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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334695/complex-interplay-among-adiposity-insulin-resistance-and-bone-health
#1
REVIEW
C Ma, K T Tonks, J R Center, D Samocha-Bonet, J R Greenfield
Obesity and osteoporosis are common public health problems. Paradoxically, while obesity is associated with higher bone density, type 2 diabetic obese individuals have an increased fracture risk. Although obesity and insulin resistance co-exist, some obese individuals remain insulin-sensitive. We suggest that the apparent paradox relating obesity, bone density and fracture risk in type 2 diabetes may be at least partly influenced by differences in bone strength and quality between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive obese individuals...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334689/-stick-with-your-own-kind-or-hang-with-the-locals-implications-of-shoaling-strategy-for-tropical-reef-fish-on-a-range-expansion-frontline
#2
Shannen M Smith, Rebecca J Fox, David J Booth, Jennifer M Donelson
Range shifts of tropical marine species to temperate latitudes are predicted to increase as a consequence of climate change. To date, the research focus on climate-mediated range shifts has been predominately dealt with the physiological capacity of tropical species to cope with the thermal challenges imposed by temperate latitudes. Behavioural traits of individuals in the novel temperate environment have not previously been investigated, however, they are also likely to play a key role in determining the establishment success of individual species at the range-expansion forefront...
January 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334686/fat-mass-and-obesity-related-gene-variants-rs9939609-and-rs7185735-are-associated-with-second-generation-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#3
Charlotte Schröder, Fabian Czerwensky, Stefan Leucht, Werner Steimer
INTRODUCTION: Weight gain is a limiting and frequent adverse effect of second-generation antipsychotic therapy. Identifying genetic risk factors would significantly improve pharmacotherapy. METHODS: We focused on rs7185735 and rs9939609, 2 common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene reported to be associated with obesity. Three-hundred fifty Caucasian inpatients were included in a naturalistic study. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of treatment, we did not observe any significant association of polymorphisms with weight change in the whole study population (p>0...
January 15, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334684/aberrant-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-revealed-by-multimodal-neuroimaging-data
#4
Qing Li, Xia Wu, Fufang Xie, Kewei Chen, Li Yao, Jiacai Zhang, Xiaojuan Guo, Rui Li
BACKGROUND: Making use of multimodal data simultaneously to understand the neural mechanism of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been in the focus nowadays. The simultaneous use of multimodal data can take advantage of each modality which may only provide the view of one specific aspect of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To this end, the present study used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and florbetapir PET to reveal the integrated brain network between MCI and normal controls (NCs)...
January 13, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334674/relationship-between-jumping-abilities-and-skeletal-muscle-architecture-of-lower-limbs-in-humans-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
J D Ruiz-Cárdenas, J J Rodríguez-Juan, J Ríos-Díaz
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of skeletal muscle architecture (SMA) features measured by 2-D ultrasonography on jumping performance in humans. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, registry number: CRD42016043602. The scientific literature was systematically searched in eight databases, last run on March 14th, 2017. Cross-sectional studies focused on the association between SMA features and vertical jumping performance were selected. A random-effects model was used to analyze the influence of lower-limb SMA and maximal jump height...
January 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334660/global-proteomic-analysis-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-saliva-at-different-stages-of-estrous-cycle-using-high-throughput-mass-spectrometry
#6
N G Shashikumar, R K Baithalu, S Bathla, S A Ali, P Rawat, A Kumaresan, S Kumar, B R Maharana, G Singh, D S Puneeth Kumar, S K Singh, S S Lathwal, L Jaiswal, T K Mohanty, A K Mohanty
Accurate and efficient detection of estrus is one of the major constraints for exploitation of the production potential of buffalo owing to its poor manifestation of estrus signs, seasonal differences in expression and higher incidences of silent estrus (29%). The current study focused on identification of estrus specific candidate proteins in saliva of buffaloes. Estrus was detected based on behavioral signs in response to the teaser and changes in reproductive organs and confirmed by per-rectal examination, trans-rectal USG of reproductive organs, cervico-vaginal mucus characteristics and blood serum progesterone estimation...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334641/do-clinically-anxious-children-cluster-according-to-their-expression-of-factors-that-maintain-child-anxiety
#7
Samantha Pearcey, Anna Alkozei, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Helen Dodd, Kou Murayama, Suzannah Stuijfzand, Cathy Creswell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, yet a significant proportion of children do not benefit from it. CBT for child anxiety disorders typically includes a range of strategies that may not all be applicable for all affected children. This study explored whether there are distinct subgroups of children with anxiety disorders who are characterized by their responses to measures of the key mechanisms that are targeted in CBT (i...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334618/exploring-masculinities-sexual-health-and-wellbeing-across-areas-of-high-deprivation-in-scotland-the-depth-of-the-challenge-to-improve-understandings-and-practices
#8
Karen Lorimer, Lesley McMillan, Lisa McDaid, Dona Milne, Siân Russell, Kate Hunt
Within and across areas of high deprivation, we explored constructions of masculinity in relation to sexual health and wellbeing, in what we believe to be the first UK study to take this approach. Our sample of 116 heterosexual men and women age 18-40 years took part in individual semi-structured interviews (n = 35) and focus group discussions (n = 18), across areas in Scotland. Drawing on a socio-ecological framework, findings revealed experience in places matter, with gender practices rooted in a domestically violent milieu, where localised, socio-cultural influences offered limited opportunities for more egalitarian performances of masculinity...
January 12, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334611/understanding-complex-tribofilms-by-means-of-h3bo3-b2o3-model-glasses
#9
Fabiana Spadaro, Antonella Rossi, Shivaprakash N Ramakrishna, Emmanuel Lainé, Philip Woodward, Nicholas D Spencer
The discovery of the spontaneous reaction of boric oxides with moisture in the air to form lubricious H3BO3 films has led to great interest in the tribology of boron compounds in general. Despite this, a study of the growth kinetics of H3BO3 on a B2O3 substrate under controlled relative humidity (RH), has not yet been reported in the literature. Here, we describe the tribological properties of H3BO3-B2O3 glass systems after aging under controlled relative humidity over different lengths of time. A series of tribological tests has been performed applying a normal load of 15 N, at both room temperature and 100°C in Yubase 4 oil...
January 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334569/assessment-of-prehospital-hemorrhage-and-airway-care-using-a-simulation-model
#10
Mariya E Skube, Seth Witthuhn, Kristine Mulier, Bonnie Boucher, Elizabeth Lusczek, Greg J Beilman
BACKGROUND: The quality of prehospital care impacts patient outcomes. Military efforts have focused on training revision and the creation of high fidelity simulation models to address potentially survivable injuries. We sought to investigate the applicability of models emphasizing hemorrhage control and airway management to a civilian population. METHODS: Prehospital healthcare providers (PHPs) undergoing their annual training were enrolled. A trauma scenario was simulated with two modules: hemorrhage control and airway management...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334516/computer-based-training-in-eating-and-nutrition-facilitates-person-centered-hospital-care-a-group-concept-mapping-study
#11
Albert Westergren, Ellinor Edfors, Erika Norberg, Anna Stubbendorff, Gita Hedin, Martin Wetterstrand, Scott R Rosas, Peter Hagell
Studies have shown that computer-based training in eating and nutrition for hospital nursing staff increased the likelihood that patients at risk of undernutrition would receive nutritional interventions. This article seeks to provide understanding from the perspective of nursing staff of conceptually important areas for computer-based nutritional training, and their relative importance to nutritional care, following completion of the training. Group concept mapping, an integrated qualitative and quantitative methodology, was used to conceptualize important factors relating to the training experiences through four focus groups (n = 43), statement sorting (n = 38), and importance rating (n = 32), followed by multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis...
January 12, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334480/strategies-for-enhancing-medical-student-resilience-student-and-faculty-member-perspectives
#12
Julia Farquhar, Robert Kamei, Arpana Vidyarthi
Objectives: To improve programs aimed to enhance medical student resiliency, we examined both medical student and faculty advisor perspectives on resiliency-building in an Asian medical school. Methods: In two separate focus groups, a convenience sample of 8 MD-PhD students and 8 faculty advisors were asked to identify strategies for enhancing resilience. Using thematic analysis, two researchers independently examined discussion transcripts and field notes and determined themes through a consensus process...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334448/quality-focus-expanding-quality-improvement-to-achieve-positive-health-outcomes
#13
Stephan Schroeder, Stacie Fredenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334362/investigation-of-resistance-switching-in-siox-rram-cells-using-a-3d-multi-scale-kinetic-monte-carlo-simulator
#14
Toufik Sadi, Adnan Mehonic, Luca Montesi, Mark Buckwell, Anthony Kenyon, Asen Asenov
We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334361/engineering-the-spin-polarization-of-one-dimensional-electrons
#15
Chengyu Yan, Sanjeev Kumar, Kalarikad Thomas, Patrick See, Ian Farrer, David A Ritchie, John Griffiths, G A C Jones, Michael Pepper
We present results of magneto-focusing on the controlled monitoring of spin polarization within a one-dimensional (1D) channel, and its subsequent effect on modulating the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in a 2D GaAs electron gas. We demonstrate that electrons within a 1D channel can be partially spin polarized as the effective length of the 1D channel is varied in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Such polarized 1D electrons when injected into a 2D region result in a split in the odd-focusing peaks, whereas the even peaks remain unaffected (single peak)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334359/electronic-and-optical-properties-of-spinel-zinc-ferrite-i-ab-initio-i-hybrid-functional-calculations
#16
Daniel Fritsch
Spinel ferrites in general show a rich interplay of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. Here, we particularly focus on zinc ferrite (ZFO), which has been observed experimentally to crystallise in the cubic <i>normal</i> spinel structure. However, its magnetic ground state is still under dispute. In addition, some unusual magnetic properties in ZFO thin films or nanostructures have been explained by a possible partial cation inversion and a different magnetic interaction between the two cation sublattices of the spinel structure compared to the crystalline bulk material...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334348/assessing-the-readiness-of-precision-medicine-interoperabilty-an-exploratory-study-of-the-national-institutes-of-health-genetic-testing-registry
#17
Jay G Ronquillo, Chunhua Weng, William T Lester
BACKGROUND:   Precision medicine involves three major innovations currently taking place in healthcare:  electronic health records, genomics, and big data.  A major challenge for healthcare providers, however, is understanding the readiness for practical application of initiatives like precision medicine. OBJECTIVE:   To better understand the current state and challenges of precision medicine interoperability using a national genetic testing registry as a starting point, placed in the context of established interoperability formats...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334344/content-validity-and-satisfaction-with-a-caregiver-integrated-web-based-rehabilitation-intervention-for-persons-with-stroke
#18
Sarah Blanton, Sandra Dunbar, Patricia C Clark
Background Family members provide valuable contributions during rehabilitation after stroke, but frequently report higher incidences of burden, depression, and social isolation during caregiving. Thus, effective interventions to reduce stroke impact on the family are needed. Objectives To evaluate the content validity and satisfaction of a caregiver-focused web-based intervention designed to improve stroke survivor physical function while reducing caregiver negative outcomes. Methods Caregivers of individuals with stroke (N = 6) and expert rehabilitation researchers (N = 4) were presented with a novel, web-based intervention (CARE-CITE) designed to foster problem-solving and skill-building while facilitating caregiver involvement during constraint-induced movement therapy...
January 15, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334333/are-people-at-high-risk-for-diabetes-visiting-health-facility-for-confirmation-of-diagnosis-a-population-based-study-from-rural-india
#19
Nikhil Srinivasapura Venkateshmurthy, Kathirvel Soundappan, Balaji Gummidi, Malipeddi Bhaskara Rao, Nikhil Tandon, K Srinath Reddy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Sailesh Mohan
BACKGROUND: India is witnessing a rising burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. India's National Programme for Prevention and Control of Diabetes, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke recommends population-based screening and referral to primary health centre for diagnosis confirmation and treatment initiation. However, little is known about uptake of confirmatory tests among screen positives. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the uptake of confirmatory tests and identify the reasons for not undergoing confirmation by those at high risk for developing diabetes...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334331/transport-mobility-5%C3%A2-years-after-stroke-in-an-urban-setting
#20
Hanna C Persson, Helena Selander
Background People after stroke may have residual problems with mobility that can affect their independence and mode of transport. However, there is limited knowledge about transport mobility several years after stroke. Objective The objective was to survey the outdoor mobility and transportation in an urban setting five years post-stroke. Method This cross-sectional study was based on a mail survey focusing on long-term consequences after stroke. The survey comprises a set of self-evaluated questionnaires and was sent to 457 persons, of whom 281 responded (61...
January 15, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
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