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April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Danika Martyn, Maryse Darch, Ashley Roberts, Han Youl Lee, Tina Yaqiong Tian, Naoko Kaburagi, Pablo Belmar
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides-globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Emily A Myers, Erin M Passaro, Valisa E Hedrick
In order to better assess non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) consumption, measurement tools with greater utility are needed. The objective of this investigation is to determine the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed NNS food frequency questionnaire (NNS-FFQ) that measures five types of NNS (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucralose and erythritol). Adult participants ( n = 123, 56% female, 75% Caucasian, mean age = 36.8 ± 16.6) completed the NNS-FFQ twice and had 24-h dietary recalls three times over a two-week study period...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Samuel Durán Agüero, Lissé Angarita Dávila, Ma Cristina Escobar Contreras, Diana Rojas Gómez, Jorge de Assis Costa
Noncaloric sweeteners (NCS) are food additives used to provide sweetness without adding calories. Their consumption has become more widespread around the world in all age groups, including children. The aim of this study is to show the state of the art about the intake of noncaloric sweeteners in children, as well as their benefits and consumption risk. Scientific searchers were used (PUBMED, Scopus, and Scielo) to analyze articles that included keywords (noncaloric sweeteners/saccharin/cyclamate/acesulfame potassium/aspartame/sucralose/stevia/children) in English, Spanish, and Portuguese...
2018: BioMed Research International
Anton Kaufmann, Mirjam Widmer, Kathryn Maden, Patrick Butcher, Stephan Walker
A reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatographic method was developed for the detection and quantification of inorganic and organic anionic food additives. A single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (orbitrap ion trap, Orbitrap) was used to detect the accurate masses of the unfragmented analyte ions. The developed ion-pairing chromatography method was based on a dibutylamine/hexafluoro-2-propanol buffer. Dibutylamine can be charged to serve as a chromatographic ion-pairing agent. This ensures sufficient retention of inorganic and organic anions...
March 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Fucheng Zhu, Tianyue Jiang, Bin Wu, Bingfang He
Metalloprotease PT121Y114S , an effective catalyst for Z-aspartame synthesis under the substrate (Z-Asp:l-Phe-OMe) molar ratio of 1:5, was obtained previously. Herein, a computational strategy combining molecular dynamics simulation of the enzyme-substrate complex with binding free energy (ΔG) calculations was established to guide the further engineering of PT121Y114S . One His224 residue proximal to the PT121Y114S active site was selected on the basis of the difference in ΔG decomposition of PT121Y114S toward l-Phe-NH2 and l-Phe-OMe...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Smita Raithore, Devin G Peterson
The influence of polyol type and particle size on the flavor release profile of chewing gum was investigated in vivo. Four chewing gum samples with an average particle size of 62 or 246 μm for sorbitol and 57 or 184 μm for mannitol were analyzed. Chewing gum formulated with mannitol, in general, had a higher aroma release than chewing gum formulated with sorbitol. Polyol type did not influence the release profile of the high intensity sweeteners (HIS) aspartame and acesulfame K. However, a smaller particle size resulted in a significantly higher release of HIS...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hala F Abd-Ellah, Nadia R A Abou-Zeid, Nadia M Nasr
The purpose of this study is to investigate structural and ultrastructural alterations in the rat's brain cerebral cortex after aspartame (ASP) treatment and to evaluate the possible ameliorating role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and folic acid (FA). Forty adult rats were divided into four equal groups: Group I, received appropriate vehicle only and served as control. Group II, received oral doses of both NAC (600 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) and FA (12 mg/kg b.w.) daily for 42 days. Group III, received oral doses of ASP (500 mg/kg b...
February 26, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Kenji Kitamura, Eldaa Zefany Banami Kinsui
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all strains possess a gene for the evolutionarily conserved POT family peptide transporter, Ptr2; however, the genes for a novel FOT family transporter were found only in some wine brewing strains. The substrate specificity of the POT and FOT family of transporters was compared. Among the naturally occurring oligopeptides that were tested, Lys-Leu and Arg-Phe were Ptr2-specific substrates. Artificial dipeptide aspartame was imported specifically through the FOT transporter, but the structurally similar Asp-Phe was a substrate of both FOT and Ptr2 transporters...
February 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
T Gulsun, N Ozturk, M S Kaynak, I Vural, S Sahin
The purpose of this research was to develop and prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing furosemide by direct compression method. Furosemide, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose LH-11 (L-HPC), aspartame, sodium stearyl fumarate were used for ODT formulation. MCC and L-HPC were used in ratios of 1:9 (ODT1) and 1:4 (ODT2). The results of the quality control parameters obtained for bulk powders (angle of repose, compressibility index, Hausner ratio, bulk density and volume, apparent density and volume, swelling of superdisintegrants and powder moisture) were taken as an indication of good compressibility of tablets...
July 3, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Yosuke Fujii, Yuqi Ding, Taichi Umezawa, Takafumi Akimoto, Jiawei Xu, Takashi Uchida, Tatsuya Fujino
Food additives generally used in carbonated drinks, such as 4-methylimidazole (4MI), caffeine (Caf?), citric acid (CA), and aspartame (Apm), were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) using nanometer-sized particles of iron oxide (Fe2O3 NPs). The quantification of 4MI in Coca Cola (C-cola) was carried out. In order to improve the reproducibility of the peak intensities, Fe2O3 NPs loaded on ZSM5 zeolite were used as the matrix for quantification. By using 2-ethylimidazole (2EI) as the internal standard, the amount of 4MI in C-cola was determined to range from 88 to 65 μg/355 mL...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Akira Otabe, Fumio Ohta, Asuka Takumi, Barry Lynch
Two studies were conducted to further assess its mutagenic and genotoxic potential. In a bacterial reverse mutation pre-incubation study, Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA were treated with aspartame at concentrations of up to 5000 μg/plate with or without metabolic activation and showed no mutagenic potential. Similarly, in vivo micronucleus testing of aspartame following gavage administration (500-2000 mg/kg body weight) to Crlj:CD1(ICR) strain SPF male mice showed no increase in the proportion of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells collected and evaluated 24 or 48 h post administration...
February 2, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Huaixiu Wen, Bowen Tang, Alan J Stewart, Yanduo Tao, Yun Shao, Yulei Cui, Huilan Yue, Jinjin Pei, Zenggen Liu, Lijuan Mei, Ruitao Yu, Lei Jiang
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious metabolic disorder, where impaired postprandial blood glucose regulation often leads to severe health complications. The natural chemical erythritol is a C4 polyol approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as a sweetener. Here, we examined a potential role for erythritol in the control of postprandial blood glucose levels in DM. An anti-postprandial hyperglycemia effect upon erythritol administration (500 mg kg-1) was demonstrated in alloxan-induced DM model mice by monitoring changes in blood glucose after intragastric administration of drugs and starch...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lois Haighton, Ashley Roberts, Brandon Walters, Barry Lynch
The current review assessed cancer studies of aspartame based on a quality appraisal using the Klimisch grading system. Nine studies having complete histopathology were included: three 2-year studies by Searle; three transgenic mice studies by the NTP; three lifetime studies by the Ramazzini Institute. A tenth study limited to brain tumors was not rated. None were determined as Klimisch Code 1 (reliable without restrictions). The Searle studies predated GLP standards but their methodology was comparable; transgenic mouse models are not validated, but are accepted as supporting data...
January 12, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Maria Buffini, Séverine Goscinny, Joris Van Loco, Anne P Nugent, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn, Michael J Gibney, Breige A McNulty
This research investigated the intakes of six intense sweeteners: acesulfame-K (E950), aspartame (E951), cyclamate (E952), saccharin (E954), sucralose (E955), and steviol glycosides (E960) in the diets of Irish adults, using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey. A food label survey that included products currently available on the Irish market supplemented the analysis. Sweetener intakes were investigated using three different exposure scenarios; beginning with a crude assessment which assumed that all foods permitted to contain the additives of interest always did contain them, and at their maximum permitted level (Tier 1)...
March 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ali Rafati, Ali Noorafshan, Mahboubeh Jahangir, Leila Hosseini, Saied Karbalay-Doust
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in about 6000 sugar-free products. Aspartame consumption could be associated with various neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aspartame onmedial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) as well as neuroprotective effects of vitamin E. The rats were divided into seven groups, including distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), and low (acceptable daily dose) and high doses of aspartame (40 and 200mg/kg/day) respectively, with or without vitamin E consumption, for 8 weeks...
January 2018: Acta Histochemica
(no author information available yet)
This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives)...
2017: World Health Organization Technical Report Series
Arshag D Mooradian, Meridith Smith, Masaaki Tokuda
The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Zoe Thompson, Erik M Kolb, Theodore Garland
To explore reward substitution in the context of voluntary exercise, female mice from four replicate high-runner (HR) lines (bred for wheel running) and four non-selected control (C) lines were given simultaneous access to wheels and palatable solutions as competing rewards (two doses of saccharin [0.1, 0.2% w/v]; two doses of common artificial sweetener blends containing saccharin [Sweet 'N Low® : 0.1, 0.2% w/v], aspartame [Equal® : 0.04, 0.08% w/v], or sucralose [Splenda® : 0.08, 0.16% w/v]; or two doses of sucrose [3...
January 2018: Behavioural Processes
Sharon Evans, Anne Daly, Satnam Chahal, Catherine Ashmore, John MacDonald, Anita MacDonald
Background: In a previous case-control study, we demonstrated that children with PKU and non-PKU controls preferred sweet foods. Additionally, children with PKU exhibited food neophobia, with no preference for bitter tasting foods associated with the taste of phenylalanine (Phe)-free L-amino acid supplements. Objective: In an observational extension study, we evaluated the influence of parental food choice and neophobia on their children's taste preferences and food neophobia...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
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