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Fish oil and trauma patients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25767334/the-olive-oil-based-lipid-clinoleic-blocks-leukocyte-recruitment-and-improves-survival-during-systemic-inflammation-a-comparative-in-vivo-study-of-different-parenteral-lipid-emulsions
#1
Kirsten Buschmann, Johannes Poeschl, Natascha Braach, Hannes Hudalla, Navina Kuss, David Frommhold
Although fish oil-based and olive oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory functions, the immunomodulating properties of lipids are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of three different parenterally administered lipid emulsions in vivo: olive oil-based Clinoleic, fish oil-based Smoflipid, and soybean oil-based Lipofundin. We observed leukocyte recruitment in inflamed murine cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy and survival in a murine model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation and analyzed expression of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25471807/intravenous-lipids-in-adult-surgical-patients
#2
REVIEW
Stanislaw Klek, Dan L Waitzberg
Parenteral nutrition is considered an essential element of the perioperative management of surgical patients. It is recommended in patients who require nutritional therapy but in whom the enteral route is contraindicated, not recommended or non-feasible. The new generation of lipid emulsions (LEs) based on olive and fish oils are safe and may improve clinical outcome in surgical patients. The increased provision of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil-containing LEs seems to be associated with fewer infectious complications and shorter ICU and hospital stays following major abdominal surgery...
2015: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24489452/inhibitory-activities-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-traditional-african-remedies-on-keloid-fibroblasts
#3
Peter B Olaitan, I-Ping Chen, James E C Norris, Richard Feinn, Odunayo M Oluwatosin, Ernst J Reichenberger
Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies-boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter-leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts...
April 2011: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24160207/-management-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-intensive-care-units-in-spain
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Clara Vaquerizo Alonso, Alfonso Mesejo, José Acosta Escribano, Sergio Ruiz Santana
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: some relevant aspects related to parenteral nutrition in the Spanish ICUs are still unclear. These aspects include: caloric and protein intake, total volume, glycemic control, the type of lipid emulsion used or the comparison of different formulations. Our objective is to know the clinical practice patterns of artificial nutrition therapeutics, particularly of parenteral nutrition in the Spanish ICUs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: twelve representative ICU's participated in a nutrition survey from January to March 2012...
September 2013: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22980098/the-effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-psychophysiological-assessment-for-the-secondary-prevention-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-open-label-pilot-study
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kenta Matsumura, Hiroko Noguchi, Daisuke Nishi, Yutaka Matsuoka
Our recent pilot study has shown that the supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) immediately after a traumatic event may be effective toward the secondary prevention of post-traumatic disorder (PTSD). To lay the groundwork for addressing the mechanism by which omega-3 fatty acids can prevent PTSD, we analyzed its psychophysiological data. The psychophysiological data included heart rate, skin conductance, and continuous blood pressure during patient subjection to startling tones and idiographic trauma-related cues...
January 2012: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22049817/nutritional-management-of-critically-ill-trauma-patients-in-the-deployed-military-setting
#6
REVIEW
J O Jansen, S Turner, A McD Johnston
The role of nutritional support in critical illness is well established. This article reviews the nutritional management of military trauma patients in the deployed setting, which poses special challenges for the surgeon and intensivist. There is little direct evidence relating to the nutritional management of trauma patients in general, and military trauma patients in particular, but much of the evidence accrued in the civilian and non-trauma critical care setting can be extrapolated to military practice. There is strong consensus that feeding should be commenced as soon possible after injury...
September 2011: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21880037/short-term-infusion-of-a-fish-oil-based-lipid-emulsion-modulates-fatty-acid-status-but-not-immune-function-or-anti-oxidant-balance-a-randomized-cross-over-study
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michelle W Versleijen, Hennie M Roelofs, Charlotte Rombouts, Peter W Hermans, Paul S Noakes, Philip C Calder, Geert J Wanten
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies suggest clinical benefits of parenteral fish oil (FO), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), over soyabean oil (SO), rich in n-6 PUFAs, in patients with pro-inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and trauma. Because the mechanisms behind these observations remain unclear, the present study explored the effects of intravenous infusion of FO and SO on fatty acid incorporation, immune functions and (anti)oxidant balance in healthy human volunteers...
March 2012: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20441676/rationale-and-use-of-n-3-fatty-acids-in-artificial-nutrition
#8
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Lipids traditionally used in artificial nutrition are based on n-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils like soyabean oil. This may not be optimal because it may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. One alternative to the use of soyabean oil is its partial replacement by fish oil, which contains n-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids influence inflammatory and immune responses and so may be useful in particular situations where those responses are not optimal. Fish oil-containing lipid emulsions have been used in parenteral nutrition in adult patients post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal)...
November 2010: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19931231/the-2008-espen-sir-david-cuthbertson-lecture-fatty-acids-and-inflammation-from-the-membrane-to-the-nucleus-and-from-the-laboratory-bench-to-the-clinic
#9
Philip C Calder
Many chronic conditions involve excessive inflammation that is damaging to host tissues. Excessive or inappropriate inflammation and immunosuppression are components of the response to surgery, trauma, injury and infection in some individuals and these can lead, progressively, to sepsis and septic shock. Hyperinflammation is characterised by the production of inflammatory cytokines, eicosanoids and other inflammatory mediators, while the immunosuppression is characterised by impairment of antigen presentation and of certain T cell responses...
February 2010: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19702523/immunonutrition-in-surgical-patients
#10
REVIEW
J Xu, Z Yunshi, R Li
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To outline recent findings concerning the efficacy of immunonutrients in patients undergoing surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgery induces an inflammatory response that can become excessive and damaging in some patients. The major risk factors are pre-existing nutritional status and increasing levels of surgical stress. A range of nutrients, including several amino acids, antioxidant vitamins and minerals, omega-3 fatty acids, and nucleotides, are able to modulate inflammation and the associated oxidative stress, and maintain or improve immune function...
August 2009: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19426581/hot-topics-in-parenteral-nutrition-rationale-for-using-new-lipid-emulsions-in-parenteral-nutrition-and-a-review-of-the-trials-performed-in-adults
#11
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Lipids traditionally used in parenteral nutrition are based on n-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils such as soyabean oil. This practice may not be optimal because it may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. Alternatives to the use of soyabean oil include its partial replacement by so-called medium-chain TAG (MCT), olive oil or fish oil, either alone or in combination. Lipid emulsions containing MCT are well established, but those containing olive oil and fish oil, although commercially available, are still undergoing trials in different patient groups...
August 2009: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18626628/immunonutrition-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Paul E Marik, Gary P Zaloga
BACKGROUND: The role of immuno-modulating diets (IMDs) in critically ill patients is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this meta-analysis was to determine the impact of IMD's on hospital mortality, nosocomial infections and length of stay (LOS) in critically ill patients. Outcome was stratified according to type of IMD and patient setting. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. STUDY SELECTION: RCT's that compared the outcome of critically ill patients randomized to an IMD or a control diet...
November 2008: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18301274/pharmaconutrition-a-new-emerging-paradigm
#13
REVIEW
Naomi E Jones, Daren K Heyland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper highlights recent studies of interest and provides rationale for why deficiencies with the current scientific paradigm of immunonutrition has produced studies with conflicting results, and why it should be replaced with a new paradigm termed 'pharmaconutrition'. RECENT FINDINGS: Considering the overall treatment effect of immune-modulating nutrients, parenteral glutamine is recommended in patients receiving parenteral nutrition, while enteral glutamine should be considered in burn and trauma patients...
March 2008: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18203961/obesity-inflammation-and-the-potential-application-of-pharmaconutrition
#14
REVIEW
Matt C Cave, Ryan T Hurt, Thomas H Frazier, Paul J Matheson, Richard N Garrison, Craig J McClain, Stephen A McClave
Obesity is an emerging problem worldwide. Hospitalized obese patients often have a worse outcome than patients of normal weight, particularly in the setting of trauma and critical care. Obesity creates a low-grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that is similar (but on a much smaller scale) to gram-negative sepsis. This process involves up-regulation of systemic immunity, is characterized clinically by insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, and puts the patient at increased risk for organ failure, infectious morbidity, and mortality...
February 2008: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16923311/use-of-fish-oil-in-parenteral-nutrition-rationale-and-reality
#15
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Excessive or inappropriate inflammation and immunosuppression are components of the response to surgery, trauma, injury and infection in some individuals and can lead, progressively, to sepsis and septic shock. The hyperinflammation is characterised by the production of inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids and other inflammatory mediators, while the immunosuppression is characterised by impairment of antigen presentation and of T-helper lymphocyte type-1 responses. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oil decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids...
August 2006: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16484909/omega-3-fatty-acids-improve-the-diagnosis-related-clinical-outcome
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Axel R Heller, Susann Rössler, Rainer J Litz, Sebastian N Stehr, Susanne C Heller, Rainer Koch, Thea Koch
OBJECTIVE: Supplementation of clinical nutrition with omega-3 fatty acid in fish oil exerts immune-modulating and organ-protective effects, even after short-term application. The aim of this study was to evaluate dose-dependent effects of parenteral supplementation of a 10% fish oil emulsion (Omegaven, Fresenius-Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany) on diagnosis- and organ failure-related outcome. DESIGN: Prospective, open label, multiple-center trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 661 patients from 82 German hospitals receiving total parenteral nutrition for > or =3 days were enrolled in this study...
April 2006: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15736910/n-3-fatty-acids-inflammation-and-immunity-relevance-to-postsurgical-and-critically-ill-patients
#17
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Excessive or inappropriate inflammation and immunosuppression are components of the response to surgery, trauma, injury, and infection in some individuals and these can lead, progressively, to sepsis and septic shock. The hyperinflammation is characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, and other inflammatory mediators, while the immunosuppression is characterized by impairment of antigen presentation and of T helper cell type-1 responses. Long-chain n-3 FA from fish oil decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids...
December 2004: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12971736/canadian-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-nutrition-support-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-adult-patients
#18
Daren K Heyland, Rupinder Dhaliwal, John W Drover, Leah Gramlich, Peter Dodek
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support (ie, enteral and parenteral nutrition) in mechanically ventilated critically ill adults. OPTIONS: The following interventions were systematically reviewed for inclusion in the guidelines: enteral nutrition (EN) versus parenteral nutrition (PN), early versus late EN, dose of EN, composition of EN (protein, carbohydrates, lipids, immune-enhancing additives), strategies to optimize delivery of EN and minimize risks (ie, rate of advancement, checking residuals, use of bedside algorithms, motility agents, small bowel versus gastric feedings, elevation of the head of the bed, closed delivery systems, probiotics, bolus administration), enteral nutrition in combination with supplemental PN, use of PN versus standard care in patients with an intact gastrointestinal tract, dose of PN and composition of PN (protein, carbohydrates, IV lipids, additives, vitamins, trace elements, immune enhancing substances), and the use of intensive insulin therapy...
September 2003: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12924804/comparison-of-a-immunonutrition-formula-enriched-arginine-glutamine-and-omega-3-fatty-acid-with-a-currently-high-enriched-enteral-nutrition-for-trauma-patients
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Chomchark Chuntrasakul, Soranit Siltham, Suttipant Sarasombath, Chockchai Sittapairochana, Wattanas Leowattana, Siriya Chockvivatanavanit, Aroonrasamee Bunnak
UNLABELLED: The severe trauma or burn patients required aggressive resuscitation, operation and metabolic support to reduce morbidity and motality. Nutrition is one of the most important treatment for these patients, improving body protein and immune function, reducing rate of infection and shortening hospitalization. METHOD: To evaluate the metabolic and immune effects of dietary arginine, glutamine and omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation, we performed a prospective study in patients age 15-60 yrs after severe trauma (Injury Severity Scores (ISS) 15-30) or burn patients (body surface area (BSA) 30-60%) in Siriraj Hospital...
June 2003: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12700820/long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammation-potential-application-in-surgical-and-trauma-patients
#20
REVIEW
P C Calder
Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function...
April 2003: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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