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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780156/assessing-and-reporting-uncertainties-in-dietary-exposure-analysis-part-ii-application-of-the-uncertainty-template-to-a-practical-example-of-exposure-assessment
#1
David Tennant, Diána Bánáti, Marc Kennedy, Jürgen König, Cian O'Mahony, Susanne Kettler
A previous publication described methods for assessing and reporting uncertainty in dietary exposure assessments. This follow-up publication uses a case study to develop proposals for representing and communicating uncertainty to risk managers. The food ingredient aspartame is used as the case study in a simple deterministic model (the EFSA FAIM template) and with more sophisticated probabilistic exposure assessment software (FACET). Parameter and model uncertainties are identified for each modelling approach and tabulated...
August 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716847/nonnutritive-sweeteners-and-cardiometabolic-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-prospective-cohort-studies
#2
REVIEW
Meghan B Azad, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Rasheda Rabbani, Justin Lys, Leslie Copstein, Amrinder Mann, Maya M Jeyaraman, Ashleigh E Reid, Michelle Fiander, Dylan S MacKay, Jon McGavock, Brandy Wicklow, Ryan Zarychanski
BACKGROUND: Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2016) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions for nonnutritive sweeteners and prospective cohort studies that reported on consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners among adults and adolescents...
July 17, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708096/characterization-of-non-nutritive-sweetener-intake-in-rural-southwest-virginian-adults-living-in-a-health-disparate-region
#3
Valisa E Hedrick, Erin M Passaro, Brenda M Davy, Wen You, Jamie M Zoellner
Few data assessing non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) intake are available, especially within rural, health-disparate populations, where obesity and related co-morbidities are prevalent. The objective of this study is to characterize NNS intake for this population and examine the variance in demographics, cardio-metabolic outcomes, and dietary intake between NNS consumers and non-consumers. A cross-sectional sample (n = 301) of Virginian adults from a randomized controlled trial (data collected from 2012 to 2014) targeting sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake completed three 24-h dietary recalls, and demographics and cardio-metabolic measures were assessed...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699833/safety-assessment-of-16-sweeteners-for-the-korean-population-using-dietary-intake-monitoring-and-poundage-method
#4
MeeKyung Kim, Gunyoung Lee, Ho Soo Lim, Sang Soon Yun, Myungsil Hwang, Jin-Hwan Hong, Hoonjeong Kwon
A sweetener is a food additive that imparts a sweet taste to food products. Sweeteners have been increasingly used in Korea since the approval of sodium saccharin and d-sorbitol in 1962. Unlike food contaminants, humans are exposed to food additives only through the consumption of processed food products. For exposure assessments of sweeteners, the dietary intakes of food products containing acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharin-Na, and sucralose were determined, and the resulting calculated estimated daily intake (EDI) values were compared directly with each additive's ADI...
July 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692807/the-effect-of-moderate-consumption-of-non-nutritive-sweeteners-on-glucose-tolerance-and-body-composition-in-rats
#5
Ashley P Tovar, James W Navalta, Laura J Kruskall, John C Young
Glucose tolerance and body composition were determined in male rats given non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) (aspartame or sucralose) in drinking water. AUC for glucose and insulin with NNS did not differ from control. NNS treatment had no effect on weight gain or percent body fat. Epididymal fat pad mass was higher with aspartame and the ratio of trunk to total fat was less with sucralose versus control, suggesting that NNS consumption altered body fat distribution.
July 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690302/a-rapid-dialysis-method-for-analysis-of-artificial-sweeteners-in-foods-2nd-report
#6
Shoichi Tahara, Sumiyo Yamamoto, Yukiko Yamajima, Hiroyuki Miyakawa, Yoko Uematsu, Kimio Monma
Following the previous report, a rapid dialysis method was developed for the extraction and purification of four artificial sweeteners, namely, sodium saccharide (Sa), acesulfame potassium (AK), aspartame (APM), and dulcin (Du), which are present in various foods. The method was evaluated by the addition of 0.02 g/kg of these sweeteners to a cookie sample, in the same manner as in the previous report. Revisions from the previous method were: reduction of the total dialysis volume from 200 to 100 mL, change of tube length from 55 to 50 cm, change of dialysate from 0...
2017: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686282/early-maternal-separation-induces-preference-for-sucrose-and-aspartame-associated-with-increased-blood-glucose-and-hyperactivity
#7
L Aya-Ramos, C Contreras-Vargas, J L Rico, Z Dueñas
Early life stress and exposure to sweeteners lead to physiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Nevertheless, many genetic and environmental factors as well as the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of these disorders are not fully understood. Similarly, evidence about the long-term metabolic effects of exposure to sweeteners in early life is limited and inconsistent. This study used an animal model of maternal separation during breastfeeding (MS) to analyze the effects of early life stress on consumption of sweeteners, weight gain, blood glucose and locomotion...
July 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660358/aspartame-and-soft-drink-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-rats-implication-of-oxidative-stress-apoptotic-signaling-pathways-electrolytes-and-hormonal-levels
#8
Mohamed A Lebda, Kadry M Sadek, Yasser S El-Sayed
A significant association between fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages consumption and increased risk of detrimental central nervous system effects has been recently reported. We hypothesized that the aspartame and soft drink induced disturbances in energy production and endocrine function, which play a role in the induction of brain damage. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of aspartame and soft drink on brain function and the link between energy status in the brain, oxidative stress and molecular pathways of apoptosis...
June 28, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#9
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618238/antiglycating-potential-of-acesulfame-potassium-an-artificial-sweetener
#10
Ahmad Ali, Tejashree Anil More, Amaritpal Kaur Hoonjan, Subramanian Sivakami
Sweeteners have replaced the natural sugars in the food and beverage industry because of many reasons, such as hyperglycemia and cost. Saccharin, sucralose, aspartame and acesulfame-K are the most commonly used sweeteners. In the present study, the abovementioned artificial sweeteners were used to assess their glycating properties by established methods such as browning, fructosamine assay, determination of carbonyl content, protein aggregation, and measurement of fluorescence. Amadori and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed as a result of the interaction between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins and other macromolecules during glycation...
June 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596296/dietary-saccharides-and-sweet-tastants-have-differential-effects-on-colonization-of-drosophila-oocytes-by-wolbachia-endosymbionts
#11
Moises Camacho, Mailin Oliva, Laura R Serbus
Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571543/aspartame-should-individuals-with-type-ii-diabetes-be-taking-it
#12
Arbind Kumar Choudhary
BACKGROUND: Individuals with type II diabetes (T2D) have to manage blood glucose levels to sustain health and longevity. Artificial sweeteners (including aspartame) are suggested sugar alternatives for these individuals. The safety of aspartame in particular, has long been the centre of debate. Although it is such a controversial product, many clinicians recommend its use to T2D patients, during a controlled diet and as part of an intervention strategy. Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sugar and has a negligible effect on blood glucose levels, and it is suggested for use so that T2D can control carbohydrate intake and blood glucose levels...
May 31, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497993/personal-variation-in-preference-for-sweetness-effects-of-age-and-obesity
#13
Nuala Bobowski, Julie A Mennella
BACKGROUND: Use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs), which provide sweet taste with few to no calories, has increased, but data on whether children's hedonic responses to NNSs differ from nutritive sugars or from adults' hedonic responses are limited. METHODS: Most preferred levels of sucrose and the NNS sucralose were determined via a forced-choice tracking procedure in 48 children, 7-14 years (mean = 10 years), and 34 adults. Each participant also rated the liking of these taste stimuli, as well as varying concentrations of aspartame on 3- and 5-point facial hedonic scales...
May 12, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489050/an-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-of-the-effects-of-caloric-and-non-caloric-sweeteners-on-liver-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#14
Sharon Janssens, Jolita Ciapaite, Justina C Wolters, Natal A van Riel, Klaas Nicolay, Jeanine J Prompers
We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or solutions containing 13% (w/v) glucose, 13% fructose, or 0.4% aspartame. After 7 weeks, in vivo hepatic dietary lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis were assessed with proton-observed, carbon-13-edited MRS combined with (13)C-labeled lipids and (13)C-labeled glucose, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465000/long-term-soft-drink-and-aspartame-intake-induces-hepatic-damage-via-dysregulation-of-adipocytokines-and-alteration-of-the-lipid-profile-and-antioxidant-status
#15
Mohamed A Lebda, Hossam G Tohamy, Yasser S El-Sayed
Dietary intake of fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines play a role in lipid storage and induction of liver injury. Therefore, this study intended to explore the expression of adipocytokines and its link to hepatic damage. Rats were assigned to drink water, cola soft drink (free access) and aspartame (240 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for 2 months. The lipid profiles, liver antioxidants and pathology, and mRNA expression of adipogenic cytokines were evaluated...
May 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446800/oxidative-stress-evoked-damages-on-rat-sperm-and-attenuated-antioxidant-status-on-consumption-of-aspartame
#16
I Ashok, P S Poornima, D Wankhar, R Ravindran, R Sheeladevi
Although several studies on toxic effect of aspartame metabolite have been studied, controversial reports over the use of aspartame owing to the fact that it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism exist. This present study is proposed to investigate whether aspartame (40 mg kg(-1) b.wt) administration for 90 days could induce oxidative stress and alter antioxidant status of epididymal sperm in Wistar strain male albino rats. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the effects of aspartame...
July 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407474/the-impact-of-low-and-no-caloric-sweeteners-on-glucose-absorption-incretin-secretion-and-glucose-tolerance
#17
Catherine B Chan, Zohre Hashemi, Fatheema B Subhan
The consumption of non-nutritive, low, or no-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is increasing globally. Previously thought to be physiologically inert, there is a growing body of evidence that LCS not only provide a sweet taste but may also elicit metabolic effects in the gastrointestinal tract. This review provides a brief overview of the chemical and receptor-binding properties and effects on chemosensation of different LCS but focuses on the extent to which LCS stimulates glucose transport, incretin and insulin secretion, and effects on glucose tolerance...
August 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406689/caloric-primary-rewards-systematically-alter-time-perception
#18
Bowen J Fung, Carsten Murawski, Stefan Bode
Human time perception can be influenced by contextual factors, such as the presence of reward. Yet, the exact nature of the relationship between time perception and reward has not been conclusively characterized. We implemented a novel experimental paradigm to measure estimations of time across a range of suprasecond intervals, during the anticipation and after the consumption of fruit juice, a physiologically relevant primary reward. We show that average time estimations were systematically affected by the consumption of reward, but not by the anticipation of reward...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401812/-listen-to-your-body-participants-alternative-to-science-in-online-health-discussions
#19
Wytske Versteeg, Hedwig Te Molder, Petra Sneijder
We present a discursive psychological analysis of how the idiomatic expression "Listen to Your Body" is deployed in online forum discussions about ADHD medication and aspartame. The Listen to Your Body device allows participants to demonstrate to others that they take their health seriously and for that reason avoid scientific knowledge. They contrast Listen to Your Body with "blindly following science," presenting Listen to Your Body as the more critical and, therefore, more rational behavior. Instead of treating the idiomatic expression as "anyone's knowledge," speakers and recipients compete for the right to own it...
March 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394643/metabolic-effects-of-aspartame-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#20
Natalia Cardoso Santos, Laiza Magalhaes de Araujo, Graziela De Luca Canto, Eliete Neves Silva Guerra, Michella Soares Coelho, Maria de Fatima Borin
BACKGROUND: Data about harms or benefits associated with the consumption of aspartame, a non-nutritive sweetener worldwide consumed, is still controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials aimed to assess the effect of aspartame consumption on metabolic parameters related to diabetes and obesity. METHODS: The search was performed on Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science databases and on a grey literature using Open Grey, Google Scholar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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