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Third world country

Tonia Poteat, Benjamin Ackerman, Daouda Diouf, Nuha Ceesay, Tampose Mothopeng, Ky-Zerbo Odette, Seni Kouanda, Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Anato Simplice, Abo Kouame, Zandile Mnisi, Gift Trapence, L Leigh Ann van der Merwe, Vicente Jumbe, Stefan Baral
INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
Md Kamran Ul Baset, Aminur Rahman, Olakunle Alonge, Priyanka Agrawal, Shirin Wadhwaniya, Fazlur Rahman
Globally, road traffic injury (RTI) causes 1.3 million deaths annually. Almost 90% of all RTI deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. RTI is one of the leading causes of death in Bangladesh; the World Health Organization estimated that it kills over 21,000 people in the country annually. This study describes the current magnitude and risk factors of RTI for different age groups in rural Bangladesh. A household census was carried out in 51 unions of seven sub-districts situated in the north and central part of Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Remco van de Pas, Anika Veenstra, Daniel Gulati, Wim Van Damme, Giorgio Cometto
We conducted a follow-up analysis of the implementation of the Human Resources for Health (HRH) commitments made by country governments and other actors at the Third Global Forum on HRH in 2013. Since then member states of the WHO endorsed Universal Health Coverage as the main policy objective whereby health systems strengthening, including reinforcement of the health workforce, can contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals. Now is the right time to trace the implementation of these commitments and to assess their contribution to broader global health objectives...
2017: BMJ Global Health
Colin Binns, Mi Kyung Lee, Wah Yun Low, Alfred Zerfas
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries...
October 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Maryam Sadat Nabavinia, Mohammad Ramezani, Aida Gholoobi, Mahboubeh Naderinasab, Zahra Meshkat
BACKGROUND: With one-third of the world's population infected, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases and a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. The efficacy of the BCG vaccine for controlling the disease in adults is poor. The development of an effective TB vaccine is a global objective. An effective tuberculosis vaccine should stimulate cellular immunity. DNA vaccines are a new generation of vaccines with the potential to achieve this goal...
October 2017: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Alya Dabbagh, Minal K Patel, Laure Dumolard, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Mick N Mulders, Jean-Marie Okwo-Bele, Katrina Kretsinger, Mark J Papania, Paul A Rota, James L Goodson
The fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal, adopted in 2000, set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015. One indicator of progress toward this target was measles vaccination coverage (1). In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to <5 cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (2)...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Yasmine Ghantous, Imad Abu Elnaaj
INTRODUCTION: Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world. Despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. The incidence and mortality caused by this tumor show variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed. However, in the last decade an increase was observed in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The main risk factors of head and neck cancer worldwide are smoking and alcohol, as well as DNA oncogenic viruses and habits, such as betel nut...
October 2017: Harefuah
Michelle C White, Mirjam Hamer, Jasmin Biddell, Nathan Claus, Kirsten Randall, Dennis Alcorn, Gary Parker, Mark G Shrime
Over two-thirds of the world's population lack access to surgical care. Non-governmental organisation's providing free surgeries may overcome financial barriers, but other barriers to care still exist. This analysis paper discusses two different case-finding strategies in Madagascar that aimed to increase the proportion of poor patients, women and those for whom multiple barriers to care exist. From October 2014 to June 2015, we used a centralised selection strategy, aiming to find 70% of patients from the port city, Toamasina, and 30% from the national capital and two remote cities...
2017: BMJ Global Health
He-Ming Xu, Ze-Xiong Xie, Duo Liu, Yi Wu, Bing-Zhi Li, Ying-Jin Yuan
With the rapid growth and development of synthetic biology, research in the genomics is advancing from genome sequencing to genome synthesis. In 2009, Professor Jef D. Boeke proposed the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0), which aims to synthesize the world's first eukaryotic genome. With the efforts of scientists from the United States, China, Britain, France, Australia, Singapore and other countries, a third of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes has now been synthesized. In the perspectives of synthetic genomics, we here review the recent progress in the Sc2...
October 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Kibrom T Sibhatu, Matin Qaim
Many of the world's food-insecure and undernourished people are smallholder farmers in developing countries. This is especially true in Africa. There is an urgent need to make smallholder agriculture and food systems more nutrition-sensitive. African farm households are known to consume a sizeable part of what they produce at home. Less is known about how much subsistence agriculture actually contributes to household diets, and how this contribution changes seasonally. We use representative data from rural Ethiopia covering every month of one full year to address this knowledge gap...
2017: PloS One
Bayo Aluko-Olokun, Ademola A Olaitan
OBJECTIVE: Mandibulectomy with disarticulation is usually carried out without reconstruction in Low-Income-Countries. Lower standards of living are usually acceptable and adapted to, in poor societies. This study compares patient's self-assessment of social approval among reconstructed and non-reconstructed cases of mandibulectomy with disarticulation in a resource-poor African setting. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This questionnaire-based study documented patient's self-assessment of social approval of themselves following mandibulectomy with disarticulation...
December 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Venu R Shah, Donald S Christian, Arpit C Prajapati, Mansi M Patel, K N Sonaliya
INTRODUCTION: Overall improvement in the living standards of country's population is leading to longer life expectancy. To emphasize the medical and psychological difficulties faced by geriatric people is essential to know status of their quality of life (QOL). METHODOLOGY: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out at urban field practice area of one of the teaching institutes of Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Considering the prevalence of about 7.5% of 60 years and above people sample size of 250 was calculated...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
R Halkud, S Ray, A M Shenoy, G Arakeri, P A Brennan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
Jorma Rantanen, Suvi Lehtinen, Antonio Valenti, Sergio Iavicoli
BACKGROUND: The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), and the European Union (EU) have encouraged countries to organize occupational health services (OHS) for all working people irrespective of the sector of economy, size of enterprise or mode of employment of the worker. The objective of this study was to survey the status of OHS in a sample of countries from all continents...
October 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
Nick Wilson, Glyn Harper
At a total of 5,547 deaths among New Zealand's military personnel, the year 1917 was the worst year from a mortality perspective in the country's military history. This year had a third of the deaths in the whole of the First World War for this military population. Major drivers of this mortality burden were the Battles of Messines and Third Ypres (Passchendaele) in June and October 1917 respectively. The contribution of disease deaths to the mortality burden was relatively small at 4.5%. Disease deaths were significantly more common in the Northern Hemisphere's winter months (p=0...
October 6, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
Kareemah Salamah, Mohammed Abuzaid, Ahmed Abu-Zaid
Background: Laparoscopy is rapidly replacing laparotomy in the field of gynecologic surgery. Generally, there are limited data concerning the utility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) in gynecologic surgery. Specifically, in Saudi Arabia, a third-world country, data are further limited; only one related study has been conducted so far. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively report our single-institutional experience of SILS in terms of feasibility, safety and perioperative outcomes in the management of various gynecologic conditions...
2017: F1000Research
Cynthia Forlini, Wayne Hall
As the world's population ages, governments and non-governmental organizations in developed countries are promoting healthy cognitive ageing to reduce the rate of age-related cognitive decline and sustain economic productivity in an ageing workforce. Recommendations from the Productivity Commission (Australia), Dementia Australia, Government Office for Science (UK), Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (USA), Institute of Medicine (USA), among others, are encouraging older adults to engage in mental, physical, and social activities...
October 4, 2017: Bioethics
A K Maitlo, J A Ujan, S A Ujjan, M Ruk, B A Memon, A A Mahar, A A Ujjan
Goats are the Pakistan's fastest growing ruminants, and Pakistan is the third largest goat producer in the world after India and China. Goat meat preference is the main reason for its increased demand. In the country, there are 25 goat breeds and two wild relatives such as Mark and Goats. At present, Pakistan has 53.8 million goats, according to the 2006 GOP report, and their population growth rate was more than 3% per year (37, 23, 22, and 18% of the goat population in Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and NWFP, respectively)...
September 28, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Brijesh Sathian, M G Ramesh Babu, Edwin R van Teijlingen, Indrajit Banerjee, Bedanta Roy, Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Elayedath Rajesh, Suresh Devkota
BACKGROUND: The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with cervical and other cancers. In women, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer. HPV infection can be largely prevented through vaccination of (adolescent) girls. At the same time, Nepal is a low-income country experiencing a cultural change in attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour. However, in the adolescent population knowledge about HPV, factors associated with an increased risk of HPV and the existence of the vaccination is often low...
March 2017: Nepal journal of epidemiology
Abhijit Paul, Sucharita Das
Valvular heart disease presents as mixed spectrum lesion in healthcare settings in the third-world and developing countries. Rheumatic heart disease still forms the bulk of the aetiopathology of valve lesions. Mitral and aortic valve lesions top the list of valvular pathology. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of valvular heart disease is essential while planning anaesthesia and perioperative care for such patients. Meticulous use of optimal fluids, close monitoring of the changing haemodynamics and avoidance of situations that can cause major reduction of cardiac output and fluid shifts are mandatory to achieve good clinical outcome...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
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