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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202716/pattern-separation-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-the-aged-canine
#1
Shikha Snigdha, Michael A Yassa, Christina deRivera, Norton W Milgram, Carl W Cotman
The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern separation task(s) for detecting age-related changes in canines. We also assessed the dogs' ability to show pattern separation and discrimination reversal, which provides a novel extension of the pattern separation learning literature...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182485/-wolves-canis-lupus-and-dogs-canis-familiaris-differ-in-following-human-gaze-into-distant-space-but-respond-similar-to-their-packmates-gaze-correction-to-werhahn-et-al-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range (Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171732/endolymphatic-sac-tumor-in-two-dogs
#3
K J Barnes, V Clear, K Youmans, M R Hardcastle, N Nelson, A Petersen, M Kiupel
Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neoplasms of the inner and middle ear described in humans. Diagnosis of such neoplasms is difficult and largely dependent on a combination of histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical findings. Although the neoplastic cells lack cellular features of malignancy, these are clinically aggressive tumors that often invade the surrounding temporal bone. Here, we describe 2 dogs with middle ear masses that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical similarities with human ELSTs...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168679/doggone-affordances-canine-perception-of-affordances-for-reaching
#4
Jeffrey B Wagman, Matthew D Langley, Valeri Farmer-Dougan
Performing any behavior requires perceiving affordances-whether and how that behavior can be performed. Perception of affordances exhibits action scaling-choices about when to transition between two different modes of behavior reflect the fit between action capabilities and environmental properties. The boundary between distances that are perceived to be reachable with an arm-only reach and those that are perceived to be reachable with an arm-plus-torso reach occurs at farther distances for long-armed than for short-armed people, but at the same ratio of object-distance-to-arm length for both groups...
February 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164834/a-quick-reference-on-hypernatremia
#5
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
Hypernatremia most commonly is associated with water loss in excess of sodium or salt gain (typically associated with restriction of access to water). Most of the signs of hypernatremia arise from the central nervous system; the more rapid the development of hypernatremia, the more severe the neurologic signs are likely to be. Anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, muscular weakness, behavioral changes, disorientation, ataxia, seizures, coma, and death have been identified in dogs and cats with hypernatremia and hypertonicity...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157145/current-perspectives-on-therapy-dog-welfare-in-animal-assisted-interventions
#6
REVIEW
Lisa Maria Glenk
Research into the effects of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) has primarily addressed human health outcomes. In contrast, only few publications deal with the therapy dog experience of AAIs. This paper provides an overview on potential welfare threats that therapy dogs may encounter and presents the results of a review of available studies on welfare indicators for therapy dogs during AAIs. Previous investigations used physiological and behavioral welfare indicators and dog handler surveys to identify work-related stress...
February 1, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152185/mechanical-properties-of-canine-osteosarcoma-affected-antebrachia
#7
Michele A Steffey, Tanya C Garcia, Leticia Daniel, Allison L Zwingenberger, Susan M Stover
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of neoplasia on the biomechanical properties of canine antebrachia. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo biomechanical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Osteosarcoma (OSA)-affected canine antebrachia (n = 12) and unaffected canine antebrachia (n = 9). METHODS: Antebrachia were compressed in axial loading until failure. A load-deformation curve was used to acquire the structural mechanical properties of neoplastic and unaffected specimens...
February 2, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129095/t-lymphocytes-in-histiocytic-sarcomas-of-flat-coated-retriever-dogs
#8
A Marcinowska, F Constantino-Casas, T Williams, T Hoather, B Blacklaws, J Dobson
Flat-Coated Retriever dogs are predisposed to the development of histiocytic sarcoma (HS), a poorly differentiated, highly malignant neoplasm. The authors have previously documented a significant lymphocytic infiltrate in such tumors. The objective of this study was to examine the presence and expression of regulatory T cells in HS tumor samples. Forty tumors were included in this study. All tumors were immunolabeled for CD3, CD79a, CD25, CD45RA, and FOXP3. The proportion of positive cells was compared between tumors presenting as a localized primary soft tissue mass (soft tissue origin HS) and disseminated HS affecting viscera, especially the spleen (splenic origin HS)...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119017/does-size-really-matter-investigating-cognitive-differences-in-spatial-memory-ability-based-on-size-in-domestic-dogs
#9
Megan S Broadway, Mystera M Samuelson, Jennie L Christopher, Stephanie E Jett, Heidi Lyn
The study of canine cognition can be useful in understanding the selective pressures affecting cognitive abilities. Dogs have undergone intensive artificial selection yielding distinctive breeds, which differ both phenotypically and behaviorally and no other species has a wider range in brain size. As brain size has long been hypothesized to relate to cognitive capacity, this species offers a useful model to further explore this relationship. The influence of physical size on canine cognition has not been thoroughly addressed, despite the fact that large dogs are often perceived to be 'smarter' than small dogs...
January 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118500/leaf-swallowing-and-parasite-expulsion-in-khao-yai-white-handed-gibbons-hylobates-lar-the-first-report-in-an-asian-ape-species
#10
Claudia Barelli, Michael A Huffman
Leaf swallowing behavior, known as a form of self-medication for the control of nematode and tapeworm infection, occurs widely in all the African great apes (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, P. t. troglodytes, P. t. verus, P. t. vellerosus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla graueri), except mountain gorillas. It is also reported to occur in a similar context across a wide array of other animal taxa including, domestic dogs, wolves, brown bears, and civets. Despite long-term research on Asian great and small apes, this is the first report of leaf swallowing in an Asian species, the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, central Thailand...
March 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117795/behavioral-disturbances-an-innovative-approach-to-monitor-the-modulatory-effects-of-a-nutraceutical-diet
#11
Alessandro Di Cerbo, Sara Sechi, Sergio Canello, Gianandrea Guidetti, Filippo Fiore, Raffaella Cocco
In dogs, diets are often used to modulate behavioral disturbances related to chronic anxiety and stress caused by intense and restless activity. However, the traditional ways to monitor behavioral changes in dogs are complicated and not efficient. In the current clinical evaluation, a new, simple monitoring system was used to assess the effectiveness of a specific diet in positively modulating the intense and restless activity of 24 dogs of different ages and breeds. This protocol describes how to easily and rapidly evaluate improvement in a set of symptoms related to generalized anxiety by using a specific sensor, a mobile phone app, a wireless router, and a computer...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117644/escape-rates-and-biting-histories-of-dogs-confined-to-their-owner-s-property-through-the-use-of-various-containment-methods
#12
Nicole S Starinsky, Linda K Lord, Meghan E Herron
OBJECTIVE To determine escape rates for dogs confined to their owner's property by various containment methods and determine whether biting history was associated with containment method. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 974 owners of 1,053 dogs. PROCEDURES Individuals patronizing pet stores in Columbus, Ohio, were recruited to complete a survey on the method they used to confine their dogs to their property and their dogs' behavior history. RESULTS Dogs were confined to their owner's property by a physical fence (821/1,053 [78...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114335/human-empathy-personality-and-experience-affect-the-emotion-ratings-of-dog-and-human-facial-expressions
#13
Miiamaaria V Kujala, Sanni Somppi, Markus Jokela, Outi Vainio, Lauri Parkkonen
Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090645/neonatal-limb-amputation-an-unusual-form-of-postmortem-canine-predation
#14
Kimberley J Omond, Calle Winskog, Allan Cala, Roger W Byard
Cases of postmortem canine predation often involve elderly recluses and their dogs. The face, head, and genitalia are targeted. Two unusual cases of postmortem canine predation of abandoned newborns are described to demonstrate an unusual alternative pattern of mutilation related to the small size of the decedents, marked decomposition, and canine scavenging behavior. Both bodies were abandoned/concealed soon after birth and were subsequently disturbed by dogs. Both were markedly decomposed with absent arms...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073623/stretching-food-and-being-creative-caregiver-responses-to-child-food-insecurity
#15
Michael P Burke, Lauren H Martini, Christine E Blake, Nicholas A Younginer, Carrie L Draper, Bethany A Bell, Angela D Liese, Sonya J Jones
OBJECTIVE: To examine the strategies and behaviors caregivers use to manage the household food supply when their children experience food insecurity as measured by the US Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey with open-ended questions collected in person. SETTING: Urban and nonurban areas, South Carolina, US. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers who reported food insecurity among their children (n = 746)...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068294/canine-olfaction-as-an-alternative-to-analytical-instruments-for-disease-diagnosis-understanding-dog-personality-to-achieve-reproducible-results
#16
Klaus Hackner, Joachim Pleil
Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all the way to essentially random results. This disparity is not likely to be a detection issue; dogs have been shown to have extremely sensitive noses as proven by their use for tracking, bomb detection and search and rescue. However, in contrast to analytical instruments, dogs are subject to boredom, fatigue, hunger and external distractions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065774/use-of-incidentally-encoded-memory-from-a-single-experience-in-cats
#17
Saho Takagi, Mana Tsuzuki, Hitomi Chijiiwa, Minori Arahori, Arii Watanabe, Atsuko Saito, Kazuo Fujita
We examined whether cats could retrieve and utilize incidentally encoded information from a single past event in a simple food-exploration task previously used for dogs (Fujita et al., 2012). In Experiment 1, cats were led to four open, baited containers and allowed to eat from two of them (Exposure phase). After a 15-min delay during which the cats were absent and all containers were replaced with empty ones, the cats were unexpectedly returned to the room and allowed to explore the containers (Test phase)...
January 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058543/genomic-profiling-of-canine-mast-cell-tumors-identifies-dna-copy-number-aberrations-associated-with-kit-mutations-and-high-histological-grade
#18
Hiroyuki Mochizuki, Rachael Thomas, Scott Moroff, Matthew Breen
Mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common skin malignancy of domestic dogs and presents with a widely variable clinical behavior. Although activating KIT mutations are present in approximately 20% of canine MCTs, molecular etiology is largely unknown for the majority of this cancer. Characterization of genomic alterations in canine MCTs may identify genomic regions and/or genes responsible for their development and progression, facilitating the discovery of new therapeutic targets and improved clinical management of this heterogeneous cancer...
January 5, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049540/catestatin-and-vasostatin-concentrations-in-healthy-dogs
#19
Thanikul Srithunyarat, Ragnvi Hagman, Odd V Höglund, Ulf Olsson, Mats Stridsberg, Supranee Jitpean, Anne-Sofie Lagerstedt, Ann Pettersson
BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine glycoprotein chromogranin A is a useful biomarker in humans for neuroendocrine tumors and stress. Chromogranin A can be measured in both blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to investigate concentrations of and correlation between the chromogranin A epitopes catestatin and vasostatin in healthy dogs accustomed to the sample collection procedures. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 10 research Beagle dogs twice daily for 5 consecutive days, and from 33 privately-owned blood donor dogs in association with 50 different blood donation occasions...
January 3, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048977/phlebotomine-sandflies-diptera-phlebotomidae-of-lanzarote-island-canary-islands-spain-ecological-survey-and-evaluation-of-the-risk-of-leishmania-transmission
#20
Francisco Morillas-Márquez, Victoriano Díaz-Sáez, María Jesús Morillas-Mancilla, Victoriano Corpas-López, Gemma Merino-Espinosa, Patricia Gijón-Robles, Joaquina Martín-Sánchez
Phlebotomine sandflies are natural vectors of Leishmania spp. and their expansion throughout has been evidenced in the last few years due to the global warming and changes in human behavior, worsening leishmaniasis problem. However, phlebotomine sandflies have been captured in small numbers on the Canary Islands, particularly on the island of Lanzarote, where only one limited survey was carried out almost thirty years ago. The proximity of this island to Morocco, in addition to the high number of tourists, sometimes accompanied by their dogs, from leishmaniasis endemic regions, highlights the importance of studying the sandfly fauna on this island in order to determine the transmission risk of leishmaniasis Thirty-eight sampling sites spread across the island were studied, and ecological features were gathered to identify the ecological traits associated to the presence of sandflies...
December 31, 2016: Acta Tropica
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