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Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Keiji Tasaka, Kousaku Matsubara, Shizuo Takamiya, Shin-Ichi Ishikawa, Aya Iwata, Hiroyuki Nigami
BACKGROUND: Information on long-term follow-up of childhood-onset anorexia nervosa is scarce. This study aimed to show long-term (>10 years) course, outcome and prognostic factors for hospitalized childhood-onset anorexia nervosa-restricting type (ANR). METHODS: Forty-one ANR girls admitted to a single regional center participated. Median age at first admission was 13.3 (range: 8.6-15.6) years. The longitudinal clinical course was retrospectively determined for a median follow-up period of 17...
October 19, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Tatiane Fernandes Farias, Karina da Silva Aguiar, Inajara Rotta, Klezia Morais da Silva Belletti, Juliane Carlotto
Objective: To implement a clinical pharmacy service focused on the comprehensive review of antineoplastic drugs used in therapy of hematological diseases. Methods: An interventional study was conducted in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital in two different periods, with and without a clinical pharmacy service, respectively. This service consisted of an antineoplastic prescription validation (analysis of patients' characteristics, laboratory tests, compliance with the therapeutic protocol and with pharmacotechnical parameters)...
July 2016: Einstein
Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Orlando Jorge Martins Torres, Márcio Carmona Marques, Fabio Nasser Santos, Igor Correia de Farias, Anelisa Kruschewsky Coutinho, Cássio Virgílio Cavalcante de Oliveira, Antonio Nocchi Kalil, Celso Abdon Lopes de Mello, Jaime Arthur Pirola Kruger, Gustavo Dos Santos Fernandes, Claudemiro Quireze, André M Murad, Milton José de Barros E Silva, Charles Edouard Zurstrassen, Helano Carioca Freitas, Marcelo Rocha Cruz, Rui Weschenfelder, Marcelo Moura Linhares, Leonaldson Dos Santos Castro, Charles Vollmer, Elijah Dixon, Héber Salvador de Castro Ribeiro, Felipe José Fernandez Coimbra
In the last module of this consensus, controversial topics were discussed. Management of the disease after progression during first line chemotherapy was the first discussion. Next, the benefits of liver resection in the presence of extra-hepatic disease were debated, as soon as, the best sequence of treatment. Conversion chemotherapy in the presence of unresectable liver disease was also discussed in this module. Lastly, the approach to the unresectable disease was also discussed, focusing in the best chemotherapy regimens and hole of chemo-embolization...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Fernando Abad-Franch
Current working classifications of Chagas disease vectors rely on a loose mix-up of biological and operational matters. They are therefore confusing and ineffective. I propose a very simple classification that makes biological sense and can be operationally useful. It considers a four-level hierarchy of species (which can be native or non-native); populations (either wild or non-wild); infestation foci (natural, domestic or peridomestic); and individual bugs (which can be solitary house-invaders or part of a hidden infestation focus)...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez, Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika I Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R Van Wynsberghe
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
D Caballero, J Katuri, J Samitier, S Sánchez
The ubiquitous random motion of mesoscopic active particles, such as cells, can be "rectified" or directed by embedding the particles in systems containing local and periodic asymmetric cues. Incorporated on lab-on-a-chip devices, these microratchet-like structures can be used to self-propel fluids, transport particles, and direct cell motion in the absence of external power sources. In this Focus article we discuss recent advances in the use of ratchet-like geometries in microfluidics which could open new avenues in biomedicine for applications in diagnosis, cancer biology, and bioengineering...
October 19, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Joel E Abbott, Roger L Sur
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current technology and designs of flexible ureterorenoscopes. We will review contemporary fiberoptic and digital ureteroscopes, including a discussion on ureteroscope damage and repair, and lastly present the projected future of flexible ureterorenoscopy. Ureterorenoscopy has evolved dramatically over the past several decades, which has led to landscape reshaping of stone disease treatment and upper tract pathology. Advancements in tip control, miniaturization of scopes, introduction of a digital chip on the tip, disposable devices to augment surgery, surgical experience/familiarity and most recently single use scopes are all independent factors that have increased flexible ureterorenoscopy adoption and success...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Molly Carnes, Paula Johnson, Wendy Klein, Marjorie Jenkins, C Noel Bairey Merz
Gender-based bias and conflation of gender and status are root causes of disparities in women's health care and the slow advancement of women to leadership in academic medicine. More than a quarter of women physicians train in internal medicine and its subspecialties, and women physicians almost exclusively constitute the women's health focus within internal medicine. Thus, internal medicine has considerable opportunity to develop women leaders in academic medicine and promote women's health equity.To probe whether holding an endowed chair-which confers status-in women's health may be an effective way to advance women leaders in academic medicine and women's health, the authors explored the current status of endowed chairs in women's health in internal medicine...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Varun K Phadke, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco, Brian C Quigley, Alton B Farris, J P Norvell
BACKGROUND: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. METHODS: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ru-Sen Zhu, Yi-Ming Ren, Jian-Jun Yuan, Zi-Jian Cui, Jun Wan, Bao-You Fan, Wei Lin, Xian-Hu Zhou, Xue-Li Zhang
Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common disease and lumbar discectomy is the most common surgical procedure carried out for patients with low back pain and leg symptoms. Although most researchers are focusing on the surgical techniques during operation, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local intervertebral lavage during microdiscectomy.In this retrospective study, 410 patients were operated on by microdiscectomy for LDH during 2011 to 2014. Retrospectively, 213 of them (group A) accepted local intervertebral irrigation with saline water before wound closure and 197 patients (group B) only had their operative field irrigated with saline water...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Margaret Loyet, Amy McLean, Karen Graham, Cheryl Antoine, Kathy Fossick
BACKGROUND: Women carrying a fetus with a suspected or known fetal anomaly have complex needs such as emotional and informational support and help with the logistical aspects of arranging care and treatment from numerous specialists. IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE FOR WOMEN CARRYING A FETUS WITH A SUSPECTED OR KNOWN FETAL ANOMALY:: Our fetal care team was initiated in 2012 to meet the needs of this high-risk pregnant population. The fetal care team nurse coordinator supports the woman and her family through all aspects of care during the pregnancy and neonatal period including scheduling appointments with multiple specialists, being there with her as a support person, keeping her updated, making sure she has accurate information about the fetal diagnosis, and helping her to navigate the complex healthcare system...
November 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Talia Orr, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Britney Benoit, Brenda Hewitt, Jennifer Stinson, Patrick McGrath, Donna Dowling
BACKGROUND: Despite an abundance of research that identifies the benefits for both parent and child when parents are actively involved in their infant's care, challenges related to the best methods to engage families persist. PURPOSE: To conduct a feasibility study that aims to understand the preferences of smartphone and Internet use by parents of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) related to information seeking and active participation in infant care, with a focus on pain management interventions...
October 18, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Delfien Van Dyck, Lieze Mertens, Greet Cardon, Katrien De Cocker, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SB) and their determinants and about recently retired adults' needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a 'forgotten group', having too few tailored PA initiatives available...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Paula D Bos
A prerequisite for tumor evolution toward a malignant state is the establishment of cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of immune suppression (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, 2011; Schreiber, Old, and Smyth, 2011). Widespread recruitment of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (TREG) is a prevailing means to dampen antitumor immunity. Advances in the characterization of TREG cell heterogeneity and physiological function of tissue resident TREG cells unfold new possibilities for nontraditional tumor-promoting functions of intratumoral TREG cells...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Shannon Dorsey, Katie A McLaughlin, Suzanne E U Kerns, Julie P Harrison, Hilary K Lambert, Ernestine C Briggs, Julia Revillion Cox, Lisa Amaya-Jackson
Child and adolescent trauma exposure is prevalent, with trauma exposure-related symptoms, including posttraumatic stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms often causing substantial impairment. This article updates the evidence base on psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent trauma exposure completed for this journal by Silverman et al. (2008). For this review, we focus on 37 studies conducted during the seven years since the last review. Treatments are grouped by overall treatment family (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), treatment modality (e...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Willem M Lijfering, Joseph S Biedermann, Marieke J H A Kruip, Frank W G Leebeek, Frits R Rosendaal, Suzanne C Cannegieter
Statins may be causally associated with a decreased risk of venous thrombosis. If so, this could be a substantive breakthrough since statins do not increase the risk of bleeding and could therefore be used as a safer antithrombotic drug. However, scepticism exists on the observed reduction of venous thrombosis by statins, as it may have been confounded by healthy user effects or other biases. Areas covered: The main focus of this review will be the biases that may have arisen in clinical studies that investigated the relationship between statin use and risk of venous thrombosis...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Wing-Hin Lee, Ching-Yee Loo, Chean-Ring Leong, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini, Ramin Rohanizadeh
The effectiveness of conventional cancer chemotherapy is hampered by the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells. Although many studies have reported the development of novel MDR chemotherapeutic agents, clinical success is lacking owing to the high associated toxicity. Nanoparticle-based delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs has emerged as alternative approach to treat MDR cancers via exploitation of leaky vasculature in the tumor microenvironment. Accordingly, functionalization of nanoparticles with target specific ligands can be employed to achieve significant improvements in the treatment of MDR cancer...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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