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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145403/us-gulf-coast-states-the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-flyover-nation
#1
Peter J Hotez, Sheila Jackson Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142079/laboratory-diagnosis-of-parasites-from-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
REVIEW
Lynne S Garcia, Michael Arrowood, Evelyne Kokoskin, Graeme P Paltridge, Dylan R Pillai, Gary W Procop, Norbert Ryan, Robyn Y Shimizu, Govinda Visvesvara
This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites. The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141763/pilot-study-of-the-addition-of-mass-treatment-for-malaria-to-existing-school-based-programs-to-treat-neglected-tropical-diseases
#3
Lauren M Cohee, Moses Chilombe, Andrew Ngwira, Samuel K Jemu, Don P Mathanga, Miriam K Laufer
Malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths, threaten the health of school aged in sub-Saharan Africa. Established school-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs are used to control NTDs. Recent clinical trials have shown benefit of mass treatment of malaria in schools. The potential of adding malaria treatment to existing NTD programs has not been thoroughly evaluated. We offered malaria treatment with artemether-lumefantrine during routine NTD MDA and developed peer education programs in two primary schools in southern Malawi...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140110/il-21-therapy-controls-immune-activation-and-maintains-antiviral-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#4
Gema Méndez-Lagares, Ding Lu, David Merriam, Christopher A Baker, François Villinger, Koen K A Van Rompay, Joseph M McCune, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicate during acute infection in lymphocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, before disseminating systemically. Localized replication and associated loss of gut-resident CD4(+) T cells occur regardless of the portal of entry of the virus (e.g., intravenous vs. rectal). Thus, HIV and SIV are tropic for gut tissue, and their pathogenesis requires the special environment of the intestine. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are important contributors to microbial defense in the gut that are vulnerable to HIV infection and whose loss is associated with translocation of microbial products to the systemic circulation, leading to chronic immune activation and disease progression...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138643/interactions-of-desmethoxyyangonin-a-secondary-metabolite-from-renealmia-alpinia-with-human-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-oxidase-b
#5
Narayan D Chaurasiya, Francisco León, Yuanqing Ding, Isabel Gómez-Betancur, Dora Benjumea, Larry A Walker, Stephen J Cutler, Babu L Tekwani
Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), a medicinal plant of tropical rainforests, is used to treat snakebites and other injuries and also as a febrifuge, analgesic, antiemetic, antiulcer, and anticonvulsant. The dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia leaves showed potent inhibition of human monoamine oxidases- (MAOs-) A and B. Phytochemical studies yielded six known compounds, including pinostrobin 1, 4'-methyl ether sakuranetin 2, sakuranetin 3, pinostrobin chalcone 4, yashabushidiol A 5, and desmethoxyyangonin 6...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137971/clearance-of-schistosome-parasites-by-resistant-genotypes-at-a-single-genomic-region-in-biomphalaria-glabrata-snails-involves-cellular-components-of-the-hemolymph
#6
Euan R O Allan, Benjamin Gourbal, Camila B Dores, Anais Portet, Christopher J Bayne, Michael S Blouin
Schistosomiasis is one of the most detrimental neglected tropical diseases. Controlling the spread of this parasitic illness requires effective sanitation, access to chemotherapeutic drugs, and control over populations of the freshwater snails, such as Biomphalaria glabrata, that are essential intermediate hosts for schistosomes. Effectively controlling this disease, while minimizing ecological implications of such control, will require an extensive understanding of the immunological interactions between schistosomes and their molluscan intermediate hosts...
November 11, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137663/patent-landscape-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-analysis-of-worldwide-patent-families
#7
Folahanmi Tomiwa Akinsolu, Vitor Nobre de Paiva, Samuel Santos Souza, Orsolya Varga
BACKGROUND: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137399/molecular-characteristics-and-serodiagnostic-potential-of-chitinase-like-protein-from-sarcoptes-scabiei
#8
Ran He, Nengxing Shen, Haojie Zhang, Yongjun Ren, Manli He, Jing Xu, Cheng Guo, Yue Xie, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is an allergic skin disease that affects millions of people and other mammals worldwide. This highly contagious parasitic disease is among the top 50 epidemic disease and is regarded as a neglected tropical disease. Diagnosis of scabies is difficult in the early stage, and the pathogenesis of scabies is not currently clear. Here, we expressed, identified and located the chitinase-like protein of S. scabiei (SsCLP), and evaluated its potential as an early-stage diagnostic antigen for rabbit scabies...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134797/the-importance-of-collaboration-between-industry-academics-and-nonprofits-in-tropical-disease-drug-discovery
#9
Lori Ferrins, Michael P Pollastri
Collaborations between academic, industrial, and nonprofit companies can provide sufficient impetus to propel projects that have little economic return; such projects are prevalent in tropical disease drug discovery. In these collaborations, each partner contributes a unique set of skills and technical expertise which is advantageous to the project as a whole. Highly product-focused processes and specialized expertise sets dominate industry groups. When coupled with the strategic guidance from public-private partnerships and the academic tendency to work on high-risk projects with low financial rewards, a powerful combination results...
November 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133817/transgenic-cavendish-bananas-with-resistance-to-fusarium-wilt-tropical-race-4
#10
James Dale, Anthony James, Jean-Yves Paul, Harjeet Khanna, Mark Smith, Santy Peraza-Echeverria, Fernando Garcia-Bastidas, Gert Kema, Peter Waterhouse, Kerrie Mengersen, Robert Harding
Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, one transformed with RGA2, a gene isolated from a TR4-resistant diploid banana, and the other with a nematode-derived gene, Ced9, remain disease free...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133029/host-genetics-and-dengue-fever
#11
REVIEW
Caroline Xavier de Carvalho, Cynthia Chester Cardoso, Fernanda de Souza Gomes Kehdy, Antonio Guilherme Pacheco, Milton Ozório Moraes
Dengue is a major worldwide problem in tropical and subtropical areas; it is caused by four different viral serotypes, and it can manifest as asymptomatic, mild, or severe. Many factors interact to determine the severity of the disease, including the genetic profile of the infected patient. However, the mechanisms that lead to severe disease and eventually death have not been determined, and a great challenge is the early identification of patients who are more likely to progress to a worse health condition...
November 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132993/re-evaluating-the-effect-of-favipiravir-treatment-on-rabies-virus-infection
#12
Ashley C Banyard, Karen L Mansfield, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Leigh Thorne, Colin Birch, Penelope Koraka, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Anthony R Fooks
There is no antiviral treatment available once clinical disease following rabies virus infection has initiated. Considered a neglected tropical disease, >60,000 human rabies deaths are estimated each year despite the availability of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for pre-immunisation or administration following a potential exposure before the onset of clinical disease. Such post-exposure treatments include administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and vaccination at a distant site to prime a humoral immune response...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132978/intensive-care-in-severe-malaria-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132402/efficient-high-throughput-molecular-method-to-detect-ehrlichia-ruminantium-in-ticks
#14
Nídia Cangi, Valérie Pinarello, Laure Bournez, Thierry Lefrançois, Emmanuel Albina, Luís Neves, Nathalie Vachiéry
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal tropical disease affecting ruminants with important economic impacts. This bacterium is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks and is present in sub-Saharan Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean, where it represents a threat to the American mainland. METHODS: An automated DNA extraction method was adapted for Amblyomma ticks and a new qPCR targeting the pCS20 region was developed to improve E...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132306/rna-seq-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-sub-tropical-maize-lines-reveals-a-role-for-kauralexins-in-resistance-to-grey-leaf-spot-disease-caused-by-cercospora-zeina
#15
Jacqueline Meyer, Dave K Berger, Shawn A Christensen, Shane L Murray
BACKGROUND: Cercospora zeina is a foliar pathogen responsible for maize grey leaf spot in southern Africa that negatively impacts maize production. Plants use a variety of chemical and structural mechanisms to defend themselves against invading pathogens such as C. zeina, including the production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In maize, a variety of biotic and abiotic stressors induce the accumulation of the terpenoid phytoalexins, zealexins and kauralexins. RESULTS: C...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129539/leptospirosis-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129538/pneumonia-in-the-tropics-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Steve McGloughlin, Pravin R Amin
The aetiology of community acquired pneumonia varies according to the region in which it is acquired. This review discusses those causes of CAP that occur in the tropics and might not be readily recognizable when transplanted to other sites. Various forms of pneumonia including the viral causes such as influenza (seasonal and avian varieties), the coronaviruses and the Hantavirus as well as bacterial causes, specifically the pneumonic form of Yersinia pestis and melioidosis are discussed.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128378/ebola-virus-disease-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Ebola virus is a filovirus that can cause fatal hemorrhagic fever (HF) and five distinct species exist that vary in terms of geographical distribution and virulence. Once the more virulent forms enter the human population, transmission occurs primarily through direct contact with infected body fluids and may result in significant outbreaks. The devastating has been the recent West African outbreak. Clinically, signs and symptoms are similar to those of the other VHFs [4]. The incubation period is 2-21days, followed by fever, headache, myalgia, diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration; thereafter, there may be recovery or deterioration with collapse, neurological manifestations and bleeding, that can lead to a fatal outcome...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128377/viral-hemorrhagic-fever-in-the-tropics-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses caused by four families of viruses namely Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Bunyaviruses, and Flaviviruses. Humans are not the natural reservoir for any of these organisms and acquire the disease through vectors from animal reservoirs. In some conditions human to human transmission is possible increasing the risk to healthy individuals in the vicinity, more so to Health Care Workers (HCW). The pathogenesis of VHF, though poorly understood, varies according to the viruses involved...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127993/molecular-prevalence-risk-factors-assessment-and-haemato-biochemical-alterations-in-hepatozoonosis-in-dogs-from-punjab-india
#20
Kaushlendra Singh, Harkirat Singh, Nirbhay Kumar Singh, Neeraj Kashyap, Naresh Kumar Sood, Shitanshu Shekar Rath
Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis is an important tick-borne disease of dogs in tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout the world. In the present study evaluation of blood samples collected from 225 dogs presented at Small Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab (India) was done for the presence of H. canis by PCR based assay targeting a portion of 18S rRNA gene. Of the total samples subjected to PCR, an amplicon of 666bp was detected in 13.78% samples whereas, routine blood smear examination revealed gamonts in 5...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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