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Pediatric liver infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874250/immunosuppression-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-unique-aspects
#1
REVIEW
Miloh Tamir, Barton Andrea, Wheeler Justin, Pham Yen, Hewitt Winston, Keegan Tara, Sanchez Christine, Bulut Pinar, Goss John
Pediatric liver transplantation has experienced improved outcomes over the last 50 years. This can be attributed in part to establishing optimal use of immunosuppressive agents to achieve a balance between minimizing the risks of allograft rejection and infection. The management of immunosuppression in children is generally more complex and can be challenging when compared to the use of these agents in adult liver transplant patients. Physiologic differences in children alter the pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressive agents, which affects absorption, distribution, metabolism and drug excretion...
November 22, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862714/de-novo-inflammatory-bowel-disease-after-pediatric-kidney-or-liver-transplant
#2
Melissa A Fernandes, Hillary J Braun, Kim Evason, Sue Rhee, Emily R Perito
A subset of children who receive a liver and/or kidney transplant develop de novo inflammatory bowel disease-like chronic intestinal inflammation, not explained by infection or medications, following transplant. We have conducted a single-center, retrospective case series describing the unique clinical and histologic features of this IBD-like chronic intestinal inflammation following solid organ transplant. At our center, nine of 327 kidney or liver recipients developed de novo IBD following transplant (six liver, two kidney, one liver-kidney)...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805526/histologic-changes-in-bone-marrow-biopsies-from-liver-transplant-patients
#3
Pelin Börcek, Binnaz Handan Özdemir, Çiğdem Sercan, Eda Yılmaz Akçay, Sema Karakuş, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Liver transplant may complicated by various hematologic conditions, resulting in indication for bone marrow biopsy. Immunosuppressive therapies, specific infections, and secondary neoplasms affect bone marrow. In the present study, we evaluated the histologic spectrum of bone marrow findings in liver allograft recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 338 patients who received liver transplants and were followed at the Başkent University, Faculty of Medicine, 44 patients underwent bone marrow biopsy...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788805/glucose-metabolism-and-associated-outcome-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#4
R Zant, M Melter, D Beck, M Ameres, B Knoppke, J Kunkel
BACKGROUND: Despite hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia being frequently observed in the early postoperative phase, information on glucose metabolism after pediatric liver transplantation (pLT) is scarce. METHODS: The goal of this retrospective single-center study, which included 46 patients who consecutively underwent 55 liver transplantations, was to gather data on glucose uptake, the prognostic relevance of hyperglycemia, and the safety of insulin administration in patients after pLT...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761440/treatment-strategies-according-to-genotype-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-children
#5
Seung Man Cho, Byung-Ho Choe
This review article was requested by editor-in-chief of this journal as 'pediatric CHB treatment' for the upcoming special issue. The main objective of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is diminishing the risk of complications related to chronic liver disease. In Asia, there are already some reports about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected children. The key points of treatment in children with CHB infections are selection of which patients to treat and conformation of the optimal therapy time that would reduce viral resistance...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755504/effectiveness-of-preemptive-therapy-for-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#6
Emanuele Nicastro, Sara Giovannozzi, Paola Stroppa, Anna Paola Callegaro, Alessandra Tebaldi, Claudio Farina, Michele Colledan, Lorenzo DʼAntiga
BACKGROUND: Most pediatric liver transplantation (LT) centers administer long courses of prophylaxis against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) without evidence of benefit and with significant drug exposure and costs. We aimed at evaluating overall outcomes, direct and putative indirect effects of CMV, possible impact of viremia and risk factors for CMV infection in pediatric LT recipients managed with ganciclovir-based preemptive therapy (PET). METHODS: The records of all the children who underwent LT between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...
October 17, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670906/early-diagnosis-of-dengue-disease-severity-in-a-resource-limited-asian-country
#7
Philippe Cavailler, Arnaud Tarantola, Yee Sin Leo, Andrew A Lover, Anne Rachline, Moniboth Duch, Rekol Huy, Ai Li Quake, Yuvatha Kdan, Veasna Duong, Jeremy L Brett, Philippe Buchy
BACKGROUND: Dengue is endemic throughout Cambodia, a country faced with significant health and economic challenges. We undertook a clinical study at the National Paediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh to evaluate clinical diagnostic parameters for dengue and predictors of disease outcome. METHODS: Between September 2011 and January 2013, all consecutive inpatients aged between 1 and 15 years and presenting with suspected dengue were enrolled. They were clinically assessed using both the 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue classifications...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663215/complications-of-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-in-pediatric-patients-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Danielle Usatin, Melissa Fernandes, Isabel E Allen, Emily R Perito, James Ostroff, Melvin B Heyman
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review risks and summarize reported complication rates associated with the performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in children during the past 2 decades. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science from January 1995 to January 2016 was conducted for observational studies published in English. Studies reporting ERCP complications in patients <21 years without history of liver transplant or cholecystectomy were included...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659419/foxp3-promoter-methylation-impairs-suppressive-function-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-biliary-atresia
#9
Kang Li, Xi Zhang, Li Yang, Xin-Xing Wang, De-Hua Yang, Guo-Qing Cao, Shuai Li, Yong-Zhong Mao, Shao-Tao Tang
Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive inflammation of the biliary system leading to liver cirrhosis, necessitating liver transplantation in pediatric patients. Various cell types have been reported to participate in the proinflammatory response in rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced BA mouse models, including T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, CD8(+) T cells, and natural killer cells. The immune suppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells, on the contrary, were reported not to function properly. The underlying mechanism is largely unknown...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623481/predictors-of-persistent-diarrhea-in-norovirus-enteritis-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#10
Pearlie P Chong, David van Duin, Jessica L Sonderup, Wendy J Grant, Andre C Kalil, Diana F Florescu
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may develop protracted diarrheal illness from norovirus. We performed a retrospective chart review between January 2010 and April 2014 to identify predictors of persistent diarrhea in transplant recipients with norovirus enteritis. A total of 152 SOT recipients with mean age of 31.5 years (SD 23.1) were included: 43.4% male, 34.2% pediatric patients. Allograft types were abdominal 136 (89.5%) (kidney [39.5%], liver-small bowel [23%], other [27%]) and thoracic 16 (10...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621562/clinically-profiling-pediatric-patients-with-dengue
#11
Sriram Pothapregada, Banupriya Kamalakannan, Mahalaskhmy Thulasingham, Srinivasan Sampath
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile and outcome of dengue fever in children at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children (0-12 years of age) diagnosed and confirmed as dengue fever from August 2012 to January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively from hospital case records as per the revised World Health Organization guidelines for dengue fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by NS1 antigen-based ELISA test or dengue serology for IgM and IgG antibodies, and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16...
July 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598288/-toxocarosis-and-acalculous-acute-cholecystitis-consequence-or-coincidence
#12
Alexis Strickler, Natalia Vásquez, Leonardo Maggi, Juvenal Hernández, Ximena Hidalgo
Human toxocarosis is a chronic larval parasitosis listed as one of the five most important neglected diseases by the CDC. The larvae can spread systemically and migrate to different tissues including liver and gallbladder. Acalculous acute cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare disease in children. The diagnosis is based on clinical parameters and imaging criteria. It has been reported in relation to sepsis, shock, trauma, burns, severe systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, infections and also in healthy children...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598022/role-of-whole-body-mr-with-dwibs-in-child-s-bartonellosis
#13
E Rossi, A Perrone, D Narese, M Cangelosi, S Sollai, A Semeraro, M Mortilla, C Defilippi
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonosis in children, result of infection by Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacillus. Infection is generally characterized by regional and self-limited lymphadenopathy after exposure to a scratch or bite from a cat. Rarely, B. henselae is cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO), with dissemination to various organs, most often involving the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen, bone marrow), mimicking an inflammatory rather than a lymphoproliferative disease. Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WBMRI), in association with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWIBS), allows a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients, without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation...
July 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556807/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-developing-dengue-associated-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-puerto-rico-2008-2013
#14
Esther M Ellis, Tyler M Sharp, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Liza González, B Katherine Poole-Smith, Emmaculate Lebo, Charlotte Baker, Mark J Delorey, Brenda Torres-Velasquez, Eduardo Ochoa, Brenda Rivera-Garcia, Hector Díaz-Pinto, Luis Clavell, Anabel Puig-Ramos, Gritta E Janka, Kay M Tomashek
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, potentially fatal disorder characterized by fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and increased serum ferritin. HLH is being increasingly reported as a complication of dengue, a common tropical acute febrile illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After a cluster of pediatric dengue-associated HLH patients was identified during the 2012-2013 dengue epidemic in Puerto Rico, active surveillance and a case-control investigation was conducted at four referral hospitals to determine the incidence of HLH in children and identify risk factors for HLH following dengue...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531798/-outcome-comparison-of-pediatric-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-treated-with-modified-dal-hx83-90-or-jlsg-96-protocol
#15
Jun-Bin Huang, Li Jiang, Chun Chen, Hong-Man Xue
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the clinical features, treatment and prognosis of 31 children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) treated with modified DAL-HX83/90 or JLSG-96 protocol. METHODS: The clinical features, treatment and prognosis of 31 children with Langerhans cells admitted in our hospital from January 2005 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome of patients treated with modified DAL-HX83/90 or JLSG-96 protocols were compared by using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve...
August 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525214/the-intestinal-bacterial-microbiome-and-e-histolytica-infection
#16
Stacey L Burgess, William A Petri
Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, is a significant cause of pediatric diarrhea in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The clinical outcome of an E. histolytica exposure varies enormously and can present as diarrhea, dysentery, or amebic liver abscess. Host and parasite factors likely contribute to the outcome of infection with the parasite, but do not explain the wide variation in presentation of disease. This suggests that other environmental factors affect disease. An emerging body of work suggests that the host intestinal bacterial microbiome may have a significant influence on the development and outcome of amebiasis...
2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522636/human-metapneumovirus-hmpv-infection-in-immunocompromised-children
#17
Oded Scheuerman, Galia Barkai, Michal Mandelboim, Hagit Mishali, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infection (URTI, LRTI) in children. The prognosis of hMPV is unclear in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hMPV infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients and to review the literature. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included 39 immunocompromised children (age 0-18 years) with proven hMPV infection attending two tertiary pediatric medical centers in 2004-2014...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495753/fulminant-hepatic-failure-as-a-risk-factor-for-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-children-receiving-preemptive-therapy-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#18
Munehiro Furuichi, Takeo Fujiwara, Akinari Fukuda, Mureo Kasahara, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is 1 of the most common causes of infection after solid organ transplantation with symptomatic disease occurring at an incidence of 20-40% without preventative measures. While CMV donor+/recipient- serostatus is well known to be a risk factor, there is little data about other risk factors for CMV infection in the setting of pediatric liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) may be a risk factor for CMV infection given anecdotal reports of complications associated with FHF...
August 5, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492796/frequency-and-risks-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-after-pediatric-solid-organ-transplantation-a-single-center-retrospective-review
#19
J Ciricillo, D Haslam, S Blum, M-O Kim, C Liu, G Paulsen, J Courter, L Danziger-Isakov
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality related to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased, but epidemiology and risk factors within pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are uncertain. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of SOT recipients age ≤18 years at transplantation from 2010 to 2013 was performed. Patients with CDI were compared with matched CDI-negative controls with diarrhea. RESULTS: Of 202 patients, the majority were male (58%) and Caucasian (77%)...
October 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437184/hepatitis-c-viral-infection-in-children-updated-review
#20
REVIEW
Mohamed A El-Guindi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children...
June 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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