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Syed Lal Badshah, Asad Ullah, Nasir Ahmad, Zainab M Almarhoon, Yahia Mabkhot
Artemisinin is a natural sesquiterpene lactone obtained from the Artemisia annua herb. It is widely used for the treatment of malaria. In this article, we have reviewed the role of artemisinin in controlling malaria, spread of resistance to artemisinin and the different methods used for its large scale production. The highest amount of artemisinin gene expression in tobacco leaf chloroplast leads to the production of 0.8 mg/g of the dry weight of the plant. This will revolutionize the treatment and control of malaria in third world countries...
January 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fateh Ali Tipoo Sultan, Muhammad Umer Tariq
Objectives: To study the clinical features, management and outcome of patients with constrictive pericarditis, at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Design: Descriptive study. Material & method: All consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis, admitted at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, during the year 2005 to 2015 were included in the study. Results: A total of 21 patients were diagnosed and managed as constrictive pericarditis during the above mentioned period...
January 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Rachel Manongi, Jane Rogathi, Geofrey Sigalla, Declare Mushi, Vibeke Rasch, Tine Gammeltoft, Dan W Meyrowitsch
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women is common with severe health consequences to women and their babies. The aim of the present study is to measure the association between IPV and signs of depression among pregnant women attending antenatal care in a semi-urban setting in northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1, 2014, to May 30, 2015, among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania. During their third trimester, self-reported exposure to IPV was assessed using a validated structured questionnaire adopted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Robyn Eakle, Adam Bourne, Caitlin Jarrett, Jonathan Stadler, Heidi Larson
BACKGROUND: Women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV throughout the world prompting extensive research into HIV prevention products for women which has met with varied success. With an aim of informing future policy and programming, this review examines the barriers and motivations to the uptake and use of female initiated products in sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review as an adapted meta-ethnography of qualitative data focused on actual use of products...
December 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
Stephen Lee, Lynora Saxinger, Mang Ma, Verónica Prado, Joaquin Fernández, Deepali Kumar, Juan Gonzalez-Abraldes, Adam Keough, Ravin Bastiampillai, Michelle Carbonneau, Javier Fernandez, Puneeta Tandon
Background and aims: Current guidelines recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in all patients presenting with cirrhosis and acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We aimed to evaluate the characteristics and clinical impact of "early" infections (developing within 14 days) of AVH in a real-world setting. Methods: We analyzed retrospective data from a cohort of 371 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH all of whom had received antibiotic prophylaxis (74% men; mean age 56 years), admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and Barcelona, Spain...
December 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
D Javadi, I Feldhaus, A Mancuso, A Ghaffar
Objective: This paper seeks to review the available evidence to determine whether a systems approach is employed in the implementation and evaluation of task shifting for mental health using lay providers in low- and middle-income countries, and to highlight system-wide effects of task-shifting strategies in order to better inform efforts to strength community mental health systems. Methods: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Articles were screened by two independent reviewers with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies...
2017: Global Mental Health
Graham H Bothamley, Christoph Lange
AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
Sonia El-Zaemey, T N Anand, Jane Shirley Heyworth, Terry Boyle, Martie van Tongeren, Lin Fritschi
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world and is twice as common in developed countries when compared with low-income and middle-income countries. Few occupational risk factors for colorectal cancer have been identified. This case-control study aimed to assess the association between colorectal cancer and occupational exposure to selected solvents, combustion products, metals, dusts and other agents. METHODS: Cases (n=918) were enrolled from the Western Australian Cancer Registry from June 2005 to August 2007...
December 8, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Omolara Thomas Uwemedimo, Afrin Howlader, Giselina Pierret
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, >200 million children in low- and middle-income countries experience developmental delays. However, household structure and parenting practices have been minimally explored as potential correlates of developmental delay in low- and middle-income countries, despite potential as areas for intervention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine associations of developmental delays with use of World Health Organization-recommended parenting practices among a clinic-based cohort of children aged 6-60 months attending in La Romana, Dominican Republic...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
Stephanie Poggenburg, Klaus Jeitler, Thomas Semlitsch, Florian Stigler, Peter Krisper, Alexander Rosenkranz, Andrea Siebenhofer
Throughout the world, the incidence and prevalence of patients with chronic kidney disease have been steadily rising. In 2016, the Styrian nephrology awareness program "niere.schützen" ("Kidney Protection") was launched to early identify patients with renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to search for existing international nephrological screening and support programs in order to identify possible evaluation parameters and concepts for niere.schützen. A search in MEDLINE® revealed five relevant international programs from four countries...
December 4, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Fikreselassie Tilahun, Abel Fekadu Dadi, Getachew Shiferaw
Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate, one-third of pregnancies end in miscarriage, stillbirth, or induced abortion in the world. There are various reasons for a woman to seek induced abortion. However, limited information is available so far in the country and particularly in the study area. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to identify the determinants of induced abortion among clients coming for abortion care services at Bahirdar Felegehiwote referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
P Jokelainen, J-B Murat, H V Nielsen
Genetic variation within Toxoplasma gondii can have both clinical and epidemiological significance, while the genotypes circulating in many parts of the world, including the Nordic country Denmark, are still unknown. We genetically characterized T. gondii strains that had been detected in human clinical samples in Denmark in 2011-2016. Samples that had tested positive for T. gondii DNA and had a quantification cycle value <33 were included in this study and subjected to direct genetic characterization of T...
December 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Noormohamad Mansoori, Masoumeh Douraghi, Ali Akbar Rajabloo, Masoomeh Taziki, Mehdi Yaseri, Farzam Vaziri
PURPOSE: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Golestan province of Iran has been ranked 10th among countries of World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. The province is residence of ethnically heterogeneous groups. However, there are limited data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance in this province. The main aim of this study was to determine the resistance profile of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates to first-line anti-TB drugs. METHODS: The clinical specimens were collected from 11807 cases diagnosed during this study...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sarah J Capistrano, David van Reyk, Hui Chen, Brian G Oliver
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease of the lungs characterised by chronic inflammation, obstruction of airways, and destruction of the parenchyma (emphysema). These changes gradually impair lung function and prevent normal breathing. In 2002, COPD was the fifth leading cause of death, and is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to become the third by 2020. Cigarette smokers are thought to be the most at risk of developing COPD. However, recent studies have shown that people with life-long exposure to biomass smoke are also at high risk of developing COPD...
December 1, 2017: Toxics
Yugal Karkhur, Vivek Tiwari, Jeetendra Lodhi, Anurag Tiwari
Osteo-articular tuberculosis continues to be a major global pandemic, with its greatest impact in the third-world countries. Among osteo-articular tuberculosis, plantar localisation, particularly isolated involvement of the talus is an extremely rare event. We discuss the case of a 20-year-old male diagnosed with isolated tuberculosis of right talus without the radiological involvement of the distal tibia, fibula or calcaneum. The diagnosis was made with the help of magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed through core biopsy of the talus...
September 22, 2017: Curēus
Holly L Rippin, Jayne Hutchinson, Jo Jewell, Joao J Breda, Janet E Cade
The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS) but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region...
November 27, 2017: Nutrients
Sandra C Thompson, Shelley Cheetham, Siddhartha Baxi
BACKGROUND: Utilisation of radiation therapy for regional Australia and around the world has been the focus of much health policy the last decade. Radiation therapy centres have been built in Australian regional and rural areas to improve access to radiation therapy and reduce the tyranny of distance as a barrier to access. After this the enablers, barriers and perceptions of patients has been evaluated to determine utilisation once centres have been built. Thisreview looks the impact of rural radiation services in the developed world, barriers and enablers of establishing a rural radiation centre, and patients' and service providers' perspectives and preferences around the uptake of rural radiation therapy...
November 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
Andrew L Skinner, Robert West, Martin Raw, Emma Anderson, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Behavioural and pharmacological support for smoking cessation improves the chances of success and represents a highly cost-effective way of preventing chronic disease and premature death. There is a large number of clinical stop-smoking services throughout the world. These could be connected into a global network to provide data to assess what treatment components are most effective, for what populations and in what settings. To enable this, a minimum data set (MDS) is required to standardize the data captured from smoking cessation services globally...
November 26, 2017: Addiction
Iosief Abraha, Gian A Binda, Alessandro Montedori, Alberto Arezzo, Roberto Cirocchi
BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western industrialised countries. Most individuals remain asymptomatic throughout life; however, 25% experience acute diverticulitis. The standard treatment for acute diverticulitis is open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery - a minimal-access procedure - offers an alternative approach to open surgery, as it is characterised by reduced operative stress that may translate into shorter hospitalisation and more rapid recovery, as well as improved quality of life...
November 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
João M Pedro, Miguel Brito, Henrique Barros
There is concern about the potentially increasing use of tobacco in Angola. However, information on the frequency and determinants of this use is not systematised. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and nicotine dependence among smokers in an Angolan population and considering individual socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. A community-based survey with 2,472 respondents (age range: 15-64 years) was conducted in 2013-2014 in the country's Bengo Province. The collection methodology for assessing each type of tobacco consumption and its daily quantification followed the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance...
2017: PloS One
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