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Exercise dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146687/exercise-induces-muscle-fiber-type-switching-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-dependent-ca-2-signaling
#1
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0 ° for 60 min 5 consecutive d/wk for 4-wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2 knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca(2+) signals when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, due to a defect in Ca(2+) influx...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146296/anomalous-origin-of-coronary-arteries-from-the-wrong-sinus-in-athletes-diagnosis-and-management-strategies
#2
Vincenzo Palmieri, Salvatore Gervasi, Massimiliano Bianco, Roberta Cogliani, Barbara Poscolieri, Francesco Cuccaro, Riccardo Marano, Mario Mazzari, Cristina Basso, Paolo Zeppilli
AIMS: Although anomalous origin of left (AOLCA) and right coronary artery (AORCA) from the wrong sinus may cause sudden death (SD) in athletes, early diagnosis and management of these anomalies are still challenging. We analysed clinical/instrumental profiles of athletes identified with AOLCA/AORCA focusing our attention on diagnosis, management and follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report 23 athletes (17 males, mean age 27±17yrs.), 6 with AOLCA and 17 with AORCA...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144207/exploring-physical-activity-behaviour-needs-for-and-interest-in-a-technology-delivered-home-based-exercise-programme-among-patients-with-intermittent-claudication
#3
Nils Cornelis, Roselien Buys, Inge Fourneau, Tijl Dewit, Véronique Cornelissen
BACKGROUND: Supervised walking is a first line therapy in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with complaints of intermittent claudication. However, uptake of supervised programmes is low. Home-based exercise seems an appealing alternative; especially since technological advances, such as tele-coaching and tele-monitoring, may facilitate the process and support patients when adopting a physically active lifestyle. To guide the development of such an intervention, it is important to identify barriers of physical activity and the needs and interests for technology-enabled exercise in this patient group...
November 16, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143670/genes-to-predict-vo2max-trainability-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Camilla J Williams, Mark G Williams, Nir Eynon, Kevin J Ashton, Jonathan P Little, Ulrik Wisloff, Jeff S Coombes
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is an excellent predictor of chronic disease morbidity and mortality risk. Guidelines recommend individuals undertake exercise training to improve VO2max for chronic disease reduction. However, there are large inter-individual differences between exercise training responses. This systematic review is aimed at identifying genetic variants that are associated with VO2max trainability. METHODS: Peer-reviewed research papers published up until October 2016 from four databases were examined...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143379/region-dependent-hamstrings-activity-in-nordic-hamstring-exercise-and-stiff-leg-deadlift-defined-with-high-density-emg
#5
András Hegyi, Annamária Péter, Taija Finni, Neil J Cronin
Recent studies suggest region-specific metabolic activity in hamstring muscles during injury prevention exercises, but the neural representation of this phenomenon is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether regional differences are evident in the activity of biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles during two common injury prevention exercises. Twelve male participants without a history of hamstring injury performed the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) and stiff-leg deadlift (SDL) while BFlh and ST activity were recorded with high-density electromyography (HD-EMG)...
November 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141853/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-on-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-prognosis-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-trials
#6
Kerri Winters-Stone, Lisa J Wood, Sydnee Stoyles, Nathan Dieckmann
BACKGROUND: Using a secondary data analysis from randomized controlled trials comparing one year of resistance exercise (N=109) to a placebo control condition (N=106) in postmenopausal, post-treatment breast cancer survivors, we investigated the influence of resistance training and changes in body composition on markers associated with cancer progression. METHODS: Measures included serum levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP1-3, leptin, serum amyloid A (SAA), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and body composition (total, lean and fat mass in kg) by DXA at baseline, 6, and 12-months...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141513/alternative-scapular-stabilization-exercises-to-target-strength-endurance-and-function-of-shoulders-in-tetraplegia-a-prospective-time-series-study
#7
Carolina Lins, Alex Castro, Giovanna I S Medina, Eliza R F B M Azevedo, Bruno S Donato, Marina S S Chagas, Janaína Roland Tancredo, Letícia Vargas de Almeida, Alberto Cliquet
OBJECTIVE: Scapular stabilization exercises (SSE) are well-established for the able-bodies. The aim of the current study is to access the potential benefits of SSE on isometric internal and external rotator strength, endurance and function of the shoulder in persons with tetraplegia, throughout a 12-week exercise program consisting of five resisted movements with elastic bands. DESIGN: Prospective non-controlled intervention study. Setting/Participants/Interventions: A convenience sample of 17 subjects (age, 40...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140431/microvascular-adaptations-to-exercise-protective-effect-of-pgc-1-alpha
#8
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139651/the-risk-for-fall-and-functional-dependence-in-polish-adults-60%C3%A2-87-years-old
#9
Jaroslaw Domaradzki, Slawomir Koziel, Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska, Anna Skrzek, Małgorzata Kołodziej
The constantly rising percentage of the elderly (60+), who are particularly at risk of the dangerous consequence of falls, results not only in the loss of independence in daily life, but also in a serious threat to health and life. Therefore, many authors emphasize the necessity of conducting prophylaxis and prevention among senior citizens. The most important aspect of fall prophylaxis is care about the optimum level of agility. Exercise should focus on increasing muscular strength, balance and dexterity. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between functional fitness and the risk for falls of older people in the light of maintaining physical independence...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137946/distinct-environmental-enrichment-protocols-reduce-anxiety-but-differentially-modulate-pain-sensitivity-in-rats
#10
Louise Faggionato Kimura, Vânia Gomes de Moura Mattaraia, Gisele Picolo
Environmental enrichment (EE) can alter anxiety as well as perception of nociceptive stimuli, suggesting a relationship between well-being and analgesia. Considering that, we aimed to evaluate the influence of different EE types on anxiety and peripheral pain sensibility of male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to two different types of EE: On the first one, animals were housed in standard size cages after weaning and received three different objects, one type per week, on a regular basis (simple EE - sEE)...
November 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137721/current-robotic-curricula-for-surgery-residents-a-need-for-additional-cognitive-and-psychomotor-focus
#11
Courtney A Green, Hueylan Chern, Patricia S O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Current robot surgery curricula developed by industry were designed for expert surgeons. We sought to identify the robotic curricula that currently exist in general surgery residencies and describe their components. METHODS: We identified 12 residency programs with robotic curricula. Using a structured coding form to identify themes including sequence, duration, emphasis and assessment, we generated a descriptive summary. RESULTS: Curricula followed a similar sequence: learners started with online modules and simulation exercises, followed by bedside experience during R2-R3 training years, and then operative opportunities on the console in the final years of training...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136345/regional-lung-function-testing-in-children-using-electrical-impedance-tomography
#12
Barbara Vogt, Sarah Löhr, Zhanqi Zhao, Christian Falkenberg, Tobias Ankermann, Norbert Weiler, Inéz Frerichs
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate regional lung function in lung-healthy children before and after exercise challenge using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). METHODS: Regional lung function was examined using EIT in 100 lung-healthy children (three age subgroups: 74-121, 122-155, 156-195 months) at baseline and 10 min after exercise. Global lung function was assessed by spirometry using Z-Scores of FEV1 , FVC, FEV1 /FVC, and FEF75 . The same lung function measures were determined in 912 EIT image pixels to enable the spatial and temporal ventilation distribution analysis...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135714/ritanserin-a-serotonin-2-receptor-antagonist-inhibits-functional-recovery-after-cerebral-infarction
#13
Kenmei Mizutani, Shigeru Sonoda, Hideaki Wakita
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-HT) may be implicated in functional recovery after stroke; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the role of 5-HT was verified using ritanserin, a potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, and protein expression and modification were analyzed to further understand the association between paralysis recovery and molecular mechanisms in the brain. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were induced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery...
November 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#14
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131356/gluten-sensitivities-and-the-allergist-threshing-the-grain-from-the-husks
#15
REVIEW
J G Burkhardt, A Chapa-Rodriguez, S L Bahna
"Gluten sensitivity" has become commonplace among the public. Wheat allergy (WA) and celiac disease (CD) are well-defined entities, but are becoming a fraction of individuals following a gluten-free diet. WA has a prevalence of <0.5%. Wheat, specifically its omega-5 gliadin fraction, is the most common allergen implicated in food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. CD is a non-IgE hypersensitivity to certain cereal proteins: gluten in wheat, secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and to a lesser extent avenin in oat...
November 13, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130510/heterogenous-migraine-aura-symptoms-correlate-with-visual-cortex-fmri-responses
#16
Nanna Arngrim, Anders Hougaard, Khazar Ahmadi, Mark Bitsch Vestergaard, Henrik Winther Schytz, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Jes Olesen, Michael B Hoffmann, Messoud Ashina
OBJECTIVE: Migraine aura is sparsely studied due to the highly challenging task of capturing patients during aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is likely the underlying phenomenon of aura. The possible correlation between the multifaceted phenomenology of aura symptoms and the effects of CSD on the brain has not been ascertained. METHODS: Five migraine patients were studied during various forms of aura symptoms induced by hypoxia, sham or physical exercise and photostimulation...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129187/developing-the-fourth-evaluation-dimension-a-protocol-for-evaluation-of-video-from-the-patient-s-perspective-during-major-incident-exercises
#17
J J Mark Haverkort, Luke P H Leenen
OBJECTIVE: Presently used evaluation techniques rely on 3 traditional dimensions: reports from observers, registration system data, and observational cameras. Some of these techniques are observer-dependent and are not reproducible for a second review. This proof-of-concept study aimed to test the feasibility of extending evaluation to a fourth dimension, the patient's perspective. METHODS: Footage was obtained during a large, full-scale hospital trauma drill. Two mock victims were equipped with point-of-view cameras filming from the patient's head...
October 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129022/heat-acclimation-decay-and-re-induction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Hein A M Daanen, Sebastien Racinais, Julien D Périard
BACKGROUND: Although the acquisition of heat acclimation (HA) is well-documented, less is known about HA decay (HAD) and heat re-acclimation (HRA). The available literature suggests 1 day of HA is lost following 2 days of HAD. Understanding this relationship has the potential to impact upon the manner in which athletes prepare for major competitions, as a HA regimen may be disruptive during final preparations (i.e., taper). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the rate of HAD and HRA in three of the main physiological adaptations occurring during HA: heart rate (HR), core temperature (T c), and sweat rate (SR)...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128549/personality-traits-and-appearance-ideal-internalization-differential-associations-with-body-dissatisfaction-and-compulsive-exercise
#19
Shelby J Martin, Sarah E Racine
Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise...
November 6, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128055/current-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
REVIEW
Chun Kit Hung, Henry C Bodenheimer
Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is focused on patients with NASH because they are at highest risk for progressive liver disease. Current first-line treatment consists of lifestyle modifications. Patients should lose at least 7% to 10% of body weight via a combination of physical exercise and calorie restriction dieting. Surgical or endoscopic surgery for weight loss can be considered in obese patients, depending on degree of excess body weight and comorbidities...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
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