overall corrosion rate, leading to loss of mechanical strength. When compared to the in vivo degradation (degradation rate, product formation, uniform or localized pitting, and stress distribution) of the same materials in mouse subcutaneous and dog tibia implant models, we demonstrate that the in vitro model facilitates the analysis of the complex degradation behavior of Mg-based alloys in vivo...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081760/oxytocin-and-cortisol-levels-in-dog-owners-and-their-dogs-are-associated-with-behavioral-patterns-an-exploratory-study
#11
Maria Petersson, Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, Anne Nilsson, Lise-Lotte Gustafson, Eva Hydbring-Sandberg, Linda Handlin
We have previously shown that dog-owner interaction results in increasing oxytocin levels in owners and dogs, decreasing cortisol levels in owners but increasing cortisol levels in dogs. The present study aimed to further investigate whether oxytocin and cortisol levels in the previously tested owners and dogs were associated with their behaviors during the interaction experiment. Ten female volunteer dog-owners and their male Labrador dogs participated in a 60 min interaction experiment with interaction taking place during 0-3 min and blood samples for analysis of oxytocin and cortisol were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078337/importance-of-a-species-socioecology-wolves-outperform-dogs-in-a-conspecific-cooperation-task
#12
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Jonas F L Schwarz, Inga Kostelnik, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
A number of domestication hypotheses suggest that dogs have acquired a more tolerant temperament than wolves, promoting cooperative interactions with humans and conspecifics. This selection process has been proposed to resemble the one responsible for our own greater cooperative inclinations in comparison with our closest living relatives. However, the socioecology of wolves and dogs, with the former relying more heavily on cooperative activities, predicts that at least with conspecifics, wolves should cooperate better than dogs...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073243/rna-seq-transcriptome-analysis-of-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-canine-meningioma
#13
Jennifer K Grenier, Polly A Foureman, Erica A Sloma, Andrew D Miller
Meningiomas are the most commonly reported primary intracranial tumor in dogs and humans and between the two species there are similarities in histology and biologic behavior. Due to these similarities, dogs have been proposed as models for meningioma pathobiology. However, little is known about specific pathways and individual genes that are involved in the development and progression of canine meningioma. In addition, studies are lacking that utilize RNAseq to characterize gene expression in clinical cases of canine meningioma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068711/defaming-rover-error-based-latent-rhetoric-in-the-medical-literature-on-dog-bites
#14
Arnold Arluke, Donald Cleary, Gary Patronek, Janis Bradley
This article examines the accuracy and rhetoric of reports by human health care professionals concerning dog bite injuries published in the peer-reviewed medical literature, with respect to nonclinical issues, such as dog behavior. A qualitative content analysis examined 156 publications between 1966 and 2015 identified by terms such as "dog bite" or "dangerous dogs." The analysis revealed misinformation about human-canine interactions, the significance of breed and breed characteristics, and the frequency of dog bite-related injuries...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065419/cognitive-aging-in-dogs
#15
Durga Chapagain, Friederike Range, Ludwig Huber, Zsófia Virányi
A decline in the physical or mental health of older dogs can be a challenge for the owners, whose relationship with their dog is compromised by the cognitive and behavioral changes in their dogs. Although dog owners tend to consider many physiological and behavioral changes in old dogs as part of the normal aging process, it is important to differentiate between normal aging and pathologic aging, since behavioral changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare in old dogs. Most reviews on cognitive aging in dogs have focused on translational approaches to human Alzheimer's disease; from a practical perspective, however, understanding normal cognitive aging in pet dogs and screening cognitively affected dogs are important in their own right...
October 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063312/canine-invasive-mammary-carcinomas-as-models-of-human-breast-cancer-part-2-immunophenotypes-and-prognostic-significance
#16
Jérôme Abadie, Frédérique Nguyen, Delphine Loussouarn, Laura Peña, Adelina Gama, Natascha Rieder, Anton Belousov, Ingrid Bemelmans, Laëtitia Jaillardon, Catherine Ibisch, Mario Campone
PURPOSE: Relevant animal models of human breast cancer are currently needed, especially for the aggressive triple-negative breast cancer subtype. Recent studies and our results (Part 1) indicate that spontaneous canine invasive mammary carcinomas (CMCs) resemble human breast cancer by clinics and pathology as well as behavior and prognostic indicators. We hypothesized that the current molecular classifications of human breast cancer, used for therapeutic decision, could be relevant to dogs...
October 23, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056700/how-behavioral-changes-can-indicate-serious-cerebral-pathology-a-case-report-of-concomitant-olfactory-neuroblastoma-and-distemper-virus-encephalitis-in-a-swiss-shepherd-dog
#17
Dario Candini, Ilaria Biasato, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elena Grego, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Cristina Vercelli
Behavioral alterations in dogs are not easy to understand and cure. The situation is more difficult when an encephalitis due to Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and a concomitant olfactory neuroblastoma are present. This case report deals with the story of a 5-year-old Swiss shepherd dog with behavioral changes, seizures, epistaxis and ataxia. Following clinical and laboratory exams, a suspected diagnosis of CDV infection was hypothesized, and a therapy based on Ω-interferon was administered. Every supporting therapy failed and the worsening of the clinical conditions led to the euthanasia of the patient...
August 28, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053669/the-other-end-of-the-leash-an-experimental-test-to-analyze-how-owners-interact-with-their-pet-dogs
#18
Giulia Cimarelli, Borbála Turcsán, Friederike Range, Zsófia Virányi
It has been suggested that the way in which owners interact with their dogs can largely vary and influence the dog-owner bond, but very few objective studies, so far, have addressed how the owner interacts with the dog. The goal of the present study was to record dog owners' interaction styles by means of objective observation and coding. The experiment included eight standardized situations in which owners of pet dogs were asked to perform specific tasks including both positive (i.e. playing, teaching a new task, showing a preference towards an object in a food searching task, greeting after separation) and potentially distressing tasks (i...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043250/canine-food-preference-assessment-of-animal-and-vegetable-ingredient-based-diets-using-single-pan-tests-and-behavioral-observation
#19
Meghan C Callon, Cara Cargo-Froom, Trevor J DeVries, Anna K Shoveller
Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet's nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2) examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042551/integrating-evolutionary-and-regulatory-information-with-a-multispecies-approach-implicates-genes-and-pathways-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Hyun Ji Noh, Ruqi Tang, Jason Flannick, Colm O'Dushlaine, Ross Swofford, Daniel Howrigan, Diane P Genereux, Jeremy Johnson, Gerard van Grootheest, Edna Grünblatt, Erik Andersson, Diana R Djurfeldt, Paresh D Patel, Michele Koltookian, Christina M Hultman, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, Steven A Rasmussen, Michael A Jenike, Gregory L Hanna, S Evelyn Stewart, James A Knowles, Stephan Ruhrmann, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Michael Wagner, Christian Rück, Carol A Mathews, Susanne Walitza, Daniëlle C Cath, Guoping Feng, Elinor K Karlsson, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a severe psychiatric disorder linked to abnormalities in glutamate signaling and the cortico-striatal circuit. We sequenced coding and regulatory elements for 608 genes potentially involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder in human, dog, and mouse. Using a new method that prioritizes likely functional variants, we compared 592 cases to 560 controls and found four strongly associated genes, validated in a larger cohort. NRXN1 and HTR2A are enriched for coding variants altering postsynaptic protein-binding domains...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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