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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785931/first-bone-cracking-dog-coprolites-provide-new-insight-into-bone-consumption-in-borophagus-and-their-unique-ecological-niche
#1
Xiaoming Wang, Stuart C White, Mairin Balisi, Jacob Biewer, Julia Sankey, Dennis Garber, Z Jack Tseng
Borophagine canids have long been hypothesized to be North American ecological 'avatars' of living hyenas in Africa and Asia, but direct fossil evidence of hyena-like bone consumption is hitherto unknown. We report rare coprolites (fossilized feces) of Borophagus parvus from the late Miocene of California and, for the first time, describe unambiguous evidence that these predatory canids ingested large amounts of bone. Surface morphology, micro-CT analyses, and contextual information reveal (1) droppings in concentrations signifying scent-marking behavior, similar to latrines used by living social carnivorans; (2) routine consumption of skeletons; (3) undissolved bones inside coprolites indicating gastrointestinal similarity to modern striped and brown hyenas; (4) B...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770659/-investigation-on-unhealthy-related-behaviors-of-echinococcosis-patients-in-garz%C3%A3%C2%AA-prefecture-sichuan-province
#2
Tian Ke-Qing, Tian Tian, Shi Guo-Qing, Cao Chun-Li, Hao Yu-Wan, Zhu Ze-Lin, Zhou Xiao-Nong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the unhealthy related behaviors of echinococcosis patients in Tibetan region in Sichuan Province, so as to provide the references for the health education of echinococcosis. METHODS: The echinococcosis patients who were registered in the Tibetan region in Sichuan Province were selected as target population. The basic situation and unhealthy related behaviors of them were surveyed by individual interviews. RESULTS: Totally 368 echinococcosis patients were investigated...
April 17, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768461/pet-keeping-in-childhood-and-asthma-and-allergy-among-children-in-tianjin-area-china
#3
Shugang Luo, Yuexia Sun, Jing Hou, Xiangrui Kong, Pan Wang, Qingnan Zhang, Jan Sundell
This study aims to find out the relationship between pet keeping in childhood and asthma and allergy among children aged 0-8 years old in Tianjin, China. Parental or guardians reports of 7360 children were analyzed. 1490 (21.6%) families kept pets at the time of the survey (current), among them 4.0% cats, and 14.7% dogs. For the first year of life of children (early), 1196 (18.4%) families kept pets, and among them 3.2% cats, and 13.7% dogs. Exposure to a pet in early childhood significantly increased the risk of current wheeze, current dry cough, and diagnosed rhinitis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768209/influenza-virus-mounts-a-two-pronged-attack-on-host-rna-polymerase-ii-transcription
#4
David L V Bauer, Michael Tellier, Mónica Martínez-Alonso, Takayuki Nojima, Nick J Proudfoot, Shona Murphy, Ervin Fodor
Influenza virus intimately associates with host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and mRNA processing machinery. Here, we use mammalian native elongating transcript sequencing (mNET-seq) to examine Pol II behavior during viral infection. We show that influenza virus executes a two-pronged attack on host transcription. First, viral infection causes decreased Pol II gene occupancy downstream of transcription start sites. Second, virus-induced cellular stress leads to a catastrophic failure of Pol II termination at poly(A) sites, with transcription often continuing for tens of kilobases...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#5
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740040/differences-in-pre-sleep-activity-and-sleep-location-are-associated-with-variability-in-daytime-nighttime-sleep-electrophysiology-in-the-domestic-dog
#6
Nóra Bunford, Vivien Reicher, Anna Kis, Ákos Pogány, Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs, Márta Gácsi
The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a promising animal model. Yet, the canine neuroscience literature is predominantly comprised of studies wherein (semi-)invasive methods and intensive training are used to study awake dog behavior. Given prior findings with humans and/or dogs, our goal was to assess, in 16 family dogs (1.5-7 years old; 10 males; 10 different breeds) the effects of pre-sleep activity and timing and location of sleep on sleep electrophysiology. All three factors had a main and/or interactive effect on sleep macrostructure...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732386/naturally-occurring-canine-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma-a-model-for-emerging-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Breann C Sommer, Deepika Dhawan, Timothy L Ratliff, Deborah W Knapp
The development of targeted therapies and the resurgence of immunotherapy offer enormous potential to dramatically improve the outlook for patients with invasive urothelial carcinoma (InvUC). Optimization of these therapies, however, is crucial as only a minority of patients achieve dramatic remission, and toxicities are common. With the complexities of the therapies, and the growing list of possible drug combinations to test, highly relevant animal models are needed to assess and select the most promising approaches to carry forward into human trials...
April 26, 2018: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730040/physiological-mechanisms-mediating-patterns-of-reproductive-suppression-and-alloparental-care-in-cooperatively-breeding-carnivores
#8
Tracy M Montgomery, Erika L Pendleton, Jennifer E Smith
Although cooperation represents a long-standing evolutionary puzzle, field studies on social carnivores have contributed greatly to our understanding of the selective forces favoring cooperative breeding. Despite these insights, our grasp of the proximate mechanisms facilitating cooperation in carnivores remains surprisingly limited. Here we provide an overview of our current knowledge of the endocrine mechanisms mediating cooperative breeding in terrestrial species belonging to the mammalian order Carnivora...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724234/an-empirical-examination-of-the-conceptualization-of-companion-animals
#9
Ruben Hoffmann, Carl Johan Lagerkvist, Malin Hagberg Gustavsson, Bodil S Holst
BACKGROUND: The extensive keeping of companion animals and the substantial monetary amount we spend on these animals indicate that they are highly valued. Although the benefits humans derive from keeping cats and dogs have been extensively studied, how we conceptualize these animals has received limited attention. How people conceptualize cats and dogs is important as it influences human behavior and the well-being of humans as well as animals. The objective of this paper was to examine the conceptual meaning of dogs and cats and the relative importance of meanings assigned to these species...
May 4, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723300/increased-resistance-to-sudden-noise-by-audio-stimulation-during-early-ontogeny-in-german-shepherd-puppies
#10
Helena Chaloupková, Ivona Svobodová, Pavel Vápeník, Luděk Bartoš
The period of early ontogeny constitutes a time when the physical immaturity of an organism is highly susceptible to external stimuli. Thus, early development plays a major role in shaping later adult behavior. The aim of the study was to check whether stimulating puppies at this early stage in life with sound would improve their responsiveness towards unfamiliar noises during the selection process of the police behavioral test for puppies. The cohort comprised 37 puppies from the litters of three mothers. At the commencement of the experiment the dogs were aged 16 days, rising to the age of 32 days at its close...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722034/surviving-in-the-urban-rural-interface-feeding-and-ranging-behavior-of-brown-howlers-alouatta-guariba-clamitans-in-an-urban-fragment-in-southern-brazil
#11
Fabiana M Corrêa, Óscar M Chaves, Rodrigo C Printes, Helena P Romanowski
Wild primates that live in urban areas face extreme threats that are less frequent in nonurban fragments, such as the presence of dangerous matrix elements (e.g., roads, power lines, buildings, and a high density of domestic dogs near food patches), that could influence their movements, feeding behavior, and survival. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hinders our understanding of the behavioral adjustments that favor the survival of primates in urban areas. For 12 months, we studied a six-individual group of brown howlers (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in an urban fragment to determine (i) their diet richness and its relationships with food availability, (ii) their daily path length (DPL) and the matrix elements used during movement, and (iii) the main ecological drivers of the DPL...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721841/histomorphometric-analysis-of-the-choroid-of-donkeys-buffalos-camels-and-dogs
#12
Ahmed M Kotb, Ismail Abdel-Aziz Ibrahim, Khaled H Aly, Ahmed E Zayed
AIM: The present study was carried out to investigate the morphological and histomorphometric characters of choroid in donkeys, buffalos, camels and dogs. RESULTS: The findings of the study revealed that, macroscopically, the choroid was consisted of two areas in all studied animals, except in camel which consists of one area. Histologically, the choroid consists of five layers. Interestingly, the anterior borders of all investigated animals were free of pigments except in camel...
May 2, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719660/evaluation-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-activity-in-serum-and-biochemical-and-hematological-parameters-in-spontaneous-canine-cutaneous-tumors-before-and-after-surgical-treatment
#13
Vahid Fathipour, Zohreh Khaki, Seyyed Mehdi Nassiri
Recently, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), in particular the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, generally considered as tumor markers for clinical applications. A longitudinal 2-years follow-up survey was performed on dogs with cutaneous tumor. Serum samples were obtained from 22 dogs with different cutaneous tumors and 22 health dogs at the time of surgery and one month, three months and one year after surgery. Gelatin zymography, hematological and biochemical assessment were performed for all serum samples. The serum alkaline phosphatase activity in dogs with malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in dogs with benign tumors and control cases...
2018: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718954/behavioural-risks-in-male-dogs-with-minimal-lifetime-exposure-to-gonadal-hormones-may-complicate-population-control-benefits-of-desexing
#14
Paul D McGreevy, Bethany Wilson, Melissa J Starling, James A Serpell
Castration of dogs is a widespread practise with clear justification in population control and knock-on benefits for animal welfare. Deleterious behavioural consequences of castration are believed to be negligible. Gonadectomy is widely recommended as part of a multi-factorial approach to prevent problems including aggression in dogs. However, the consequences of early castration on health are still being debated. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 6,235 male dogs castrated before 520 weeks of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714006/behavioral-synchronization-and-affiliation-dogs-exhibit-human-like-skills
#15
Charlotte Duranton, Florence Gaunet
Behavioral synchronization is evolutionary adaptive, fostering social cohesion. In humans, affiliation between partners is associated with a high level of behavioral synchronization; people show increased affiliation towards people who synchronize with them. Surprisingly, until recently, little was known about these phenomena at an interspecific level, which is, however, essential to better understand the respective roles of evolution and ontogeny. After presenting why dog-human dyads are a relevant biological model to study this field of social cognition, we review the recent findings about dog-human behavioral synchronization...
April 30, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713167/characterization-and-evaluation-of-graphene-oxide-scaffold-for-periodontal-wound-healing-of-class-ii-furcation-defects-in-dog
#16
Kohei Kawamoto, Hirofumi Miyaji, Erika Nishida, Saori Miyata, Akihito Kato, Akito Tateyama, Tomokazu Furihata, Kanako Shitomi, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Tsutomu Sugaya
Introduction: The 3-dimensional scaffold plays a key role in volume and quality of repair tissue in periodontal tissue engineering therapy. We fabricated a novel 3D collagen scaffold containing carbon-based 2-dimensional layered material, named graphene oxide (GO). The aim of this study was to characterize and assess GO scaffold for periodontal tissue healing of class II furcation defects in dog. Materials and methods: GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a 3D collagen sponge scaffold with GO dispersion...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708550/a-semantic-priming-event-related-potential-erp-task-to-study-lexico-semantic-and-visuo-semantic-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Emily L Coderre
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have characteristic deficits in understanding the meaning of language, or semantic processing. However, some evidence indicates that semantic processing of non-linguistic stimuli is intact, suggesting that semantic deficits may be language-specific. To appropriately characterize semantic processing deficits in individuals with ASD, comparison of within-modality linguistic (e.g., written words) and non-linguistic (e.g., pictures) stimuli is required. This paper describes such a methodology that makes use of a semantic priming paradigm during concurrent recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) data...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702585/anthropogenic-food-subsidy-to-a-commensal-carnivore-the-value-and-supply-of-human-faeces-in-the-diet-of-free-ranging-dogs
#18
James R A Butler, Wendy Y Brown, Johan T du Toit
As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans, but anthropogenic food subsidies, particularly human faeces (i.e., coprophagy) have not previously been fully quantified. In this study we assess the contributions of different food types to the diet, and their influences on the social behaviour of free-ranging dogs in communal lands of rural Zimbabwe, with a focus on coprophagy...
April 27, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701286/physiological-characterization-of-ocular-melanosis-affected-canine-melanocytes
#19
Ethan M Dawson-Baglien, Erica L Noland, Dodd G Sledge, Matti Kiupel, Simon M Petersen-Jones
OBJECTIVE: Cairn terriers with ocular melanosis (OM) accumulate large, heavily pigmented melanocytes in the anterior uvea. Darkly pigmented plaques develop within the sclera, leading us to hypothesize that OM uveal melanocytes may have an abnormal migratory capacity. ANIMALS STUDIED: Globes from OM-affected Cairn terriers and unaffected control eyes enucleated for reasons unrelated to this study were used for immunohistochemistry and to culture melanocytes for in vitro cell behavior assays...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699519/comprehensive-gene-expression-analysis-of-canine-invasive-urothelial-bladder-carcinoma-by-rna-seq
#20
Shingo Maeda, Hirotaka Tomiyasu, Masaya Tsuboi, Akiko Inoue, Genki Ishihara, Takao Uchikai, James K Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Naoaki Matsuki
BACKGROUND: Invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) is a major cause of death in humans, and approximately 165,000 individuals succumb to this cancer annually worldwide. Comparative oncology using relevant animal models is necessary to improve our understanding of progression, diagnosis, and treatment of iUC. Companion canines are a preferred animal model of iUC due to spontaneous tumor development and similarity to human disease in terms of histopathology, metastatic behavior, and treatment response...
April 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
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