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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908924/excess-weight-as-a-risk-factor-common-to-many-cancer-sites-words-of-caution-when-interpreting-meta-analytic-evidence
#1
Melina Arnold, Andrew G Renehan, Graham A Colditz
For over a decade, excess body weight, commonly categorized as overweight (body mass index, BMI: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: ≥ 30 kg/m2) has been an established incidence risk factor for several adult cancers (1). For 2012, the burden of disease attributed to elevated BMI was estimated as nearly half-million new cancers worldwide, making this the third highest ranked cancer risk factor globally after smoking and infections (ranked second in most western populations) and an important public health problem (2, 3)...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888011/antiproliferative-and-ultrastructural-effects-of-phenethylamine-derivatives-on-promastigotes-and-amastigotes-of-leishmania-leishmania-infantum-chagasi
#2
Paula Ferreira Brasil, Júlia Araújo de Freitas, Anna Léa Silva Barreto, Camila Marques Adade, Leandro Figueira Reis de Sá, Pamella Constantino-Teles, Fabiano Travanca Toledo, Bruno A de Sousa, Augusto Cesar Gonçalves, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, João V Comasseto, Alcindo A Dos Santos, Ana Claudia Tessis, Thais Souto-Padrón, Rosangela Maria A Soares, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi is one of the agents that cause visceral leishmaniasis. This disease occurs more frequently in third world countries, such as Brazil. The treatment is arduous, and is dependent on just a few drugs like the antimonial derivatives and amphotericin B. Moreover, these drugs are not only expensive, but they can also cause severe side effects and require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is very important to find new compounds that are effective against leishmaniasis. In the present work we evaluated a new group of synthetic amides against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887734/two-countries-two-treatment-strategies-for-rectal-cancer
#3
Bengt Glimelius, Tor Åge Myklebust, Kristina Lundqvist, Arne Wibe, Marianne G Guren
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trials in rectal cancer have shown that radiotherapy (RT) decreases local recurrence rates, whereas the effects on survival are uncertain. Swedish and Norwegian oncologists have had different treatment recommendations. The aim was to evaluate local recurrence rates and survival in the two countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2012 rectal cancer patients registered in Sweden and Norway were analyzed, presenting population-based "real world" data...
November 22, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885830/extended-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-spain-results-from-the-epicor-study
#4
Alfredo Bardají, Manuel Leal, Vicente Arrarte, Xavier Garcia-Moll, Leopoldo Pérez de Isla, Héctor Bueno
INTRODUCTION: Real-world, country-specific studies of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are important for improving long-term prognosis. AIMS: To investigate DAPT duration after hospital discharge for ACS in Spain. RESULTS: Data from patients enrolled in the Spanish cohort of the EPICOR (long-tErm follow-up of antithrombotic management Patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients) study (NCT01171404) were analyzed for changes to antithrombotic medication up to 2 years post-discharge according to index event diagnosis and patient characteristics...
November 25, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878640/in-vitro-examination-of-the-biocompatibility-of-fibroblast-cell-lines-on-alloplastic-meshes-and-sterilized-polyester-mosquito-mesh
#5
R Wiessner, T Kleber, N Ekwelle, K Ludwig, D-U Richter
INTRODUCTION: The use of alloplastic implants for tissue strengthening when treating hernias is an established therapy worldwide. Despite the high incidence of hernias in Africa and Asia, the implantation of costly mesh netting is not financially feasible. Because of that various investigative groups have examined the use of sterilized mosquito netting. The animal experiments as well as the clinical trials have both shown equivalent short- and long-term results. The goal of this paper is the comparison of biocompatibility of human fibroblasts on the established commercially available nets and on sterilized polyester mosquito mesh over a period of 12 weeks...
November 23, 2016: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871256/domestic-violence-among-antenatal-attendees-in-a-kathmandu-hospital-and-its-associated-factors-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Monika Shrestha, Sumina Shrestha, Binjwala Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Domestic violence during pregnancy is a public health problem which violates human rights and causes an adverse effect on both maternal and fetal health. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic, to explore the associated factors, and to identify the perpetrators of domestic violence. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy...
November 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866685/garrett-hardin-s-tragic-sense-of-life
#7
Jason Oakes
I discuss biologist Garrett Hardin's view of human nature, with examples from the background to his seminal 1968 essay "The Tragedy of the Commons" and his testimony before the US House of Representatives in the 1970s. Hardin saw the human species as being governed by deterministic laws of the same kind that controlled all other forms of life. Humans, as much as cattle and microbes, were in inevitable competition for space and resources. Equal parts Malthusian political economy and Cold War systems science, his view was the survival of the human race depended on obeying these iron laws...
November 17, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865539/meta-analysis-of-prevalence-of-wheezing-and-recurrent-wheezing-in-infants
#8
I Alvarez-Alvarez, H Niu, F Guillen-Grima, I Aguinaga-Ontoso
BACKGROUND: Wheezing affects children's quality of life, and is related with asthma in childhood. Although prevalence of wheezing has been previously studied in several countries, there is no reference of worldwide prevalence in infants. The aim of this meta-analysis is to estimate the prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing in infants aged up to two years, and compare the prevalence across world regions. METHODS: Literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases, looking for observational studies published up to June 2016, including as keywords "prevalence" or "epidemiology" combined with "wheeze", "wheezing" or "asthma symptoms" and "infant" or "preschool"...
November 16, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861509/parasitological-clearance-rates-and-drug-concentrations-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-azithromycin-chloroquine-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-with-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitemia-an-open-label-non-comparative-study-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Kamija Phiri, Joshua Kimani, George A Mtove, Qinying Zhao, Ricardo Rojo, Jeffery Robbins, Stephan Duparc, Ayman Ayoub, Pol Vandenbroucke
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their newborn babies in sub-Saharan Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the burden of disease and improve maternal and neonatal survival and general health. Due to the growing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the current WHO-recommended drug for IPTp, identification of new and effective drugs is an urgent priority...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855699/a-pilot-and-feasibility-randomised-controlled-study-of-prolonged-exposure-treatment-and-supportive-counselling-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-adolescents-a-third-world-task-shifting-community-based-sample
#10
Jaco Rossouw, Elna Yadin, Debra Alexander, Irene Mbanga, Tracy Jacobs, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments for adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in developing country settings. The primary aim of this study was to demonstrate that Prolonged Exposure Treatment for Adolescents (PE-A) and supportive counselling (SC) are implementable by nurses in a South African context. A secondary aim was to perform a preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of registered nurses delivering either PE-A or SC treatment to adolescents with PTSD...
November 17, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855146/global-routine-vaccination-coverage-2015
#11
Rebecca M Casey, Laure Dumolard, M Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Mamadou S Diallo, Lee M Hampton, Aaron S Wallace
In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of the second year of life and from 58% to 61% when older age groups were included...
November 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846902/effects-of-asymmetric-medical-insurance-subsidy-on-hospitals-competition-under-non-price-regulation
#12
Chan Wang, Pu-Yan Nie
BACKGROUND: Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation...
November 15, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843745/bibliometric-analysis-of-medicine-related-publications-on-poverty-2005-2015
#13
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Poverty is a global problem. The war against poverty requires not only financial support, but also poverty-related research to pinpoint areas of high need of intervention. In line with international efforts to fight poverty and negative consequences, we carried out this study to give a bibliometric overview of medicine-related literature on poverty. Such a s study is an indicator of the extent of interaction of various international key players on the war against poverty-related health problems...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832050/progress-toward-regional-measles-elimination-worldwide-2000-2015
#14
Minal K Patel, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Peter M Strebel, Alya Dabbagh, Mick N Mulders, Jean-Marie Okwo-Bele, Laure Dumolard, Paul A Rota, Katrina Kretsinger, James L Goodson
Adopted in 2000, United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, with measles vaccination coverage as one of the progress indicators. In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to <5 cases per 1 million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1,2)...
November 11, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827515/interventions-for-promoting-the-initiation-of-breastfeeding
#15
REVIEW
Olukunmi O Balogun, Elizabeth J O'Sullivan, Alison McFadden, Erika Ota, Anna Gavine, Christine D Garner, Mary J Renfrew, Stephen MacGillivray
BACKGROUND: Despite the widely documented risks of not breastfeeding, initiation rates remain relatively low in many high-income countries, particularly among women in lower-income groups. In low- and middle-income countries, many women do not follow World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. This is an update of a Cochrane Review, first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To identify and describe health promotion activities intended to increase the initiation rate of breastfeeding...
November 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815724/observational-study-of-multiple-myeloma-in-latin-america
#16
Vania T M Hungria, Angelo Maiolino, Gracia Martinez, Gislaine Oliveira Duarte, Rosane Bittencourt, Lygia Peters, Gisele Colleoni, Luciana C O Oliveira, Edvan Crusoé, Érika O D M Coelho, Ricardo Pasquini, Sílvia M M Magalhães, Renata Nunes, Jorge V Pinto Neto, Rosa Malena O Faria, Mair Souza, Nelson Hamerschlak, Dorotea Flantl, J R Navarro, Guillermo Conte, David Gomez-Almaguer, Guillermo Ruiz-Argüelles, Brian G M Durie
Relatively little is known about the outcomes of multiple myeloma in Latin America, a world region where incorporation of novel agents is generally slow. In the current retrospective-prospective study, we aimed to describe the patterns of care and treatment results in five Latin American countries. Between April 2007 and October 2009, patients who had been diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2007 were registered at 23 institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. We divided patients into two cohorts, according to transplantation eligibility, and analyzed them with regard to first-line treatment and overall survival (OS)...
November 5, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815109/diabetes-associated-factors-as-predictors-of-nursing-home-admission-and-costs-in-the-elderly-across-europe
#17
Beatriz Rodríguez-Sánchez, Viola Angelini, Talitha Feenstra, Rob J M Alessie
OBJECTIVE: To identify the main factors associated with the use of nursing home facilities and to calculate their costs among older people with diabetes in Europe. METHODS: The sample included 48,464 individuals aged 50 years and older in 12 European countries participating in the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe study from 2004 to 2010. Cost data were obtained from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the World Bank. Logit regressions were used to assess the impact of diabetes, comorbidities, and functional status on the frequency of nursing home admission...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805504/kidney-transplant-in-third-world-countries
#18
Nadey Hakim, Elijah Miner, David Hakim, Adil El Tayyar
This paper relates to our transplant experiences in Third World countries. Over the years, I have started kidney transplant programs in Aden, Yemen and Abuja, Nigeria and restarted the transplant program in Khartoum, Sudan.
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796608/reconstruction-of-tooth-bearing-portion-of-mandible-using-polyglactin-910-sutures-for-internal-fixation-in-the-third-world-functional-and-cosmetic-outcome
#19
Bayo Aluko-Olokun, Ademola A Olaitan, Oluseun A Aluko-Olokun
BACKGROUND: This study analyzed the cosmetic and functional outcome of cases involving reconstruction of tooth-bearing portion of the lower jaw, using a polyglactin 910 suture for fixation. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This prospective intervention study documented the treatment outcome in 25 consecutive adult patients, who underwent immediate mandibular reconstruction following segmental resection of tooth-bearing portion of mandible. Cortico-cancellous bone graft was taken from the inner table of iliac bone, sparing the crest...
October 29, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795305/carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-enterobacteriaceae-in-south-and-southeast-asia
#20
REVIEW
Li-Yang Hsu, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Erum Khan, Nuntra Suwantarat, Abdul Ghafur, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae, are escalating global public health threats. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of these carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among countries in South and Southeast Asia, where the rates of resistance are some of the highest in the world. These countries house more than a third of the world's population, and several are also major medical tourism destinations. There are significant data gaps, and the almost universal lack of comprehensive surveillance programs that include molecular epidemiologic testing has made it difficult to understand the origins and extent of the problem in depth...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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