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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812838/forced-migration-and-global-responsibility-for-health-comment-on-defining-and-acting-on-global-health-the-case-of-japan-and-the-refugee-crisis
#1
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Oliver Razum
Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU) countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811375/temperature-increase-reduces-global-yields-of-major-crops-in-four-independent-estimates
#2
Chuang Zhao, Bing Liu, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, David B Lobell, Yao Huang, Mengtian Huang, Yitong Yao, Simona Bassu, Philippe Ciais, Jean-Louis Durand, Joshua Elliott, Frank Ewert, Ivan A Janssens, Tao Li, Erda Lin, Qiang Liu, Pierre Martre, Christoph Müller, Shushi Peng, Josep Peñuelas, Alex C Ruane, Daniel Wallach, Tao Wang, Donghai Wu, Zhuo Liu, Yan Zhu, Zaichun Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807472/a-survey-of-domestic-wells-and-pit-latrines-in-rural-settlements-of-mali-implications-of-on-site-sanitation-on-the-quality-of-water-supplies
#3
P Martínez-Santos, M Martín-Loeches, N García-Castro, D Solera, S Díaz-Alcaide, E Montero, J García-Rincón
On-site sanitation is generally advocated as a means to eradicate the health hazards associated with open defecation. While this has provided a welcome upgrade to the livelihoods of millions of people in low-income countries, improved sanitation facilities are increasingly becoming a threat to domestic groundwater-based supplies. Within this context, a survey of pit latrines, domestic wells and improved water sources was carried out in a large rural village of southern Mali. All households were surveyed for water, sanitation and hygiene habits...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806206/chronic-pain-and-associated-factors-in-india-and-nepal-a-pilot-study-of-the-vanderbilt-global-pain-survey
#4
Jenna L Walters, Kelly Baxter, Hannah Chapman, Tracy Jackson, Adinarayanan Sethuramachandran, Marcus Couldridge, Hem Raj Joshi, Pankaj Kundra, Xulei Liu, Divya Nair, Bonnie Sullivan, Matthew S Shotwell, Ryan J Jense, Nicholas J Kassebaum, K A Kelly McQueen
BACKGROUND: Evaluation and treatment of chronic pain worldwide are limited by the lack of standardized assessment tools incorporating consistent definitions of pain chronicity and specific queries of known social and psychological risk factors for chronic pain. The Vanderbilt Global Pain Survey (VGPS) was developed as a tool to address these concerns, specifically in the low- and middle-income countries where global burden is highest. METHODS: The VGPS was developed using standardized and cross-culturally validated metrics, including the Brief Pain Inventory and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale, as well as the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire along with queries about pain attitudes to assess the prevalence of chronic pain and disability along with its psychosocial and emotional associations...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803651/using-national-hip-fracture-registries-and-audit-databases-to-develop-an-international-perspective
#5
Antony Johansen, David Golding, Louise Brent, Jacqueline Close, Jan-Erik Gjertsen, Graeme Holt, Ami Hommel, Alma B Pedersen, Niels Dieter Röck, Karl-Göran Thorngren
Hip fracture is the commonest reason for older people to need emergency anaesthesia and surgery, and leads to prolonged dependence for many of those who survive. People with this injury are usually identified very early in their hospital care, so hip fracture is an ideal marker condition with which to audit the care offered to older people by health services around the world. We have reviewed the reports of eight national audit programmes, to examine the approach used in each, and highlight differences in case mix, management and outcomes in different countries...
August 2, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798007/industrial-pollutants-and-nasopharyngeal-cancer-an-open-question
#6
Roberto Menicagli, Gianni Bolla, Laura Menicagli, Anastassia Esseiridou
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma represents 0.7% of the total cancer cases in the world with an ASR index of 1.7 and is widely associated with Epstein-Barr virus. It is not common in Italy (ASR index of 0.5) while in China (ASR 1.9), one third of the clinical cases are observed in Guangdong (ASR index 11.3). It is also quite common in Malaysia and Indonesia. The activation of the cancerogenesis process happens after the exposure to some environmental parameters that epidemiological studies have indicated with various dietary habits, mainly for salted fish consumption...
May 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796794/factors-associated-with-stunting-in-healthy-children-aged-5-years-and-less-living-in-bangui-rca
#7
Pascale Vonaesch, Laura Tondeur, Sébastien Breurec, Petula Bata, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Thierry Frank, Alain Farra, Clotaire Rafaï, Tamara Giles-Vernick, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Philippe Sansonetti, Muriel Vray
Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789607/assessing-the-validity-of-the-triage-risk-screening-tool-in-a-third-world-setting
#8
Ravi Lalla, Ian Sammy, Joanne Paul, Paula Nunes, Vidya Ramcharitar Maharaj, Paula Robertson
Background Social risk is rarely evaluated in older emergency department (ED) patients, although its identification can reduce re-attendance. Objectives This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Triage Risk Screening Tool (TRST) in the ED of a developing country. Methods The diagnostic accuracy of the TRST to detect elderly adults in need of social service intervention was compared with routine clinical evaluation, using comprehensive evaluation by an experienced social worker as the "gold standard"...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782809/overview-of-infectious-salmon-anaemia-virus-isav-in-atlantic-canada-and-first-report-of-an-isav-north-american-hpr0-subtype
#9
N Gagné, F LeBlanc
The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an important viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon that has caused considerable financial losses for salmon farmers around the world, including Atlantic Canada. It is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health, and to this day, culling of infected cages or farms remains the current practice in many countries to mitigate the spread of the virus. In Atlantic Canada, ISAV was first detected in 1996 and continues to be detected. While some outbreaks seemed to have arisen from isolated infections of unknown source, others were local clusters resulting from horizontal spread of infection...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769695/the-collection-of-bathynellacea-specimens-of-mncn-csic-madrid-microscope-slices-and-dna-extract
#10
Ana I Camacho, Beatriz A Dorda, Begoña Sánchez Chillón, Isabel Rey
This is the first published database of a Bathynellacea Chappuis, 1915 collection of slices and DNA extracts. It includes all data of bathynellaceans (Crustacea: Syncarida) collected in the last 48 years (1968 to 2016) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands, studied since 1984. It also includes specimens studied across many countries of Europe (Portugal, Romania, France, Italy, Slovenia, Bulgaria, and England), as well as some specimens obtained from samples of North America (Montana, Washington, Alaska and Texas), South America (Brazil, Chile and Argentina), Asia (China, Thailand, Vietnam, Mongolia and India), Africa (Morocco and Chad) and Australia (New South Wales -NSW- and Queensland)...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763454/the-introduction-of-new-policies-and-strategies-to-reduce-inequities-and-improve-child-health-in-kenya-a-country-case-study-on-progress-in-child-survival-2000-2013
#11
Marie A Brault, Kenneth Ngure, Connie A Haley, Stewart Kabaka, Kibet Sergon, Teshome Desta, Kasonde Mwinga, Sten H Vermund, Aaron M Kipp
As of 2015, only 12 countries in the World Health Organization's AFRO region had met Millennium Development Goal #4 (MDG#4) to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Given the variability across the African region, a four-country study was undertaken to examine barriers and facilitators of child survival prior to 2015. Kenya was one of the countries selected for an in-depth case study due to its insufficient progress in reducing under-five mortality, with only a 28% reduction between 1990 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759425/managing-cutaneous-tuberculosis-a-case-report
#12
Bettina M Brown-Gallardo
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a prevalent disease worldwide; an estimated one third of the world's population is infected and 2015 data from the World Health Organization show 10 million people had an active infection. Although TB often is cited as a disease that most commonly occurs in underdeveloped countries, the evolution of drug-resistant forms of TB and infection sensitivity of immunocompromised individuals have made this disease a focal point for indus- trialized countries as well. When TB is spread, it commonly affects the lungs, but it can infect any organ of the body...
July 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758641/dropconnected-neural-networks-trained-on-time-frequency-and-inter-beat-features-for-classifying-heart-sounds
#13
Edmund Kay, Anurag Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Automatic heart sound analysis has the potential to improve the diagnosis of valvular heart diseases in the primary care phase, as well as in countries where there is neither the expertise nor the equipment to perform echocardiograms. An algorithm has been trained, on the PhysioNet open-access heart sounds database, to classify heart sounds as normal or abnormal. APPROACH: The heart sounds are segmented using an open-source algorithm based on a hidden semi-Markov model...
July 31, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756294/vitamin-d-cod-liver-oil-sunshine-and-phototherapy-safe-effective-and-forgotten-tools-for-treating-and-curing-tuberculosis-infections-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Patrick J McCullough, Douglas S Lehrer
Tuberculosis remains an epidemic throughout the world, with over 2 billion people, or more than one third of the world's population, infected with TB. In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new cases of tuberculosis, and 1.8 million deaths, making TB one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. Approximately 95% of new TB cases occur in developing countries, where the costs of treatment force many patients and their families into poverty. The United Nations and the World Health Organization are working to end this global epidemic...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738799/prevalence-of-head-lice-infestation-and-pediculicidal-effect-of-permethrine-shampoo-in-primary-school-girls-in-a-low-income-area-in-southeast-of-iran
#15
Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi, Mehdi Zare, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi
BACKGROUND: Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran. METHODS: In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas...
July 24, 2017: BMC Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733270/evaluating-a-web-based-coaching-program-using-electronic-health-records-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-china-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Lan Wang, Lin He, Yanxia Tao, Li Sun, Hong Zheng, Yashu Zheng, Yuehao Shen, Suyan Liu, Yue Zhao, Yaogang Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world, and it continues to increase in developing countries. The World Health Organization expects COPD to be the third most common cause of death in the world by 2020. Effective and continuous postdischarge care can help patients to maintain good health. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) as an element of community health care is new technology in China. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Web-based coaching program using EHRs for physical function and health-related quality of life for patients with COPD in China...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724952/global-alterations-in-areas-of-suitability-for-maize-production-from-climate-change-and-using-a-mechanistic-species-distribution-model-climex
#17
Nadiezhda Y Z Ramirez-Cabral, Lalit Kumar, Farzin Shabani
At the global level, maize is the third most important crop on the basis of harvested area. Given its importance, an assessment of the variation in regional climatic suitability under climate change is critical. CliMond 10' data were used to model the potential current and future climate distribution of maize at the global level using the CLIMEX distribution model with climate data from two general circulation models, CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, assuming an A2 emissions scenario for 2050 and 2100. The change in area under future climate was analysed at continental level and for major maize-producing countries of the world...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724822/an-unusual-presentation-of-lacrimal-gland-dirofilariasis
#18
Amit Sethi, Vani Puri, Natasha Dogra
Dirofilariasis is a helminthic infection caused by filarial parasite of the genus Dirofilaria. It is a common zoonotic disease mostly affecting canines and uncommon in humans. It is endemic to Mediterranean countries, with few reports from other parts of the world. The clinical forms in humans are pulmonary, subcutaneous, and ocular. Ocular involvement is rare. We report a case of lacrimal gland dirofilariasis, an unusual ocular presentation which masquerades as a lacrimal gland tumor. Ours would be the third reported case in the world and first in India...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720799/reduced-ultrafine-particle-levels-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-s-atmosphere-during-shifts-from-gasoline-to-ethanol-use
#19
Alberto Salvo, Joel Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Franz M Geiger
Despite ethanol's penetration into urban transportation, observational evidence quantifying the consequence for the atmospheric particulate burden during actual, not hypothetical, fuel-fleet shifts, has been lacking. Here we analyze aerosol, meteorological, traffic, and consumer behavior data and find, empirically, that ambient number concentrations of 7-100-nm diameter particles rise by one-third during the morning commute when higher ethanol prices induce 2 million drivers in the real-world megacity of São Paulo to substitute to gasoline use (95% confidence intervals: +4,154 to +13,272 cm(-3))...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720444/characterization-of-a-spray-dried-candidate-hpv-l2-vlp-vaccine-stored-for-multiple-years-at-room-temperature
#20
Julianne Peabody, Pavan Muttil, Bryce Chackerian, Ebenezer Tumban
HPV infections are associated with human cancers. Although three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to protect against HPV infections, the vaccines require cold-chain storage and may not be suitable for third world countries with less developed refrigeration facilities. We previously developed a bacteriophage L2 virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine, which elicited broadly protective antibodies against diverse HPV types. Spray-drying of MS2-16L2 VLPs into a dry powder enhanced the stability of these VLPs...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
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