Read by QxMD icon Read


Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Heng Lin, Nihal Oturan, Jie Wu, Virender K Sharma, Hui Zhang, Mehmet A Oturan
The degradation and mineralization of aspartame (ASP) in aqueous solution were investigated, for the first time, by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in which hydroxyl radicals were formed concomitantly in the bulk from Fenton reaction via in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent and at the anode surface from the water oxidation. Experiments were performed in an undivided cylindrical glass cell with a carbon-felt cathode and a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of Fe(2+) concentration and applied current on the degradation and mineralization kinetics of ASP was evaluated...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Zoya Zaeem, Lily Zhou, Esma Dilli
Dietary triggers are commonly reported by patients with a variety of headaches, particularly those with migraines. The presence of any specific dietary trigger in migraine patients varies from 10 to 64 % depending on study population and methodology. Some foods trigger headache within an hour while others develop within 12 h post ingestion. Alcohol (especially red wine and beer), chocolate, caffeine, dairy products such as aged cheese, food preservatives with nitrates and nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame have all been studied as migraine triggers in the past...
November 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Vincent T Martin, Brinder Vij
BACKGROUND: The role of diet in the management of the headache patient is a controversial topic in the headache field. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that specific foods or ingredients within foods and beverages trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine and to discuss the use of elimination diets in the prevention of headache disorders METHODS: This represents part 1 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders...
October 2016: Headache
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
: We have previously showed that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero via the mother's diet, may impair insulin tolerance and cause behavioral deficits in adulthood via mechanisms which are incompletely understood. The role of the CNS in regulating glucose homeostasis has been highlighted by recent delineation of the gut-brain axis, in which N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) are important in maintaining glucose homeostasis, in addition to regulating certain aspects of behavior...
September 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
M V Muftakhov, P V Shchukin
INTRODUCTION: The processes for dissociative electron capture are the key mechanisms for decomposition of biomolecules, proteins in particular, under interaction with low energy electrons. Molecules of aspartic acid and aspartame, i.e. modified dipeptide, were studied herein to define impact of the side functional groups on peptide chain decomposition in resonant electron-molecular reactions. METHOD: The processes of formation and decomposition of negative ions of both aspartame and aspartic acid were studied by mass spectrometry of negative ions under the resonant electron capture...
September 10, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Adejoke Y Onaolapo, Olakunle J Onaolapo, Polycarp U Nwoha
OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated changes in open field behaviours, cerebral cortical histomorphology and biochemical markers of oxidative stress following repeated administration of aspartame in mice. METHODOLOGY: Adult mice were assigned into five groups of twelve each. Vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last dose of aspartame...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Liang-Dar Hwang, Paul A S Breslin, Danielle R Reed, Gu Zhu, Nicholas G Martin, Margaret J Wright
Perceived intensities of sweetness and bitterness are correlated with one another and each is influenced by genetics. The extent to which these correlations share common genetic variation, however, remains unclear. In a mainly adolescent sample (n = 1901, mean age 16.2 years), including 243 monozygotic (MZ) and 452 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, we estimated the covariance among the perceived intensities of 4 bitter compounds (6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP], sucrose octa-acetate, quinine, caffeine) and 4 sweeteners (the weighted mean ratings of glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, aspartame) with multivariate genetic modeling...
August 9, 2016: Chemical Senses
Liang-Dar Hwang, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Jue-Sheng Ong, Paul A S Breslin, Danielle R Reed, Stuart MacGregor, Puya Gharahkhani, Nicholas G Martin, Miguel E Rentería
Investigations on the relationship between sweet taste perception and body mass index (BMI) have been inconclusive. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis using a genetically informative sample of 1,576 adolescent Australian twins to explore the relationship between BMI and sweet taste. First, we estimated the phenotypic correlations between perception scores for four different sweet compounds (glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame) and BMI. Then, we computed the association between adolescent taste perception and BMI in early adulthood (reported 9 years later)...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Tao Zhang, Zhiwei Gan, Chuanzi Gao, Ling Ma, Yanxi Li, Xiao Li, Hongwen Sun
In this study, acesulfame (ACE), saccharin (SAC) and cyclamate (CYC) were found in all paired urine and blood samples collected from healthy adults, with mean values of 4070, 918 and 628 ng mL(-1), respectively, in urine and 9.03, 20.4 and 0.72 ng mL(-1), respectively, in blood. SAC (mean: 84.4 ng g(-1)) and CYC (4.29 ng g(-1)) were detectable in all liver samples collected from liver cancer patients, while ACE was less frequently detected. Aspartame (ASP) was not found in any analyzed human sample, which can be explained by the fact that this chemical metabolized rapidly in the human body...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Muthuraman Pandurangan, Gansukh Enkhtaivan, Bhupendra Mistry, Murugesan Chandrasekaran, Rafi Noorzai, Doo Hwan Kim
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. The study reports that consumption of aspartame containing product could lead to cancer. However, the effect of aspartame on apoptosis process in cancer is not yet understood clearly. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.01-0.05 mg/ml) of aspartame for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of aspartame on cancer cells was determined by SRB assay. The result indicates no significant changes on cell viability...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Arun Sharma, S Amarnath, M Thulasimani, S Ramaswamy
Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Shida Miao, Evan S Beach, Toby J Sommer, Julie B Zimmerman, Sven-Eric Jordt
INTRODUCTION: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products...
May 23, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jennifer L Kuk, Ruth E Brown
This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Anna M Kot, Stanisław Błażejak, Agnieszka Kurcz, Iwona Gientka, Marek Kieliszek
Rhodotorula glutinis is capable of synthesizing numerous valuable compounds with a wide industrial usage. Biomass of this yeast constitutes sources of microbiological oils, and the whole pool of fatty acids is dominated by oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. Due to its composition, the lipids may be useful as a source for the production of the so-called third-generation biodiesel. These yeasts are also capable of synthesizing carotenoids such as β-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin. Due to their health-promoting characteristics, carotenoids are commonly used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries...
July 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sharon P G Fowler
For more than a decade, pioneering animal studies conducted by investigators at Purdue University have provided evidence to support a central thesis: that the uncoupling of sweet taste and caloric intake by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can disrupt an animal's ability to predict the metabolic consequences of sweet taste, and thereby impair the animal's ability to respond appropriately to sweet-tasting foods. These investigators' work has been replicated and extended internationally. There now exists a body of evidence, from a number of investigators, that animals chronically exposed to any of a range of LCSs - including saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, aspartame, or the combination of erythritol+aspartame - have exhibited one or more of the following conditions: increased food consumption, lower post-prandial thermogenesis, increased weight gain, greater percent body fat, decreased GLP-1 release during glucose tolerance testing, and significantly greater fasting glucose, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance testing, and hyperinsulinemia, compared with animals exposed to plain water or - in many cases - even to calorically-sweetened foods or liquids...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas, Mariana Borges de Lima Dutra, Helena Maria André Bolini
The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory properties and acceptability of pitanga nectar samples prepared with sucrose and different sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, stevia with 40% rebaudioside A, stevia with 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend). A total of 13 assessors participated in a quantitative descriptive analysis and evaluated the samples in relation to the descriptor terms. The acceptability test was carried out by 120 fruit juice consumers. The results of the quantitative descriptive analysis of pitanga nectar showed that samples prepared with sucralose, aspartame, and the 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend had sensory profiles similar to that of the sample prepared with sucrose...
April 26, 2016: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Jodi E Nettleton, Raylene A Reimer, Jane Shearer
Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Andrea Lugasi
Nowadays low calorie or intesive sweeteners are getting more and more popular. These sweeteners can be placed to the market and used as food additives according to the recent EU legislation. In the meantime news are coming out one after the other stating that many of these artificial intensive sweeteners can cause cancer - the highest risk has been attributed to aspartam. Low calorie sweeteners, just like all the other additives can be authorized after strickt risk assessment procedure according to the recent food law...
April 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Claudio Toniolo, Pierandrea Temussi
L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor...
May 2016: Biopolymers
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"