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Pediatric liver infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414949/ebv-encoded-micrornas-profile-evaluation-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#1
Massimiliano Bergallo, Stefano Gambarino, Michele Pinon, Veronica Barat, Paola Montanari, Valentina Daprà, Ilaria Galliano, Pier Luigi Calvo
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects 90% of the world population, commonly causing self-limiting infectious mononucleosis or rarely inciting a range of malignancies. EBV microRNAs (miRNAs) were discovered by sequencing libraries of small RNAs generated from several EBV-positive cell lines. Little is known about their roles, but their high stability and easy quantification make these molecules potential biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: In this study a stem-loop MGB real-time RT-PCR has been used to detect and quantify miR-BART2-5p, miR-BART15 and miR-BART22 EBV miRNAs levels...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411361/liver-transplant-in-children-with-hepatoblastoma
#2
Mehmet Hanifi Okur, Yücel Yankol, Bayındır Cimşit, Nesimi Mecit, Gökhan Ertuğrul, Turan Kanmaz, Ceyhun Bozkurt, Koray Acarlı, Münci Kalayoğlu
OBJECTIVES: In this paper, the results of liver transplant due to hepatoblastoma in 10 pediatric patients at Istanbul Şişli Memorial Hospital Transplantation Center are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with hepatoblastoma and who underwent liver transplant at our clinic between January 2009 and March 2014. We examined age, weight, chemotherapy regimen, graft type for liver transplant, duration of hospital stay, complications, follow-up duration, and survival information...
April 14, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392824/posttransplantation-lymphoproliferative-disorder-after-pediatric-solid-organ-transplantation-experiences-of-20-years-in-a-single-center
#3
Hyung Joo Jeong, Yo Han Ahn, Eujin Park, Youngrok Choi, Nam-Joon Yi, Jae Sung Ko, Sang Il Min, Jong Won Ha, Il-Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong, Hee Gyung Kang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical spectrum of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 18 patients with PTLD who underwent liver (LT) or kidney transplantation (KT) between January 1995 and December 2014 in Seoul National University Children's Hospital. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (3.9% of pediatric SOTs; LT:KT, 11:7; male to female, 9:9) were diagnosed as having PTLD over the last 2 decades (4...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377772/treatment-of-pediatric-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-lessons-from-primary-immunodeficiency
#4
REVIEW
Aisling M Flinn, Andrew R Gennery
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is used to treat increasing numbers of malignant and non-malignant disorders. Despite significant advances in improved human leukocyte antigens-typing techniques, less toxic conditioning regimens and better supportive care, resulting in improved clinical outcomes, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) continues to be a major obstacle and, although it principally involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, the thymus is also a primary target. An important aim following HSCT is to achieve complete and durable immunoreconstitution with a diverse T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire to recognize a broad range of pathogens providing adequate long-term adaptive T-lymphocyte immunity, essential to reduce the risk of infection, disease relapse, and secondary malignancies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355206/hepatic-mdr3-expression-impacts-lipid-homeostasis-and-susceptibility-to-inflammatory-bile-duct-obstruction-in-neonates
#5
Alexandra N Carey, Wujuan Zhang, Kenneth D R Setchell, Julia E Simmons, Tiffany Shi, Celine S Lages, Mary Mullen, Kaitlin Carroll, Rebekah Karns, Kazuhiko Bessho, Rachel Sheridan, Xueheng Zhao, Susanne N Weber, Alexander G Miethke
BACKGROUND: Heterozygous mutations in the gene ABCB4, encoding the phospholipid floppase MDR3 (Mdr2 in mice), are associated with various chronic liver diseases. Here, we hypothesize that reduced ABCB4 expression predisposes to extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA). METHODS: Livers from neonatal wildtype (wt) and heterozygous Mdr2-deficient mice were subjected to mass-spectrometry based lipidomics and RNAseq studies. Following postnatal infection with rhesus rotavirus (RRV), liver immune responses and EHBA phenotype were assessed...
March 29, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332028/infection-profile-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-a-23-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#6
Amit Rawat, Pandiarajan Vignesh, Avinash Sharma, Jitendra K Shandilya, Madhubala Sharma, Deepti Suri, Anju Gupta, Vikas Gautam, Pallab Ray, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Kohsuke Imai, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Osamu Ohara, Yu L Lau, Surjit Singh
PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited phagocytic disorder characterized by recurrent infections with usually catalase-positive organisms. Infections in CGD from developing countries are expected to be different from those in the Western countries. We report the profile of infections in children diagnosed with CGD from a tertiary care center in North India. METHODOLOGY: Case records of children diagnosed with CGD at Pediatric Immunodeficiency Clinic, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, from August 1993 to April 2016 (23 years) were analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321802/sepsis-risk-factors-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#7
Michaël Levy, Nolwenn Le Sache, Mostafa Mokhtari, Guy Fagherazzi, Gaelle Cuzon, Benjamin Bueno, Virginie Fouquet, Alexandra Benachi, Sergio Eleni Dit Trolli, Pierre Tissieres
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare congenital anomaly and remains among the most challenging ICU-managed disease. Beside severe pulmonary hypertension, lung hypoplasia and major abdominal surgery, infective complications remain major determinants of outcome. However, the specific incidence of sepsis as well as associated risk factors is unknown. METHODS: This prospective, 4-year observational study took place in the pediatric intensive care and neonatal medicine department of the Paris South University Hospitals (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France), CDH national referral center and involved 62 neonates with CDH...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318185/neonatal-acute-liver-failure-a-diagnosis-challenge
#8
Mirta Ciocca, Fernando Álvarez
Neonatal acute liver failure is a rare, very severe disease with a high rate of mortality. It is clinically and etiologically different from acute liver failure seen in older children and adults. Coagulopathy with an international normalized ratio ≥ 3 is the critical parameter that defines it. The most common causes are fetal alloimmune hepatitis, previously called neonatal hemochromatosis, viral infections, metabolic disorders, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. There is a group of treatable diseases that require a very early diagnosis for the prescription of an adequate treatment...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316109/airway-inflammation-and-symptoms-in-children-following-liver-and-heart-transplantation
#9
Andrew J Redmann, John C Bucuvalas, Robert E Wood, Clifford Chin, Catherine K Hart
OBJECTIVES: To describe the upper airway endoscopic findings of children with upper airway symptoms after liver transplantation (LT) or heart transplantation (HT). METHODS: Review of children undergoing airway endoscopy after LT or HT from 2011 to 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Airway findings, biopsy results, immunosuppression, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) levels were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-three of 158 LT (111) and HT (47) recipients underwent endoscopy...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296681/adenovirus-hepatitis-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-12-consecutive-cases-from-a-single-institution
#10
Kurt B Schaberg, Neeraja Kambham, Richard K Sibley, John P T Higgins
Adenoviruses are common pathogens that usually cause self-limited infections. However, in the immunocompromised host they can cause severe infections involving multiple organs including the liver. A search of the pathology database at Stanford University Medical Center (1995 to 2016) identified 12 cases of adenovirus hepatitis including biopsy and autopsy specimens. There were 8 pediatric patients, 7 of which had received orthotropic liver transplants and 1 of which was receiving chemotherapy for lymphoblastic leukemia...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261385/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-pooled-clinical-trials-data
#11
Alia S Dadabhai, Behnam Saberi, Katie Lobner, Russell T Shinohara, Gerard E Mullin
AIM: To investigate the relationship between vitamin D and liver fibrosis in hepatitis C-monoinfected or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. METHODS: Pertinent studies were located by a library literature search in PubMed/Embase/Cochrane/Scopus/LILACS by two individual reviewers. Inclusion criteria: (1) studies with patients with HCV or co-infected HCV/HIV; (2) studies with patients ≥ 18 years old; (3) studies that evaluated liver fibrosis stage, only based on liver biopsy; and (4) studies that reported serum or plasma 25(OH)D levels...
February 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260464/incisional-hernia-after-liver-transplant
#12
Ebru H Ayvazoglu Soy, Mahir Kirnap, Sedat Yildirim, Gokhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: An incisional hernia seriously burdens the quality of life after liver transplant. The incidence of incisional hernia after liver transplant is reported to be 4% to 20%. Here, we evaluated incisional hernias that occurred after adult liver transplant and incisional hernias intentionally made in infant liver transplant procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 1988 and May 2016, we performed 536 liver transplant procedures in 515 patients. Demographic features, surgical outcomes, and predisposing factors were evaluated...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260433/effect-of-graft-weight-to-recipient-body-weight-ratio-on-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-parameters-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-a-retrospective-analysis
#13
Zeynep Ersoy, Serife Kaplan, Aycan Ozdemirkan, Adnan Torgay, Gulnaz Arslan, Arash Pirat, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: To analyze how graft-weight-to-bodyweight ratio in pediatric liver transplant affects intraoperative and early postoperative hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data from 130 children who underwent liver transplant between 2005 and 2015. Recipients were divided into 2 groups: those with a graft weight to body weight ratio > 4% (large for size) and those with a ratio ≤ 4% (normal for size). Data included demographics, preoperative laboratory findings, intraoperative metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, and intensive care follow-up parameters...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251116/pediatric-hepatitis-b-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Haruki Komatsu, Ayano Inui, Tomoo Fujisawa
Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection...
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213954/human-herpes-virus-6-infection-in-pediatric-organ-transplant-patients
#15
Elisa Ylinen, Silja Lehtinen, Timo Jahnukainen, Teemu Karlsson, Raisa Loginov, Laura Mannonen, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Hannu Jalanko
Transplant patients need lifelong immunosuppressive medication, but this reduces their defense mechanisms, making them prone to viral infections and reactivations. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical manifestations of the human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infection in children after pediatric solid organ transplants. Clinical findings and viral loads were compared between primary HHV-6 infections and reactivations. The study comprised 47 kidney, 25 liver, and 12 heart transplant patients who underwent surgery from 2009 to 2014...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201980/procalcitonin-for-infections-in-the-first-week-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#16
Vladimir L Cousin, Kalinka Lambert, Shahar Trabelsi, Annick Galetto-Lacour, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Barbara E Wildhaber, Valérie A McLin
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) has become a commonly used serum inflammatory marker. Our aim was to describe the kinetics and usefulness of serial post-operative PCT measurements to detect bacterial infection in a cohort of children immediately after pediatric liver transplantation (pLT). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of a cohort of pLT recipients with serial serum PCT measurements in the first week following pLT. The presence of infection was determined on clinical and biological parameters...
February 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180024/ciliopathies-genetics-in-pediatric-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Machteld M Oud, Ideke J C Lamers, Heleen H Arts
Ciliary disorders, which are also referred to as ciliopathies, are a group of hereditary disorders that result from dysfunctional cilia. The latter are cellular organelles that stick up from the apical plasma membrane. Cilia have important roles in signal transduction and facilitate communications between cells and their surroundings. Ciliary disruption can result in a wide variety of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Because cilia occur widespread in our bodies many organs and sensory systems can be affected when they are dysfunctional...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141916/justifying-nonstandard-exception-requests-for-pediatric-liver-transplant-candidates-an-analysis-of-narratives-submitted-to-the-united-network-for-organ-sharing-2009-2014
#18
E R Perito, H J Braun, J L Dodge, S Rhee, J P Roberts
Nonstandard exception requests (NSERs), for which transplant centers provide patient-specific narratives to support a higher Model for End-stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease score, are made for >30% of pediatric liver transplant candidates. We describe the justifications used in pediatric NSER narratives 2009-2014 and identify justifications associated with NSER denial, waitlist mortality, and transplant. Using United Network for Organ Sharing data, 1272 NSER narratives from 1138 children with NSERs were coded for analysis...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134467/late-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-children-high-incidence-of-allograft-rejection-and-hepatitis-in-donor-negative-and-seropositive-liver-transplant-recipients
#19
A Verma, K Palaniswamy, G Cremonini, N Heaton, A Dhawan
The complications and outcome associated with late CMV infection and disease on the graft are poorly characterized in PLT recipients. We studied the overall incidence, risk factors, and outcome of late CMV infection and disease (infection 6 months after transplant) in 180 PLT recipients admitted between 2008 and 2011 at the King's College Hospital. Antiviral prophylaxis of intravenous ganciclovir was given only to the D+R- group starting at day 7 post-transplant. The remaining groups (D-R+, D+R+, and D-R-) received pre-emptive therapy when they have CMV viremia above cut-off value and treatment for symptomatic CMV infection...
May 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112337/-potential-neurocognitive-consequences-of-infection-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#20
Juan Carlos Flores, Karen Bohmwald, Janyra Espinoza, Crlstlna Jara, Marcela Peña, Rodrigo Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Carolina Iturriaga, Alexis M Kalergis, Arturo Borzutzky
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among pediatric population. Immune response is poor and unable to establish a long term effective protection against this virus. Of particular interest has been the description of extrapulmonary manifestations of RSV infection in liver, kidney, endocrine system, heart and brain, associated to infection of peripheral blood. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies in animals have suggested long term neurocognitive impairment due to a direct damage from the virus...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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