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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774861/use-of-bead-based-serologic-assay-to-evaluate-chikungunya-virus-epidemic-haiti
#1
Eric W Rogier, Delynn M Moss, Kimberly E Mace, Michelle Chang, Samuel E Jean, Stevan M Bullard, Patrick J Lammie, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
The index case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Haiti was reported during early 2014; the vector, the pervasive Aedes aegypti mosquito, promoted rapid spread throughout the country. During December 2014-February 2015, we collected blood samples from 4,438 persons at 154 sites (62 urban, 92 rural) throughout Haiti and measured CHIKV IgG by using a multiplex bead assay. Overall CHIKV seroprevalence was 57.9%; differences between rural (mean 44.9%) and urban (mean 78.4%) areas were pronounced. Logistic modeling identified the urban environment as a strong predictor of CHIKV exposure (adjusted odds ratio 3...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771791/a-successful-model-of-expedited-antiretroviral-therapy-for-clinically-stable-patients-living-with-hiv-in-haiti
#2
Colette Guiteau Moise, Vanessa R Rivera, Kelly A Hennessey, Clovy Bellot, Chris Nicholas, Anna P Fang, Rose Irène Verdier, Patrice Severe, Alix Sainvil, Benedict Charles, Derothy Dorval, Juseline St Amour, Jean W Pape, Serena P Koenig
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) have greatly increased the number of HIV-infected patients who qualify for treatment, particularly with early clinical disease. Less intensive models of care are needed for clinically stable patients. SETTING: A Rapid Pathway (RP) model of expedited outpatient care for clinically stable patients was implemented at the Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) Center, Port-au-Prince, Haiti...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768401/near-real-time-forecasting-for-cholera-decision-making-in-haiti-after-hurricane-matthew
#3
Damiano Pasetto, Flavio Finger, Anton Camacho, Francesco Grandesso, Sandra Cohuet, Joseph C Lemaitre, Andrew S Azman, Francisco J Luquero, Enrico Bertuzzo, Andrea Rinaldo
Computational models of cholera transmission can provide objective insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic and aid decision making on allocation of health care resources. However, models are typically designed, calibrated and interpreted post-hoc. Here, we report the efforts of a team from academia, field research and humanitarian organizations to model in near real-time the Haitian cholera outbreak after Hurricane Matthew in October 2016, to assess risk and to quantitatively estimate the efficacy of a then ongoing vaccination campaign...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746539/a-new-american-subgroup-of-african-lineage-chikungunya-virus-detected-in-and-isolated-from-mosquitoes-collected-in-haiti-2016
#4
Sarah Keller White, Carla Mavian, Marco Salemi, John Glenn Morris, Maha A Elbadry, Bernard A Okech, John A Lednicky, James C Dunford
As part of on-going arboviral surveillance activity in a semi-rural region in Haiti, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive mosquito pools were identified in 2014 (the peak of the Caribbean Asian-clade epidemic), and again in 2016 by RT-PCR. In 2014, CHIKV was only identified in Aedes aegypti (11 positive pools/124 screened). In contrast, in sampling in 2016, CHIKV was not identified in Ae. aegypti, but, rather, in (a) a female Aedes albopictus pool, and (b) a female Culex quinquefasciatus pool. Genomic sequence analyses indicated that the CHIKV viruses in the 2016 mosquito pools were from the East-Central-South African (ECSA) lineage, rather than the Asian lineage...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726121/meeting-the-urgent-need-for-rabies-education-in-haiti
#5
M O V Osinubi, N Fenelon, J L Dyer, R Franka, M Etheart, A Ali, M Birhane, N Phaimyr Jn Charles, A Destine, N Saleme, C Newman, K Crowdis, C Lutfy, C E Rupprecht, R M Wallace, V R Johnson
The highest rate of human rabies deaths reported in the Americas is in Haiti, and most of these deaths result from rabies virus infections that occur after individuals are bitten by infected dogs and do not receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. One barrier to rabies prevention in Haiti is a lack of knowledge about this disease among healthcare professionals and community members. During the past 4 years, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has collaborated with public health officials and partners to develop, test and refine educational materials aimed at filling this need for rabies education...
May 3, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717292/outbreak-investigation-following-the-2015-earthquake-disaster-in-nepal
#6
Geeta Shakya, Baburam Marasini, Khem Bahadur Karki, Bishnu Prasad Upadhaya, Jyoti Acharya, Shailaja Adhikari, Rosham Manjhi, Laxman Maharjan, Lilee Shrestha, Kamal Ranabhat, Sujan Babu Marahatta, Bikal Shrestha, Meghnath Dhimal
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks following natural disasters are reported in literature. Outbreaks were documented following natural disasters in many countries including Haiti. Such possibility following 2015 Nepal earthquake was a public health concern. Risk factors needed evaluation by post-disaster outbreak investigation. Hence, present study was undertaken to investigate potentials for such outbreak and to generate evidence for public health intervention. METHODS: The study was conducted between April - May, 2015, with the cooperation of National Public Health Laboratory, Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Nepal Health Research Council and the Chinese team...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700918/high-rates-of-ocular-complications-in-a-cohort-of-haitian-children-and-adolescents-with-diabetes
#7
Marie-Ève Robinson, Ketly Altenor, Christopher Carpenter, Ric Bonnell, Eddy Jean-Baptiste, Julia von Oettingen
BACKGROUND: Ophthalmic complications of pediatric diabetes are rare, and rates are unknown in Haitian youth. OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence and predictors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and cataracts in a cohort of Haitian youth with insulin-treated diabetes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional retrospective review of pediatric patients with diabetes from a pediatric chronic disease center in Haiti, from Dec 1, 2012 to Nov 1, 2016...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697553/socioeconomic-vulnerability-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-among-pregnant-haitian-women
#8
Joy D Scheidell, Valery Madsen Beau De Rochars, Marie Nancy Séraphin, Marcia M Hobbs, J Glenn Morris, Joseph Pierre Célestin, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that education and poverty act through distinct pathways to influence sexually transmitted infection (STI), few studies have examined the unique, independent associations of these socioeconomic vulnerabilities on sexual risk behaviors and STI among women. METHODS: From August-October 2013, women at an antenatal clinic in Gressier, Haiti, were interviewed and tested for Chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis (N=200). We measured low educational attainment as <9 years of schooling and currently living in poverty based on crowding, defined as >2 people sleeping in one room...
April 24, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690902/use-of-family-planning-and-child-health-services-in-the-private-sector-an-equity-analysis-of-12-dhs-surveys
#9
Nirali M Chakraborty, Andrea Sprockett
BACKGROUND: A key component of universal health coverage is the ability to access quality healthcare without financial hardship. Poorer individuals are less likely to receive care than wealthier individuals, leading to important differences in health outcomes, and a needed focus on equity. To improve access to healthcare while minimizing financial hardships or inequitable service delivery we need to understand where individuals of different wealth seek care. To ensure progress toward SDG 3, we need to specifically understand where individuals seek reproductive, maternal, and child health services...
April 24, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689178/gender-differences-in-psychosocial-and-physical-outcomes-in-haitian-amputees
#10
Pey-Shan Wen, Marilys G Randolph, Leonard Elbaum, Mario De la Rosa
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences in psychosocial and physical outcomes in users of lower-extremity prostheses who became amputees after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. METHOD: We enrolled 140 unilateral amputees in this cross-sectional study in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Trained staff administered the assessments by reading the questions aloud to participants. Participants completed the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales and Locomotor Capabilities Index about 2 yr after the earthquake...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688558/diphtheria-in-children-in-northern-haiti
#11
Marc-Mesadieu Exavier, Michele Paul Hanna, Emanise Muscadin, Robert J Freishstat, Jean-Pierre Brisma, Michael F Canarie
Infection with Corynebacterium diphtheriae persists in Haiti. Twenty-six children with clinically severe respiratory diphtheria presented to a hospital in northern Haiti during a 3-year period beginning in early 2015. The mortality rate was 50%. Partial or absent vaccinations as well as delayed and limited care contributed to mortality. This cohort offer insights into the multiple challenges involved in preventing and caring for children with diphtheria in resource-limited settings.
April 23, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686960/shifting-the-paradigm-of-emergency-care-in-developing-countries
#12
Ayesha Khan, Bradley T Penoff, Elizabeth A Pirrotta, Robert Hosang
Background The global agenda does not address a significant amount of preventable death in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While illnesses requiring acute care are increasing at an alarming rate in these countries, there are inadequate numbers of physicians or nurses to deal with the growing burden. Many people feel that emergency systems are too expensive and restricted in scope to have public health implications in resource-limited areas. Little empirical data exists to suggest otherwise. The goal of this study was to delineate the type and frequency of emergency conditions and define a novel method to estimate the burden of emergency diseases in Fort Liberte, Haiti...
February 22, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678978/community-based-diagnosis-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-rural-and-urban-haiti-a-cross-sectional-prevalence-study
#13
Vincent DeGennaro, Stuart Malcolm, Lindsay Crompton, Krishna Vaddiparti, Lazarus K Mramba, Catherine Striley, Linda Cottler, Kellee Taylor, Robert Leverence
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease and their risk factors in a rural and urban region of Haiti. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community health workers enumerated 2648 households (909 rural and 1739 urban) via a multistage cluster random sampling method from July 2015 to May 2016, completed 705 rural and 1419 urban assessments for adults aged 25-65 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: We performed a WHO STEPS based questionnaire, measured two blood pressure values, weight, height, abdominal circumference and point of care test finger stick blood sample for haemoglobin A1c, creatinine and cholesterol (total, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides)...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663903/burden-of-influenza-in-less-than-5-year-old-children-admitted-to-hospital-with-pneumonia-in-developing-and-emerging-countries-a-descriptive-multicenter-study
#14
Cédric Dananché, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Thomas Bénet, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Jianwei Wang, Jean-William Pape, Shally Awasthi, Ashish Bavdekar, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mariam Sylla, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Graciela Russomando, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Philippe Vanhems, On Behalf Of The Pneumonia Gabriel Network
This descriptive 4-year study reports the proportion of detection of influenza viruses in less than 5-year-old children hospitalized for pneumonia in eight developing and emerging countries and describes clinical and microbiological characteristics of influenza-related pneumonia cases. Hospitalized children presenting radiologically confirmed pneumonia aged 2-60 months were prospectively enrolled in this observational standardized study. Mean proportion of isolated influenza virus was 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 7...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662698/not-just-a-number-examining-coverage-and-content-of-antenatal-care-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#15
Lenka Benova, Özge Tunçalp, Allisyn C Moran, Oona Maeve Renee Campbell
Introduction: Antenatal care (ANC) provides a critical opportunity for women and babies to benefit from good-quality maternal care. Using 10 countries as an illustrative analysis, we described ANC coverage (number of visits and timing of first visit) and operationalised indicators for content of care as available in population surveys, and examined how these two approaches are related. Methods: We used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey to analyse ANC related to women's most recent live birth up to 3 years preceding the survey...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659597/measuring-movement-into-residential-care-institutions-in-haiti-after-hurricane-matthew-a-pilot-study
#16
Beth L Rubenstein, Matthew MacFarlane, Celina Jensen, Lindsay Stark
BACKGROUND: Governments have an ethical imperative to safeguard children in residential care institutions at all times, including in the aftermath of an emergency. Yet, a lack of accurate data about how the magnitude and characteristics of this population may change due to an emergency impedes leaders' ability to formulate responsive policies and services, mobilize resources and foster accountability. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the feasibility of evaluating movement of children into residential care following an emergency...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656419/oral-health-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-kap-in-rural-haiti-a-40-year-follow-up-study
#17
Ralph V Katz, Samuel E Prophete, Christina Lafontant, Bette Gebrian, Louis C Bourdeau, Jr Ernst Joseph, Gladys J Lafontant, H Ludwig St Jean, Paul E Rundberg
This paper reports the changed findings over a 40-year period on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of a very remote and rural population living the Jeremie region of Haiti. The far-sighted investigators of that original 1970 survey stated in their published 1972 paper that our "…findings are descriptive, but have to be accepted tentatively rather than definitively because time was short, transportation was difficult, and the small sample that had to be used could not random." They further insightfully stated their hopes that their "…results may be regarded as an anthropological cultural baseline from which to review further findings concerning Haitian dental beliefs...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626265/addressing-the-immediate-need-for-emergency-providers-in-resource-limited-settings-the-model-of-a-six-month-emergency-medicine-curriculum-in-haiti
#18
Shada A Rouhani, Kerling Israel, Fernet Leandre, Sosthène Pierre, Brennan Bollman, Regan H Marsh
BACKGROUND: In many resource-limited settings, emergency medicine (EM) is underdeveloped and formal EM training limited. Residencies and fellowships are an ideal long-term solution but cannot meet immediate needs for emergency providers, while short-term programs are often too limited in content. We describe a third method successfully implemented in Haiti: a medium-duration certificate program to meet the immediate need for emergency specialists. METHODS: In conjunction with the Haitian Ministry of Health and National Medical School, we developed and implemented a novel, 6-month EM certificate program to build human resources for health and emergency care capacity...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614212/the-key-gluconeogenic-gene-pck1-is-crucial-for-virulence-of-botrytis-cinerea-via-initiating-its-conidial-germination-and-host-penetration
#19
Jian-Kang Liu, Hao-Wu Chang, Yue Liu, Yu Haity Qin, Ming-Zhe Zhang, Sheng-Nan Cao, Le-Tao Li, Wei Liu, Gui-Hua Li, Qing-Ming Qin
The process of initiation of host invasion and survival of some foliar phytopathogenic fungi in the absence of external nutrients on host leaf surfaces remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that gluconeogenesis plays an important role in the process and nutrient-starvation adaptation before the pathogen host invasion. Deletion of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene BcPCK1 in gluconeogenesis in Botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of gray mold, resulted in the failure of the ΔBcpck1 mutant conidia to germinate on hard and hydrophobic surface and penetrate host cells in the absence of glucose, reduction in conidiation, and slow conidium germination in a nutrient-rich medium...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613935/the-use-of-emergency-physicians-to-deliver-anesthesia-for-orthopaedic-surgery-in-austere-environments-the-expansion-of-the-emergency-physician-s-general-anesthesia-syllabus-to-orthopaedic-surgery
#20
Ogedad Pierre, John F Lovejoy, Robert Stanton, Richard Skupski, Harold Previl, Jerry Bernard, Lia Losonczy, Mark Walsh
BACKGROUND: Five billion people, primarily in low-income and middle-income countries, cannot access safe, affordable surgical and anesthesia care, particularly for orthopaedic trauma. The rate-limiting step for many orthopaedic surgical procedures performed in the developing world is the absence of safe anesthesia. Even surgical mission teams providing surgical care are limited by the availability of anesthesiologists. Emergency physicians, who are already knowledgeable in airway management and procedural sedation, may be able to help to fulfill the need for anesthetists in disaster relief and surgical missions...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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