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Tubulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109183/chloride-ion-transport-and-overexpression-of-tmem16a-in-a-guinea-pig-asthma-model
#1
Mitsuko Kondo, Mayoko Tsuji, Kaori Hara, Ken Arimura, Osamitsu Yagi, Etsuko Tagaya, Kiyoshi Takeyama, Jun Tamaoki
BACKGROUND: TMEM16A, a Ca-activated Cl channel, regulates various physiological functions such as mucin secretion. However, the role of TMEM16A in hypersecretion in asthma is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate Cl ion transport via TMEM16A and determine the localization of TMEM16A in a guinea pig asthma model. METHODS: Guinea pigs were sensitized with OVA ip. on Day 1 and Day 8. On Day 22, we assessed OVA challenge-induced Cl ion transport in the sensitized tracheas ex vivo in an Ussing chamber, compared with the non-sensitized tracheas...
January 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107800/neuroregeneration-of-ips-cells-in-polyacrylamide-chitosan-inverted-colloidal-crystal-scaffolds-with-poly-lactide-co-glycolide-nanoparticles-and-tatvhl-peptide
#2
Yung-Chih Kuo, Chun-Wei Chen
Polyacrylamide (PAAM) and chitosan were fabricated by inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) method for scaffolds comprising regular pores. The hybrid PAAM-chitosan ICC scaffolds were grafted with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for a rougher pore surface and grafted with TATVHL peptide for a better differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells toward neural lineage. By scanning electron microscopy, we found that iPS cells cultured in PAAM-chitosan ICC scaffolds with PLGA NPs at 1...
January 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106390/tubulin-binding-and-polymerization-promoting-properties-of-tppp-proteins-are-evolutionarily-conserved
#3
Judit Oláh, Tibor Szénási, Adél Szabó, Kinga Kovács, Péter Lőw, Mauro Stifanic, Ferenc Orosz
Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Proteins (TPPPs) constitute a new eukaryotic protein family. There are three TPPP paralogs in the human genome; denoted as TPPP1, TPPP2 and TPPP3. TPPP1 and TPPP3 are intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) that bind and polymerize tubulin and stabilize microtubules but TPPP2 does not. Vertebrate TPPPs originated from the ancient invertebrate TPPP by two-round whole-genome-duplication thus it was an open question whether the tubulin/microtubule binding function of TPPP1 and TPPP3 is a newly acquired property or it was present in the invertebrate orthologs (generally one TPPP/species)...
January 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105271/biological-evaluation-in-vitro-and-in-silico-of-azetidin-2-one-derivatives-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#4
Fabián E Olazaran, Gildardo Rivera, Alondra M Pérez-Vázquez, Cynthia M Morales-Reyes, Aldo Segura-Cabrera, Isaías Balderas-Rentería
Potential anticancer activity of 16 azetidin-2-one derivatives was evaluated showing that compound 6 [N-(p-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(p-methyl-phenyl)-3-phenoxy-azetidin-2-one] presented cytotoxic activity in SiHa cells and B16F10 cells. The caspase-3 assay in B16F10 cells displayed that azetidin-2-one derivatives induce apoptosis. Microarray and molecular analysis showed that compound 6 was involved on specific gene overexpression of cytoskeleton regulation and apoptosis due to the inhibition of some cell cycle genes...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104815/alterations-in-the-balance-of-tubulin-glycylation-and-glutamylation-in-photoreceptors-leads-to-retinal-degeneration
#5
Montserrat Bosch Grau, Christel Masson, Sudarshan Gadadhar, Cecilia Rocha, Olivia Tort, Patricia Marques Sousa, Sophie Vacher, Ivan Bieche, Carsten Janke
Tubulin is subject to a wide variety of posttranslational modifications, which as part of the tubulin code are involved in the regulation of microtubule functions. Glycylation has so far predominantly been found in motile cilia and flagella, and absence of this modification leads to ciliary disassembly. Here we demonstrate that the connecting cilia of photoreceptors, which are non-motile sensory cilia, are also dependent on glycylation. In contrast to many other tissues, only one glycylase, TTLL3, is expressed in retina...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104363/insights-into-the-distinct-mechanisms-of-action-of-taxane-and-non-taxane-microtubule-stabilizers-from-cryo-em-structures
#6
Elizabeth H Kellogg, Nisreen M A Hejab, Stuart Howes, Peter Northcote, John H Miller, J Fernando Díaz, Kenneth H Downing, Eva Nogales
A number of microtubule-stabilizing agents have demonstrated or predicted potential as anticancer agents, but a detailed structural basis for their mechanism of action is still lacking. We have obtained high-resolution (3.9-4.2Å) cryo-EM reconstructions of microtubules stabilized by the taxane-site binders Taxol and zampanolide, and by peloruside, which targets a distinct, non-taxoid pocket on β-tubulin. We find that each molecule has unique distinct structural effects on the microtubule lattice structure...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103535/down-regulation-of-histone-deacetylase-4-5-and-6-as-a-mechanism-of-synergistic-enhancement-of-apoptosis-in-human-lung-cancer-cells-treated-with-the-combination-of-a-synthetic-retinoid-am80-and-green-tea-catechin
#7
Yukiko Oya, Anupom Mondal, Anchalee Rawangkan, Sonthaya Umsumarng, Keisuke Iida, Tatsuro Watanabe, Miki Kanno, Kaori Suzuki, Zhenghao Li, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Koichi Shudo, Hirota Fujiki, Masami Suganuma
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, acts as a synergist with various anticancer drugs, including retinoids. Am80 is a synthetic retinoid with a different structure from all-trans-retinoic acid: Am80 is now clinically utilized as a new drug for relapsed and intractable acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. Our experiments showed that the combination of EGCG and Am80 synergistically induced both apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line PC-9 and up-regulated expressions of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), death receptor 5, and p21(waf1) genes in the cells...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103137/cap-gly-proteins-contribute-to-microtubule-dependent-trafficking-via-interactions-with-the-c-terminal-aromatic-residue-of-%C3%AE-tubulin
#8
Annie Andrieux, Laurence Aubry, Cécile Boscheron
In mammals, the C-terminal tyrosine residue of α-tubulin is subjected to removal/re-addition cycles resulting in tyrosinated microtubules and detyrosinated Glu-microtubules. CLIP170 and its yeast ortholog (Bik1) interact weakly with Glu-microtubules. Recently, we described a Microtubule- Rho1- and Bik1-dependent mechanism involved in Snc1 routing. Here, we further show a contribution of the yeast p150Glued ortholog (Nip100) in Snc1 trafficking. Both CLIP170 and p150Glued are CAP-Gly-containing proteins that belong to the microtubule +end-tracking protein family (known as +Tips)...
January 19, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101189/inhibition-of-cytoskeletal-protein-carbonylation-may-protect-against-oxidative-damage-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Qiusheng Zhang, Meng Zhang, Xianjian Huang, Xiaojia Liu, Weiping Li
Oxidative stress is the principal factor in traumatic brain injury (TBI) that initiates protracted neuronal dysfunction and remodeling. Cytoskeletal proteins are known to be carbonylated under oxidative stress; however, the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of cytoskeletal protein carbonylation remain poorly understood. In the present study, the expression levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were investigated in PC12 cells treated with H2O2. Western blot analysis was used to monitor the carbonylation levels of β-actin and β-tubulin...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100778/structure-of-the-z-ring-associated-protein-zapd-bound-to-the-c-terminal-domain-of-the-tubulin-like-protein-ftsz-suggests-mechanism-of-z-ring-stabilization-through-ftsz-crosslinking
#10
Maria Schumacher, Kuo-Hsiang Huang, Wenjie Zeng, Anuradha Janakiraman
Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ binding proteins affect FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099612/tinea-faciei-on-the-right-eyebrow-caused-by-trichophyton-interdigitale
#11
Kai Wen Zhuang, Ya Ling Dai, Yu Ping Ran, Jebina Lama, Yi Ming Fan
Tinea faciei is a relatively uncommon dermatophyte infection entailing atypical clinical symptoms, usually misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. The authors describe a case of tinea faciei on the right eyebrow caused by Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was an 18-year-old girl, who had an inflammatory plaque with a scaly, pustular surface on the right eyebrow and upper eyelid, which had persisted for over 1 month. She was once misdiagnosed as having eczema and was treated using corticosteroid cream...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#12
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098556/genetic-defects-in-%C3%AE-spectrin-and-tau-sensitize-c-elegans-axons-to-movement-induced-damage-via-torque-tension-coupling
#13
Michael Krieg, Jan Stühmer, Juan G Cueva, Richard Fetter, Kerri A Spliker, Daniel Cremers, Kang Shen, Alexander R Dunn, Miriam B Goodman
Our bodies are in constant motion and so are the neurons that invade each tissue. Motion-induced neuron deformation and damage are associated with several neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we investigated the question of how the neuronal cytoskeleton protects axons and dendrites from mechanical stress, exploiting mutations in UNC-70 β-spectrin, PTL-1 tau/MAP2-like and MEC-7 β-tubulin proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that mechanical stress induces supercoils and plectonemes in the sensory axons of spectrin and tau double mutants...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097475/svct2-is-expressed-by-cerebellar-precursor-cells-which-differentiate-into-neurons-in-response-to-ascorbic-acid
#14
Karina Oyarce, Carmen Silva-Alvarez, Luciano Ferrada, Fernando Martínez, Katterine Salazar, Francisco Nualart
Ascorbic acid (AA) is a known antioxidant that participates in a wide range of processes, including stem cell differentiation. It enters the cell through the sodium-ascorbate co-transporter SVCT2, which is mainly expressed by neurons in the adult brain. Here, we have characterized SVCT2 expression in the postnatal cerebellum in situ, a model used for studying neurogenesis, and have identified its expression in granular precursor cells and mature neurons. We have also detected SVCT2 expression in the cerebellar cell line C17...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097375/hypoxia-induced-fibroblast-growth-factor-11-stimulates-osteoclast-mediated-resorption-of-bone
#15
Helen J Knowles
Over-activation of osteoclasts is directly responsible for pathological bone loss in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer metastasis to bone. Hypoxia is a common feature of these conditions, associated with poor prognosis, which also stimulates osteoclast-mediated bone resorption via induction of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α. Here, we investigate the effects of fibroblast growth factor 11 (FGF11) on osteoclast function. FGF11 is an intracellular FGF that was induced both by hypoxia (2% O2, p < 0...
January 18, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096683/clinicopathological-and-immunohistochemical-features-of-lung-invasive-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-based-on-computed-tomography-findings
#16
Katsuhiko Shimizu, Riki Okita, Shinsuke Saisho, Ai Maeda, Yuji Nojima, Masao Nakata
BACKGROUND: We performed an analysis to clarify differences in clinicopathological and molecular features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) based on computed tomography (CT) findings and their impact on prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: On the basis of CT findings, we divided lung IMA into three subtypes: solid, bubbling, and pneumonic. We then investigated differences in clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, and the expressions of well-identified biomarkers, including cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1), class III beta-tubulin, thymidylate synthase (TS), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1), and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, among the three subtypes...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089042/molecular-screening-of-xerophilic-aspergillus-strains-producing-mycophenolic-acid
#17
Bello Mouhamadou, Lucile Sage, Sophie Périgon, Virginie Séguin, Valérie Bouchart, Patrick Legendre, Mathilde Caillat, Hayet Yamouni, David Garon
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the fungal secondary metabolite displaying several biological properties. Up to now, screening of fungal strains producing MPA has mainly been the result of the search of this molecule in their culture medium by chemical methods. Here we developed a molecular approach by targeting the expression level of the MpaC gene encoding the polyketide synthase, one of the key enzymes involved in the MPA synthesis. Thirty xerophilic Aspergillus strains were identified using the RNA polymerase II subunit and the β-tubulin genes...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081294/xenogeneic-bio-root-prompts-the-constructive-process-characterized-by-macrophage-phenotype-polarization-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#18
Hui Li, Jingjing Sun, Jie Li, Hefeng Yang, Xiangyou Luo, Jinlong Chen, Li Xie, Fangjun Huo, Tian Zhu, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Tissue or organ regeneration using xenogeneic matrices is a promising approach to address the shortage of donor matrices for allotransplantation. Success of such approach has been demonstrated to correlate with macrophage-mediated fibrotic homeostasis and tissue remodeling. The previous studies have demonstrated that treated dentin matrix (TDM) could be a suitable bioactive substrate for allogeneic tooth root regeneration. This study constructed xenogeneic bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) via a combination of porcine TDM (pTDM) with allogeneic dental follicle cells (DFCs)...
January 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081124/rapid-genotyping-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-polymorphisms-in-trichuris-trichiura-and-ascaris-lumbricoides
#19
Nour Rashwan, Marilyn Scott, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079286/design-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-3d-qsar-analysis-of-podophyllotoxin-dioxazole-combination-as-tubulin-targeting-anticancer-agents
#20
Zi-Zhen Wang, Wen-Xue Sun, Xue Wang, Ya-Han Zhang, Han-Yue Qiu, Jin-Liang Qi, Yan-Jun Pang, Gui-Hua Lu, Xiao-Ming Wang, Fu-Gen Yu, Yong-Hua Yang
The advancement of cancer fighting drugs has never been a simple linear process. Those drugs design professionals begin to find inspiration from the nature after failing to find the ideal products by creative drugs design and high-throughput screening. To obtain new molecules for inhibiting tubulin, podophyllotoxin was adopted as the leading compound and 1,3,4-oxadiazole was brought in to the C-4 site of podophyllotoxin in this research. A series of seventeen podophyllotoxin derived esters have been achieved and then evaluated their antitumor activities against four different cancer cell lines: A549, MCF-7, HepG2 and HeLa...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
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