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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438008/birefringent-masks-that-are-optimal-for-generating-bottle-fields
#1
Anthony Vella, Hippolyte Dourdent, Lukas Novotny, Miguel A Alonso
An optical bottle field containing a three-dimensional intensity null at the focal point can be generated by placing a spatially inhomogeneous birefringent mask at the pupil of an aplanatic high-NA focusing system. We derive the optimal birefringence distribution for which a uniformly polarized input beam is converted into a bottle field with the sharpest possible null in intensity. We show that a stress engineered optical (SEO) window, which has a radially varying retardance, followed by a half-wave plate, performs nearly as well as the optimal solution...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437993/integrated-optical-force-sensors-using-focusing-photonic-crystal-arrays
#2
Jingkun Guo, Richard A Norte, S Gröblacher
Mechanical oscillators are at the heart of many sensor applications. Recently several groups have developed oscillators that are probed optically, fabricated from high-stress silicon nitride films. They exhibit outstanding force sensitivities of a few aN/Hz<sup>1/2</sup> and can also be made highly reflective, for efficient detection. The optical read-out usually requires complex experimental setups, including positioning stages and bulky cavities, making them impractical for real applications. In this paper we propose a novel way of building fully integrated all-optical force sensors based on low-loss silicon nitride mechanical resonators with a photonic crystal reflector...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437988/selective-excitation-of-surface-plasmon-modes-propagating-in-ag-nanowires
#3
Mingxia Song, Jean Dellinger, Olivier Demichel, Mickaël Buret, Gérard Colas Des Francs, Douguo Zhang, Erik Dujardin, Alexandre Bouhelier
Surface plasmon modes propagating in metal nanowires are conveniently excited by focusing a laser beam on one extremity of the nanowire. We find that the precise positioning of the nanowire inside the focal region drastically influences the excitation efficiency of the different SPP modes sustained by the plasmonic waveguide. We demonstrate a spatially selective excitation of bound and leaky surface plasmon modes with excitation maps that strongly depend on the orientation of the incident linear polarization...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437978/tunable-optical-cage-array-generated-by-dammann-vector-beam
#4
Xiaoyu Weng, Luping Du, Peng Shi, Xiaocong Yuan
Optical cages attract considerable attentions recently owing to their potential applications in optical trapping, optical imaging and optical cloaking. However, the generation of tunable optical cage arrays in the transverse plane comes to a great challenge, which restricts the effectiveness of the above applications. In this work, we propose a full polarization-controlled method that optical cage arrays with tunable number and positions in the x-y plane can be generated by a so-called Dammann vector beam (DVB), both under the conditions of high- and low-NA focusing system...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437969/experimental-generation-of-complex-optical-fields-for-diffraction-limited-optical-focus-with-purely-transverse-spin-angular-momentum
#5
Jian Chen, Chenhao Wan, Lingjiang Kong, Qiwen Zhan
We demonstrate a method to generate complex optical fields at the pupil plane of a high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens for the creation of diffraction limited optical focus with purely transverse spin angular momentum. The complex optical fields are analytically deduced through reversing the radiated patterns from two electric dipoles, which are located at the focal point of the high NA lens and oscillate respectively in x- and z- directions with phase difference of π/2. The derived fields can be experimentally created with a vectorial optical field generator...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437964/passively-coupled-low-coherence-interferometric-duct-profiling-with-an-astigmatism-corrected-conical-mirror
#6
Helen D Ford, Ralph P Tatam
Duct-profiling in test samples up to 25 mm in diameter has been demonstrated using a passive, low-coherence probe head with a depth resolution of 7.8 μm, incorporating an optical-fibre-linked conical mirror addressed by a custom-built array of single-mode fibres. Zemax modelling, and experimental assessment of instrument performance, show that degradation of focus, resulting from astigmatism introduced by the conical mirror, is mitigated by the introduction of a novel lens element. This enables a good beam focus to be achieved at distances of tens of millimetres from the cone axis, not achievable when the cone is used alone...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437947/hard-x-ray-scanning-imaging-achieved-with-bonded-multilayer-laue-lenses
#7
Xiaojing Huang, Weihe Xu, Evgeny Nazaretski, Nathalie Bouet, Juan Zhou, Yong S Chu, Hanfei Yan
We report scanning hard x-ray imaging with a monolithic focusing optic consisting of two multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) bonded together. With optics pre-characterization and accurate control of the bonding process, we show that a common focal plane for both MLLs can be realized at 9.317 keV. Using bonded MLLs, we obtained a scanning transmission image of a star test pattern with a resolution of 50 × 50 nm<sup>2</sup>. By applying a ptychography algorithm, we obtained a probe size of 17 × 38 nm<sup>2</sup> and an object image with a resolution of 13 × 13 nm<sup>2</sup>...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437938/focus-issue-introduction-advanced-solid-state-lasers-assl-2016
#8
Yoonchan Jeong, Christian Kränkel, Almantas Galvanauskas, Kenneth Schepler, Takunori Taira, Shibin Jiang
The editors introduce the focus issue on "Advanced Solid-State Lasers (ASSL) 2016", which is based on the topics presented at a conference of the same name held in Boston, USA, from October 30 to November 3, 2016. This focus issue, jointly prepared by Optics Express and Optical Materials Express, includes 20 contributed papers (14 for Optics Express and 6 for Optical Materials Express) selected from the voluntary submissions from attendees who presented at the conference and have extended their work into complete research articles...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437936/ultra-thin-and-high-efficiency-graphene-metasurface-for-tunable-terahertz-wave-manipulation
#9
Zhen Liu, Benfeng Bai
We propose a type of ultra-thin metasurfaces composed of rectangular graphene patches supporting orthogonal plasmonic resonances, which can work in transmission or reflection modes for dynamic terahertz wavefront manipulation with high polarization conversion ratio. By controlling the response of each patch via electrical biasing, the phase of the output wave can be tuned in a wide range over 180° while keeping its amplitude high and relatively stable. We demonstrate several functional devices based on such metasurfaces: a linear polarization converter with nearly 100% polarization conversion ratio, a switchable anomalous wave deflection device, and a dual-polarity focusing mirror with the focal spot tunable in both the transversal and longitudinal directions...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437838/prognostic-relevance-of-mir-124-3p-and-its-target-tp53inp1-in-pediatric-ependymoma
#10
Yulia Margolin-Miller, Natalia Yanichkin, Keren Shichrur, Helen Toledano, Anat Ohali, Theophilos Tzaridis, Shalom Michowitz, Suzana Fichman-Horn, Meora Feinmesser, Stefan M Pfister, Hendrik Witt, Uri Tabori, Eric Bouffet, Vijay Ramaswamy, Cynthia Hawkins, Michael D Taylor, Isaac Yaniv, Smadar Avigad
Ependymoma is a malignant pediatric brain tumor, often incurable under the current treatment regimen. We aimed to evaluate the expression of microRNAs (miRs) in pediatric ependymoma tumors in an attempt to identify prognostic molecular markers which would lead to potential therapeutic targets. Following miR-array expression analysis, we focused on 9 miRs that correlated with relapse which were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in a cohort of 67 patients. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure target protein expression in 20 and 34 tumor samples, respectively...
April 24, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437823/-medicolegal-assessment-of-psychic-sequelae-after-minor-traumatic-events
#11
Bernhard Widder
The majority of medicolegal assessments in claimed psychic sequelae after accidents concerns minor traumatic events. In this case, the focus is on three questions: Was the event appropriate to cause a traumatic disturbance according to current psychiatric classification systems (especially current DSM-5)? Which psychical or physical initial injury can be proven beyond reasonable doubt ("full proof") according to German law? What is the impact of personality characteristics and competing life events in the development and maintenance of the mental disorder? Causality between mental disorders and minor traumatic events is to be confirmed especially in the case of persistent physical accident sequelae, but attention has to be paid to the differences in the various legal requirements...
April 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437818/-towards-a-rehabilitation-and-participation-oriented-psychotherapy
#12
Beate Muschalla, Jürgen Bengel, Matthias Morfeld, Ulrike Worringen
Mental disorders (such as recurrent mood disorders, personality disorders, or psychotic disorders) come along with enduring impairment in daily life activities. Therefore psychotherapeutic actions in inpatient or outpatient settings require a life-span and participation-oriented treatment perspective. Participation-oriented treatment aims at social and vocational integration in general life despite enduringly recurring or resting symptoms. According to the model of health problems offered by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, ICF (WHO, 2001), disability can be defined as context-dependent activity impairment due to illness...
April 24, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437817/-challenges-of-diversity-sensitive-care-in-medical-rehabilitation
#13
P Brzoska, O Razum
Diversity markers such as sex, migration background and socioeconomic status are associated with different needs and expectations in health care. In rehabilitation these needs and expectations are often not adequately accounted for. This may affect health care outcomes. In order to improve rehabilitative care, it is not sufficient to only focus on selected diversity criteria such as migration background. This has two reasons: First, health care users are defined by a wide range of different diversity markers; second, diversity markers are closely interrelated...
April 24, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437810/hyperprolactinemia-and-the-association-with-all-cause-mortality-and-cardiovascular-mortality
#14
Jesper Krogh, Christian Selmer, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar Hilmar Gislason, Caroline Kistorp
Hyperprolactinemia has been suspected to increase mortality risk, but the available data are conflicting. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between hyperprolactinemia and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients referred for assessment of prolactin. For this study, adults with no prio pituitary disease who underwent prolactin assessment at 3 university Hospitals in Denmark between 2001 and 2011 were included in a retrospective cohort study. A total of 3 633 patients with a median follow-up time of 5...
April 24, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437770/historical-and-contemporary-metal-budgets-for-a-boreal-shield-lake
#15
Shaun A Watmough
Metal concentrations in sediment cores are widely used to reconstruct metal deposition histories, but rarely have metal budgets based on measured inputs (atmospheric deposition and inflows) and lake outflows been compared with metal fluxes estimated from lake sediment cores. In this study, budgets for six metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb) were estimated by measuring inputs in bulk deposition, inputs in the major inflow and export in the lake outflow for one hydrologic year (2002-2003) at Plastic Lake, Ontario, Canada...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437766/cyanobacterial-lectins-characteristics-and-their-role-as-antiviral-agents
#16
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Amandeep Kaur Walia, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Davinder Pal Singh, John F Kennedy
Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited for establishment of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence stage of viruses and thus helpful in eliminating wide spread viral infections. Here the review focuses on the haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity and characteristics of cyanobacterial lectins. Cyanobacterial lectins exhibiting high specificity towards mannose or complex glycans have potential role as anti-viral agents...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437757/abnormal-loading-and-functional-deficits-are-present-in-both-limbs-before-and-after-unilateral-knee-arthroplasty
#17
A J Metcalfe, C J Stewart, N J Postans, P R Biggs, G M Whatling, C A Holt, A P Roberts
Unilateral knee replacement is often followed by a contralateral replacement in time and the biomechanics of the other knee before and after knee replacement remains poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to distinguish the features of arthritic gait in the affected and unaffected legs relative to a normal population and to assess the objective recovery of gait function post-operatively, with the aim of defining patients at risk of poor post-operative function. Twenty patients with severe knee OA but no pain or deformity in any other lower limb joint were compared to twenty healthy subjects of the same age...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437749/epilepsy-awareness-and-emergency-rescue-training-ignorance-is-bliss
#18
Rohit Shankar, Caryn Jory, Brendan McLean, Phil Tittensor, Matthew Walker
Status epilepticus (SE) has a high mortality rate and is associated with complications such as neurological deficit and cognitive decline. Buccal midazolam is the recommended emergency rescue medication in the UK to reduce the duration of a seizure and SE. It should be administered by an appropriately trained person. There are agreed guidelines on training standards for its administration in the UK produced by the Joint Epilepsy Council of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Training should provide an overview of epilepsy to facilitate safe, person-centered care and appropriate administration of rescue medication to people with epilepsy (PWE)...
April 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437743/eco-pharmacovigilance-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-necessity-and-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Bing-Shu He, Jun Wang, Juan Liu, Xia-Min Hu
Eco-pharmacovigilance (EPV) is a practical and powerful approach to minimize the potential risks posed by pharmaceutical residues in environment. However, it is impracticable to practise rigorous and unitary EPV process for all the existing and new pharmaceuticals. Here, we focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and discussed the necessity and potential opportunities of practising EPV of NSAIDs. We found that the consumption of NSAIDs is huge and ubiquitous across the globe. NSAIDs were worldwidely reported as one of the most dominant and frequently detected groups in environmental matrices including wastewater, surface water, suspended solids, sediments, groundwater, even drinking water...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437721/optimizing-follow-up-and-study-retention-in-the-21st-century-advances-from-the-front-line-in-alcohol-and-tobacco-research
#20
Lia J Smith, Patrick J McNamara, Andrea C King
AIMS: Longitudinal studies are integral in addiction research but retention of participants over time can be challenging. While statistical algorithms for missing data have advanced, they remain less desirable than collecting actual data with high retention rates. An update to methodological primers with consideration of evolving technology and privacy concerns is needed for 21st century researchers. METHODS: Comprehensive follow-up methodological strategies were conducted in four concurrent laboratory- and intervention-based studies across N=697 drinker and smokers enrolled in studies at the Clinical Addictions Research Laboratory at the University of Chicago...
April 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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