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Pediatric liver infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769027/immune-monitoring-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-the-prospective-chilsfree-cohort-study
#1
Imeke Goldschmidt, André Karch, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Frauke Mutschler, Norman Junge, Eva Doreen Pfister, Tamara Möhring, Lorenzo d'Antiga, Patrick McKiernan, Deirdre Kelly, Dominique Debray, Valérie McLin, Joanna Pawlowska, Loreto Hierro, Kerstin Daemen, Jana Keil, Christine Falk, Ulrich Baumann
BACKGROUND: Although trough levels of immunosuppressive drugs are largely used to monitor immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation, there is still no established tool that allows for a validated assessment of functional degree of immunosuppression or the identification of clinically relevant over- or under-immunosuppression, depending on graft homeostasis. Reliable non-invasive markers to predict biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) do not exist. Literature data suggest that longitudinal measurements of immune markers might be predictive of BPAR, but data in children are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762251/prospective-assessment-of-adenovirus-infection-in-pediatric-kidney-transplant-recipients
#2
Rachel M Engen, Meei-Li Huang, Giulia E Park, Jodi M Smith, Ajit P Limaye
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus infection is associated with graft dysfunction and graft loss in pediatric cardiac, lung, and liver transplants in prior retrospective studies, but data in pediatric kidney transplant recipients is limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective single-center cohort study of 75 consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients who underwent monthly screening for adenovirus viremia and symptom assessment for 2 years posttransplant. RESULTS: Adenovirus viremia was detected in 11 (14...
May 2, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761899/the-use-of-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-with-or-without-hepatitis-b-vaccine-to-prevent-de-novo-hepatitis-b-in-pediatric-recipients-of-anti-hbc-positive-livers
#3
Noriyo Yamashiki, Atsushi Yoshizawa, Yoshihide Ueda, Toshimi Kaido, Hideaki Okajima, Hiroyuki Marusawa, Hiroshi Seno, Shinji Uemoto
Prophylactic measures are used to reduce DNHB after HBsAg-negative patients receive anti-HBc-positive liver grafts. This study investigated the incidence of DNHB and clinical outcomes in pediatric LT recipients under HBIG prophylaxis, with or without hepatitis B vaccination. Between 1995 and 2013, 51 HBsAg-negative pediatric recipients underwent living-donor LT from anti-HBc-positive donors. The median (range) age was 4 (0.1-17) years, 23 (45%) were male, and 71% were negative for both anti-HBc and anti-HBc...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753095/cerebral-cystic-echinococcosis-in-mongolian-children-caused-by-echinococcus-canadensis
#4
Orkhontuul Shirmen, Batbold Batchuluun, Avaajigmed Lkhamjav, Tugbayar Tseveen, Tsetsegdelger Munkhjargal, Tsogtsaikhan Sandag, Enkhsaikhan Lkhagvasuren, Tetsuya Yanagida, Yuji Nishikawa, Akira Ito
Recent molecular re-evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus, which causes cystic echinococcosis (CE), has revealed that it is not a single species, but instead consists of 5 cryptic species. Among them, E. granulosus (dog-sheep strain) is predominant (75%) followed by Echinococcus canadensis (22%). The major affected organs, in humans, are the liver (88%) and lungs (11%). Primary cerebral CE comprises less than 1% of all cases. As cerebral CE cases are rare, there are few reports with molecular confirmation of the causative species...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746380/one-year-incidence-of-infection-in-pediatric-intestine-transplantation
#5
Jared W Clouse, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Jonathan A Fridell, Richard S Mangus
BACKGROUND: This study reports the infection rate, location of infection, and pathogen causing bacterial, fungal, or viral infections in intestine transplant recipients at a pediatric transplant center. METHODS: Records from a pediatric center were reviewed for patients receiving an intestine transplant. Positive cultures and pathology reports were used to diagnose bacterial, fungal, and viral infections and also to determine location and infectious agent. Risk for infection was assessed based on liver or colon inclusion, and immunosuppression induction, as part of the intestine transplant...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729061/side-effects-and-efficacy-of-renal-sparing-immunosuppression-in-pediatric-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-matched-cohort-study
#6
Christoph Leiskau, Jeremy Rajanayagam, Eva-Doreen Pfister, Imeke Goldschmidt, Norman Junge, André Karch, Christian Lerch, Nicolas Richter, Frank Lehner, Harald Schrem, Ulrich Baumann
Immunosuppressive combination therapy with MMF can reduce CNI associated nephrotoxicity. We investigated effectiveness and safety of de novo MMF-tacrolimus based immunosuppression after pLTx. Patients after pLTx receiving immunosuppression with MMF/tacrolimus (MMF/TAC) were compared to retrospectively selected age- and diagnosis-matched patients with tacrolimus monotherapy (TAC) and cyclosporine/prednisolone therapy (CSA) (19 patients each, n = 57). Effectiveness, renal function and side effects were analyzed for 1 year after pLTx...
May 5, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701871/pediatric-intestinal-failure-the-key-outcomes-for-the-first-100-patients-treated-in-a-national-tertiary-referral-center-during-1984-2017
#7
Laura Merras-Salmio, Annika Mutanen, Elisa Ylinen, Risto Rintala, Antti Koivusalo, Mikko P Pakarinen
BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset intestinal failure (IF) remains a severe illness with life-threatening consequences. In this study, we analyzed a single center's outcomes of IF over 3 decades. METHODS: All children with IF who required parenteral nutrition (PN) >2 months or small-intestinal resection ≥50% managed since 1984 were included for retrospective outcome analyses. RESULTS: In total, 100 patients with median PN duration of 1.2 (interquartile range, 0...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693574/liver-transplantation-and-gut-microbiota-profiling-in-a-child-colonized-by-a-multi-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-new-approach-to-move-from-antibiotic-to-eubiotic-control-of-microbial-resistance
#8
Federica Del Chierico, Sabrina Cardile, Andrea Pietrobattista, Daniela Liccardo, Alessandra Russo, Manila Candusso, Maria Sole Basso, Chiara Grimaldi, Laura Pansani, Paola Bernaschi, Giuliano Torre, Lorenza Putignani
The increase of microorganisms multi-drug resistant (MDR) to antibiotics (ATBs) is becoming a global emergency, especially in frail subjects. In chronic liver disease (LD) with indications for liver transplantation (LT), MDR colonization can significantly affect the LT outcome. However, no clear guidelines for microbial management are available. A novel approach toward MDR-colonized patients undergoing LT was developed at our Center refraining from ATBs use during the transplant waiting list, and use of an intensive perioperative prophylaxis cycle...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692591/earlier-and-higher-rates-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-as-compared-to-adults-an-observational-study
#9
Yogita Verma, Ekta Gupta, Niteen Kumar, Nadeem Hasnain, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Viniyendra Pamecha, Rajeev Khanna
AIM: To study and compare the incidence and time of occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the posttransplant period in adult and pediatric liver transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive live donor liver transplant recipients not on CMV prophylaxis, were prospectively enrolled from March 2012 to September 2015 and followed up for 1 year post transplant to look for CMV infection. For analysis, patients were divided into pediatric (up to 18 years) and adult (>18 years) age groups...
April 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663565/risk-factors-for-early-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#10
Yehonatan Pasternak, Shiri Rubin, Efraim Bilavsky, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Itzhak Levy, Elhanan Nahum, Eran Rom, Michael Gurevich, Haim Ben-Zvi, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) post-liver transplantation are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality;however, studies reporting on these infections in the pediatric population are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of IFIs in pediatric liver transplant recipients during the early post-transplantation period (≤3 months). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected for all pediatric liver transplant recipients registered in a national transplantation center from 2004-2014...
April 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642737/sudden-unexpected-death-in-neonates-a-clinico-pathological-study
#11
Jeanette A Reyes, Gino R Somers, David A Chiasson
Clinico-pathological studies that focus on sudden unexpected death (SUD) in the neonatal period are rare. The objective of this study was to elucidate the frequency and pathological spectrum of anatomical causes of death (CODs), found in the setting of sudden unexpected death in neonates (SUD-N), and to correlate the COD with premortem circumstantial information. We conducted a detailed review of all autopsy reports on SUD-N cases at our institution from 1997 to 2015. Analyzed clinical data included obstetrical history, postpartum/neonatal medical course, and circumstances surrounding death...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624817/fatal-hyperammonemia-associated-with-disseminated-serratia-marcescens-infection-in-a-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipient
#12
Stephen Mouat, Jonathan Bishop, Emma Glamuzina, Simon Chin, Emma J Best, Helen M Evans
Hyperammonemia is a rare and important complication post-liver transplantation. We review a case of a 5-month-old boy with biliary atresia who received a split liver transplant following a variceal bleed. The transplant was complicated by recurrent portal vein thrombosis. Colonized with Serratia marcescens pretransplant, he developed disseminated infection associated with very high levels of ammonia that led to his death. It is important to be aware of serum ammonia levels in patients with portal vein thrombosis, particularly in the setting of gastrointestinal bleeding and sepsis...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623560/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-pediatrics-a-report-of-seven-cases-from-saudi-arabia
#13
Sarah H Alfaraj, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Talal A Altuwaijri, Ziad A Memish
Infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 as an important respiratory disease with high fatality rates of 40%-60%. Despite the increased number of cases over subsequent years, the number of pediatric cases remained low. A review of studies conducted from June 2012 to April 19, 2016 reported 31 pediatric MERS-CoV cases. In this paper, we present the clinical and laboratory features of seven patients with pediatric MERS. Five patients had no underlying medical illnesses, and three patients were asymptomatic...
April 6, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620615/long-term-outcomes-of-abo-incompatible-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#14
Masaki Honda, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Masashi Kadohisa, Keita Shimata, Masataka Sakisaka, Daiki Yoshii, Keiichi Uto, Shintaro Hayashida, Yuki Ohya, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Hirotoshi Yamamoto, Yukihiro Inomata, Taizo Hibi
BACKGROUND: ABO-incompatible (ABOi) living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have been performed to compensate for donor shortage. To date, few studies have reported detailed B cell desensitization protocols and long-term outcomes of ABOi pediatric LDLT. METHODS: Twenty-nine pediatric ABOi LDLT recipients were retrospectively analyzed. We compared the clinical outcomes between ABOi (n = 29) and non-ABOi (n = 131) pediatric LDLT recipients. Furthermore, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of our rituximab-based regimen for ABOi pediatric LDLT (2 ≤ age < 18, n = 10)...
April 3, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565146/stunting-wasting-and-mid-upper-arm-circumference-status-among-children-admitted-to-nemazee-teaching-hospital
#15
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Hazhir Javaherizadeh, Masoomeh Heidary, Naser Honar, Maryam Ataollahi, Homa Ilkanipour, Hossein Moravej
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status in children without prior hospital admission or evidence of chronic disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study is a cross-sectional and observational study which was conducted for assessing the nutritional status of children. In this study, consecutive sampling was used, with a sample size about 400 children aged 6 months to 18 years at first hospital admission. All subjects were hospitalized consecutively in the Pediatric Emergency Department of the Nemazee Teaching Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538674/a-multicenter-consortium-to-define-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-pediatric-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-inpatient-respiratory-virus-infection
#16
Lara Danziger-Isakov, William J Steinbach, Grant Paulsen, Flor M Munoz, Leigh R Sweet, Michael Green, Marian G Michaels, Janet A Englund, Alastair Murray, Natasha Halasa, Daniel E Dulek, Rebecca Pellett Madan, Betsy C Herold, Brian T Fisher
Background: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients poses a significant risk; however, the epidemiology and effects of an RVI after pediatric SOT in the era of current molecular diagnostic assays are unclear. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric SOT recipients (January 2010 to June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Charts were reviewed for RVI events associated with hospitalization within 1 year after the transplant...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510156/usc-087-protects-syrian-hamsters-against-lethal-challenge-with-human-species-c-adenoviruses
#17
Karoly Toth, Jacqueline F Spencer, Baoling Ying, Ann E Tollefson, Caroll B Hartline, Eric T Richard, Jiajun Fan, Jinglei Lyu, Boris A Kashemirov, Cheryl Harteg, Dawn Reyna, Elke Lipka, Mark N Prichard, Charles E McKenna, William S M Wold
Human adenoviruses (AdV) cause generally mild infections of the respiratory and GI tracts as well as some other tissues. However, AdV can cause serious infection in severely immunosuppressed individuals, especially pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, where mortality rates are up to 80% with disseminated disease. Despite the seriousness of AdV disease, there are no drugs approved specifically to treat AdV infections. We report here that USC-087, an N-alkyl tyrosinamide phosphonate ester prodrug of HPMPA, the adenine analog of cidofovir, is highly effective against multiple AdV types in cell culture...
May 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500631/prevalence-morbidity-and-therapy-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-pediatric-renal-allograft-recipients
#18
Stephanie E Cordts, Lukas Schneble, Paul Schnitzler, Jürgen J Wenzel, Tobias Vinke, Susanne Rieger, Alexander Fichtner, Burkhard Tönshoff, Britta Höcker
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in immunocompromised patients such as solid organ transplant recipients may bear a high risk of becoming a chronic infection with progression to liver cirrhosis. So far, data on HEV infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients are limited. METHODS: This single-center cohort study investigated period prevalence, morbidity, and treatment of HEV infection in 90 pediatric renal allograft recipients aged 9.9 ± 5...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497824/acute-kidney-injury-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease
#19
Akash Deep, Romit Saxena, Bipin Jose
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common accompaniment in patients with liver disease. The causes, risk factors, manifestations and management of AKI in these patients vary according to the liver disease in question (acute liver failure, acute-on-chronic liver failure, post-liver transplantation or metabolic liver disease). There are multiple causes of AKI in patients with liver disease-pre-renal, acute tubular necrosis, post-renal, drug-induced renal failure and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Definitions of AKI in liver failure are periodically revised and updated, but pediatric definitions have still to see the light of the day...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494658/anti-epstein-barr-virus-antibodies-in-beijing-during-2013-2017-what-we-have-found-in-the-different-patients
#20
Jingtao Cui, Wenjuan Yan, Shaoxia Xu, Qiaofeng Wang, Weihong Zhang, Wenjing Liu, Anping Ni
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) which is prevalent in South China, and its association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or other autoimmune diseases has not been studied in the mainland of China. The EBV serological tests have been performed on patients with various diseases or manifestations for years at our institution and their values need to be evaluated. METHODS: For routine medical purposes, anti-EB viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies, anti-EBV diffuse early antigen (EA-D) IgA antibodies, and anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1(EBNA-1) IgG antibodies were tested with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients visiting Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2013 and 2017...
2018: PloS One
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