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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090645/neonatal-limb-amputation-an-unusual-form-of-postmortem-canine-predation
#1
Kimberley J Omond, Calle Winskog, Allan Cala, Roger W Byard
Cases of postmortem canine predation often involve elderly recluses and their dogs. The face, head, and genitalia are targeted. Two unusual cases of postmortem canine predation of abandoned newborns are described to demonstrate an unusual alternative pattern of mutilation related to the small size of the decedents, marked decomposition, and canine scavenging behavior. Both bodies were abandoned/concealed soon after birth and were subsequently disturbed by dogs. Both were markedly decomposed with absent arms...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073623/stretching-food-and-being-creative-caregiver-responses-to-child-food-insecurity
#2
Michael P Burke, Lauren H Martini, Christine E Blake, Nicholas A Younginer, Carrie L Draper, Bethany A Bell, Angela D Liese, Sonya J Jones
OBJECTIVE: To examine the strategies and behaviors caregivers use to manage the household food supply when their children experience food insecurity as measured by the US Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey with open-ended questions collected in person. SETTING: Urban and nonurban areas, South Carolina, US. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers who reported food insecurity among their children (n = 746)...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068294/canine-olfaction-as-an-alternative-to-analytical-instruments-for-disease-diagnosis-understanding-dog-personality-to-achieve-reproducible-results
#3
Klaus Hackner, Joachim Pleil
Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all the way to essentially random results. This disparity is not likely to be a detection issue; dogs have been shown to have extremely sensitive noses as proven by their use for tracking, bomb detection and search and rescue. However, in contrast to analytical instruments, dogs are subject to boredom, fatigue, hunger and external distractions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065774/use-of-incidentally-encoded-memory-from-a-single-experience-in-cats
#4
Saho Takagi, Mana Tsuzuki, Hitomi Chijiiwa, Minori Arahori, Arii Watanabe, Atsuko Saito, Kazuo Fujita
We examined whether cats could retrieve and utilize incidentally encoded information from a single past event in a simple food-exploration task previously used for dogs (Fujita et al., 2012). In Experiment 1, cats were led to four open, baited containers and allowed to eat from two of them (Exposure phase). After a 15-min delay during which the cats were absent and all containers were replaced with empty ones, the cats were unexpectedly returned to the room and allowed to explore the containers (Test phase)...
January 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058543/genomic-profiling-of-canine-mast-cell-tumors-identifies-dna-copy-number-aberrations-associated-with-kit-mutations-and-high-histological-grade
#5
Hiroyuki Mochizuki, Rachael Thomas, Scott Moroff, Matthew Breen
Mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common skin malignancy of domestic dogs and presents with a widely variable clinical behavior. Although activating KIT mutations are present in approximately 20% of canine MCTs, molecular etiology is largely unknown for the majority of this cancer. Characterization of genomic alterations in canine MCTs may identify genomic regions and/or genes responsible for their development and progression, facilitating the discovery of new therapeutic targets and improved clinical management of this heterogeneous cancer...
January 5, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049540/catestatin-and-vasostatin-concentrations-in-healthy-dogs
#6
Thanikul Srithunyarat, Ragnvi Hagman, Odd V Höglund, Ulf Olsson, Mats Stridsberg, Supranee Jitpean, Anne-Sofie Lagerstedt, Ann Pettersson
BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine glycoprotein chromogranin A is a useful biomarker in humans for neuroendocrine tumors and stress. Chromogranin A can be measured in both blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to investigate concentrations of and correlation between the chromogranin A epitopes catestatin and vasostatin in healthy dogs accustomed to the sample collection procedures. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 10 research Beagle dogs twice daily for 5 consecutive days, and from 33 privately-owned blood donor dogs in association with 50 different blood donation occasions...
January 3, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048977/phlebotomine-sandflies-diptera-phlebotomidae-of-lanzarote-island-canary-islands-spain-ecological-survey-and-evaluation-of-the-risk-of-leishmania-transmission
#7
Francisco Morillas-Márquez, Victoriano Díaz-Sáez, María Jesús Morillas-Mancilla, Victoriano Corpas-López, Gemma Merino-Espinosa, Patricia Gijón-Robles, Joaquina Martín-Sánchez
Phlebotomine sandflies are natural vectors of Leishmania spp. and their expansion throughout has been evidenced in the last few years due to the global warming and changes in human behavior, worsening leishmaniasis problem. However, phlebotomine sandflies have been captured in small numbers on the Canary Islands, particularly on the island of Lanzarote, where only one limited survey was carried out almost thirty years ago. The proximity of this island to Morocco, in addition to the high number of tourists, sometimes accompanied by their dogs, from leishmaniasis endemic regions, highlights the importance of studying the sandfly fauna on this island in order to determine the transmission risk of leishmaniasis Thirty-eight sampling sites spread across the island were studied, and ecological features were gathered to identify the ecological traits associated to the presence of sandflies...
December 31, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040481/estimating-the-intra-cluster-correlation-coefficient-for-evaluating-an-educational-intervention-program-to-improve-rabies-awareness-and-dog-bite-prevention-among-children-in-sikkim-india-a-pilot-study
#8
Aashima Auplish, Alison S Clarke, Trent Van Zanten, Kate Abel, Charmaine Tham, Thinlay N Bhutia, Colin R Wilks, Mark A Stevenson, Simon M Firestone
BACKGROUND: Educational initiatives targeting at-risk populations have long been recognized as a mainstay of ongoing rabies control efforts. Cluster-based studies are often utilized to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population in response to education campaigns. The design of cluster-based studies requires estimates of intra-cluster correlation coefficients obtained from previous studies. This study estimates the school-level intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for rabies knowledge change following an educational intervention program...
December 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032095/control-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-in-iran-a-review-article
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi
Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. kandelakii, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. keshishiani and P. alexandri are considered as probable vectors of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. A literature search was performed of the relevant multiple databases from 1966 to 2013 to include studies on sand flies, vector control, leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018910/an-investigation-of-the-complexities-of-successful-and-unsuccessful-guide-dog-matching-and-partnerships
#10
Janice Lloyd, Claire Budge, Steve La Grow, Kevin Stafford
Matching a person who is blind or visually impaired with a guide dog is a process of finding the most suitable guide dog available for that individual. Not all guide dog partnerships are successful, and the consequences of an unsuccessful partnership may result in reduced mobility and quality of life for the handler (owner), and are costly in time and resources for guide dog training establishments. This study examined 50 peoples' partnerships with one or more dogs (118 pairings) to ascertain the outcome of the relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011060/sex-differences-in-cortisol-s-regulation-of-affiliative-behavior
#11
Gary D Sherman, Leslie K Rice, Ellie Shuo Jin, Amanda S Jones, Robert A Josephs
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. A stress perspective is used to illuminate how competitive defeat and victory shape biology and behavior. We report on a field study examining how change in cortisol following perceived defeat (vs. victory) in a competition-in this case, a dog agility competition-relates to affiliative behavior. Following competition, we measured cortisol change and the extent to which dog handlers directed affiliative behaviors toward their dogs. We found striking sex differences in affiliation...
December 20, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009676/effectiveness-of-meaningful-occupation-interventions-for-people-living-with-dementia-in-residential-aged-care-a-systematic-review
#12
Catherine Travers, Deborah Brooks, Sonia Hines, Maria O'Reilly, Mitchell McMaster, Wei He, Margaret MacAndrew, Elaine Fielding, Lina Karlsson, Elizabeth Beattie
BACKGROUND: The ability to participate in valued activities, whether for work, leisure or family, is an important aspect of personal identity. In dementia, progressive memory loss means that abilities developed over a lifetime begin to be lost as well, contributing to the loss of self and identity. Some studies have reported that activities or interventions tailored to be meaningful to the person with dementia (defined as any activity important to the individual) are more effective in addressing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and improving quality of life (QoL) than those that are not so tailored...
December 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994738/sulfonamides-as-selective-nav1-7-inhibitors-optimizing-potency-and-pharmacokinetics-to-enable-in-vivo-target-engagement
#13
Isaac E Marx, Thomas A Dineen, Jessica Able, Christiane Bode, Howard Bregman, Margaret Chu-Moyer, Erin F DiMauro, Bingfan Du, Robert S Foti, Robert T Fremeau, Hua Gao, Hakan Gunaydin, Brian E Hall, Liyue Huang, Thomas Kornecook, Charles R Kreiman, Daniel S La, Joseph Ligutti, Min-Hwa Jasmine Lin, Dong Liu, Jeff S McDermott, Bryan D Moyer, Emily A Peterson, Jonathan T Roberts, Paul Rose, Jean Wang, Beth D Youngblood, Violeta Yu, Matthew M Weiss
Human genetic evidence has identified the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as an attractive target for the treatment of pain. We initially identified naphthalene sulfonamide 3 as a potent and selective inhibitor of NaV1.7. Optimization to reduce biliary clearance by balancing hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity (Log D) while maintaining NaV1.7 potency led to the identification of quinazoline 16 (AM-2099). Compound 16 demonstrated a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in rat and dog and demonstrated dose-dependent reduction of histamine-induced scratching bouts in a mouse behavioral model following oral dosing...
December 8, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964910/the-process-of-motivating-oneself-to-resist-being-controlled-by-chronic-pain-a-qualitative-study-of-japanese-older-people-living-in-the-community
#14
Yukari Takai, Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani, Ikumi Chiba
Perceptions and experiences of chronic pain in older adults have not been fully explored. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of life with chronic pain among older Japanese adults in the community. The grounded theory approach was used to identify a process model of older people's perceptions and experiences of living with chronic pain. Twenty-four people were recruited via snowball sampling. Ten participants had suffered from pain for 30 years or more. Data were collected through semistructured, individual interviews...
December 10, 2016: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943611/femtosecond-laser-micro-machined-polyimide-films-for-cell-scaffold-applications
#15
Ieva Antanavičiūtė, Linas Šimatonis, Orestas Ulčinas, Aušra Gadeikytė, Brigita Abakevičienė, Sigitas Tamulevičius, Valeryia Mikalayeva, Vytenis Arvydas Skeberdis, Edgaras Stankevičius, Tomas Tamulevičius
Engineering of sophisticated synthetic 3D scaffolds that allow controlling behavior and location of the cells requires advanced micro/nano fabrication techniques. Ultrafast laser micro-machining employing a 1030 nm wavelength Yb:KGW femtosecond laser and a micro-fabrication workstation for micro-machining of commercially available 12.7 and 25.4 µm thickness polyimide (PI) film was applied. Mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds, i.e., arrays of differently spaced holes, were examined via custom-built uniaxial micro-tensile testing and finite element method simulations...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925064/does-hair-coat-length-affect-flea-infestation-in-naturally-infested-dogs
#16
Guilherme Araujo Collares da Silva, Luciana Araujo Lins, Márcio Josué Costa Irala, Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo, Paulo Bretanha Ribeiro
The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length < 5...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918466/evaluating-a-website-to-teach-children-safety-with-dogs-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
David C Schwebel, Peng Li, Leslie A McClure, Joan Severson
Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4-5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking) was conducted both at baseline and following website use...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917385/effects-of-sheltering-on-behavior-and-fecal-corticosterone-level-of-elderly-dogs
#18
Katsuji Uetake, Chu Han Yang, Aki Endo, Toshio Tanaka
In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914935/laboratory-and-field-evaluation-of-brown-dog-tick-behavioral-responses-to-potential-semiochemicals
#19
Lucas P Carnohan, Phillip E Kaufman, Sandra A Allan, Salvador A Gezan, Emma N I Weeks
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Parasitiformis: Ixodidae), is an ectoparasite of dogs that can be found worldwide. This tick poses unique difficulties in management because it can complete its entire life cycle indoors and has demonstrated acaricide resistance. The ability to monitor for tick presence and abundance is necessary for developing effective control programs. As such, an evaluation of adult brown dog tick behavioral responses to 16 potential semiochemicals was undertaken using Y-tube and straight-tube olfactometers...
November 9, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912242/deciphering-the-origin-of-dogs-from-fossils-to-genomes
#20
Adam H Freedman, Robert K Wayne
Understanding the timing and geographic context of dog origins is a crucial component for understanding human history, as well as the evolutionary context in which the morphological and behavioral divergence of dogs from wolves occurred. A substantial challenge to understanding domestication is that dogs have experienced a complicated demographic history. An initial severe bottleneck was associated with domestication followed by postdivergence gene flow between dogs and wolves, as well as population expansions, contractions, and replacements...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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