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Brain trauma injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040247/use-of-ondansetron-for-vomiting-after-head-trauma-does-it-mask-clinically-significant-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Israel Green-Hopkins, Michael C Monuteaux, Lois Lee, Lise Nigrovic, Rebekah Mannix, Sara Schutzman
OBJECTIVES: We describe ondansetron use in children with head injury evaluated in pediatric emergency departments and its association with return visits and late diagnoses of intracranial injuries requiring intervention. METHODS: Children ages 6 months to 18 years discharged without neuroimaging from 35 pediatric emergency departments with a diagnosis of head injury from 2009 to 2013 were identified retrospectively from the Pediatric Health Information System. We evaluated the rates of ondansetron use during the study period and of the association of ondansetron treatment with the diagnosis of intracranial injury, skull fracture, and return visits within 72 hours requiring admission or operative intervention...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039346/astrogliosis-has-different-dynamics-after-cell-transplantation-and-mechanical-impact-in-the-rodent-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Nikola Tomov, Lachezar Surchev, Clemens Wiedenmann, Máté Daniel Döbrössy, Guido Nikkhah
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue is a well-established concept for functional reinnervation of the dopamine-depleted rat striatum. However, no extensive description of the glial reaction of the host brain following this procedure has been carried out. AIMS: The present study aims at a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the astrogliosis surrounding intrastriatal grafts and comparing it to the reaction caused by a mechanical injury with the transplantation instrument only...
October 17, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034608/nanoparticle-based-therapeutics-for-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Vimala N Bharadwaj, Duong T Nguyen, Vikram D Kodibagkar, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Brain injuries affect a large patient population with major physical and emotional suffering for patients and their relatives; at a significant cost to the society. Effective diagnostic and therapeutic options available for brain injuries are limited by the complex brain injury pathology involving blood-brain barrier (BBB). Brain injuries, including ischemic stroke and brain trauma, initiate BBB opening for a short period of time, which is followed by a second reopening for an extended time. The leaky BBB and/or the alterations in the receptor expression on BBB may provide opportunities for therapeutic delivery via nanoparticles (NPs)...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033141/not-every-trauma-patient-with-a-radiographic-head-injury-requires-transfer-for-neurosurgical-evaluation-application-of-the-brain-injury-guidelines-to-patients-transferred-to-a-level-1-trauma-center
#4
G K Capron, M B Voights, H R Moore, D B Wall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032474/discrepancy-between-the-initial-assessment-of-injury-severity-and-post-hoc-determination-of-injury-severity-in-patients-with-apparently-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-multicenter-cohort-analysis
#5
S M Bossers, K M Pol, E P A Oude Ophuis, B Jacobs, M C Visser, S A Loer, C Boer, J van der Naalt, P Schober
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of trauma-related visits to emergency departments (ED). Determination of monitoring requirements of patients with apparently mild TBI is challenging. Patients may turn out to be more severely injured than initially assumed, and failure to identify these patients constitutes a serious threat to patient safety. We, therefore, aimed to identify clinical risk factors for more severe injuries in patients with apparently mild TBI. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort analysis performed at two level I trauma centers, 808 patients aged ≥ 16 presenting to the ED with head trauma and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 13-15 who received a head CT scan were studied...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032144/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-a-master-gatekeeper-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#6
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Tuo Yang, Huan Liu, Lijuan Han, Kai Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Xuejing Zhang, Ke-Jie Yin, Yanqin Gao, Michael V L Bennett, Rehana K Leak, Jun Chen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a widely expressed ligand-modulated transcription factor that governs the expression of genes involved in inflammation, redox equilibrium, trophic factor production, insulin sensitivity, and the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Synthetic PPARγ agonists (e.g. thiazolidinediones) are used to treat Type II diabetes and have the potential to limit the risk of developing brain injury by mitigating the influence of comorbidities. If brain injury develops, PPARγ serves as a master gatekeeper of cytoprotective stress responses, improving the chances of survival and recovery of homeostatic equilibrium...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031551/neuroinflammation-and-neurosteroidogenesis-reciprocal-modulation-during-injury-to-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain
#7
Alyssa L Pedersen, Jenna L Brownrout, Colin J Saldanha
Estrogens like estradiol (E2) via its receptors are pluripotent steroid hormones that exert a profound influence on the developing and adult brain in many vertebrates. In songbirds and mammals, acute brain injury resulting from mechanical damage, anoxia and ischemia rapidly upregulates aromatase and E2 synthesis. Interestingly, this E2 provision occurs due to the induction of aromatase expression in reactive astrocytes in areas surrounding brain injury. The resultant increase in E2 is neuroprotective with established influences on apoptosis, gliosis, cytogenesis, neurogenesis and neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031233/forensic-and-clinical-significance-of-serum-amylase-lipase-and-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-as-predictors-of-outcome-in-head-injured-patients
#8
Mona Mohamed Abo El-Noor, Naema Mahmoud ElHosary, Hytham Ibrahim Elatrozy, Hussein Mohamed Abou Elgheit, Ahmed Mohamed Elbelkasy, Ahmed Gamal Fath, Ghada Hamed El-Shafy
Head trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Combined head lesions consist of more than one form of lesions. Biochemical markers of brain injury are used in determining the extent of brain injury and predicting its outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the forensic and clinical significance of serum amylase, lipase and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) as predictors of the outcome in head injured patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty head injured patients were enrolled and subjected to personal history taking, general and local physical examination...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025454/an-audit-of-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-in-a-busy-developing-world-trauma-service-exposes-a-significant-deficit-in-resources-available-to-manage-severe-tbi
#9
Ellen Jerome, Grant L Laing, John L Bruce, Ben Sartorius, Petra Brysiewicz, Damian L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects large numbers of patients, both adults and children, and significant resources are needed to manage it. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of TBI and the adequacy of available resources to manage in the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS). METHODS: All patients with a TBI were identified from the hybrid electronic medical registry at Grey's and Edendale hospitals in Pietermaritzburg (PMB), KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022129/the-utility-of-local-anesthesia-for-neurosurgical-interventions-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-case-series
#10
Jessica Eaton, Asma Bilal Hanif, Suzgisam Mzumara, Anthony Charles
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, and injury to the central nervous system is the most common cause of death in these patients. While the provision of surgical services is being recognized as essential to global public health efforts, specialty areas such as neurosurgery remain overlooked. METHOD: This is a retrospective case review of patients with operable lesions, such as extra-axial hematomas and unstable depressed skull fractures that underwent neurosurgical interventions under local anesthesia...
October 11, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018503/parameters-influencing-tracheostomy-decannulation-in-patients-undergoing-rehabilitation-after-severe-acquired-brain-injury-sabi
#11
Cecilia Perin, Roberto Meroni, Vincenzo Rega, Giacomo Braghetto, Cesare Giuseppe Cerri
Introduction  Tracheostomy weaning in patients who suffered a severe acquired brain injury is often a challenge and decannulation failures are not uncommon. Objective  Our study objective is to describe the decannulation failure rate in patients undergoing rehabilitation following a severe acquired brain injury (sABI); to describe the factors associated with a successful tube weaning. Methods  We conduct a retrospective analysis of charts, consecutively retrieved considering a 3-year window. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), cause of hospitalization (stroke, trauma, cardiac arrest), date of the pathological event, gap between the index event and the first day of hospitalization, duration of Neurorehabilitation Ward hospitalization, comorbidities, chest morphological alteration, kind of tracheostomy tube used (overall dimension, cap, fenestration), SpO2, presentation and quantification of pulmonary secretion, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), respiratory frequency and pattern, cardiac frequency, presence of spontaneous cough, cough strength, and blood gas analysis...
October 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017765/accuracy-of-shock-index-versus-abc-score-to-predict-need-for-massive-transfusion-in-trauma-patients
#12
Rebecca Schroll, David Swift, Danielle Tatum, Stuart Couch, Jiselle B Heaney, Monica Llado-Farrulla, Shana Zucker, Frances Gill, Griffin Brown, Nicholas Buffin, Juan Duchesne
BACKGROUND: Various scoring systems have been developed to predict need for massive transfusion in traumatically injured patients. Assessments of Blood Consumption (ABC) score and Shock Index (SI) have been shown to be reliable predictors for Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP) activation. However, no study has directly compared these two scoring systems to determine which is a better predictor for MTP activation. The primary objective was to determine whether ABC or SI better predicted the need for MTP in adult trauma patients with severe hemorrhage...
September 15, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017409/acute-clinical-predictors-of-symptom-recovery-in-emergency-department-patients-with-uncomplicated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-or-non-tbi-injuries
#13
Lindsay D Nelson, Robyn E Furger, Jana Ranson, Sergey Tarima, Thomas A Hammeke, Christopher Randolph, William B Barr, Kevin K Guskiewicz, Christopher M Olsen, E Brooke Lerner, Michael McCrea
There is a subset of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) that report persistent symptoms that impair their functioning and quality of life. Being able to predict which patients will experience prolonged symptom recovery would help clinicians target resources for clinical follow-up to those most in need and would facilitate research to develop precision medicine treatments for mTBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of symptom recovery in a prospective sample of emergency department trauma patients with either mTBI or non-mTBI injuries...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017139/do-serum-bdnf-levels-vary-in-self-harm-behavior-among-adolescents-and-are-they-correlated-with-traumatic-experiences
#14
Canem Kavurma, Fatma Varol Tas, Burcu Serim Demirgoren, Ferhat Demirci, Pınar Akan, Damla Eyuboglu, Taner Guvenir
The aim of this study was to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between adolescents that harm themselves, those that receive psychiatric treatment but do not harm themselves, healthy adolescents, and childhood traumas and to investigate the relationship between traumatic experiences and serum BDNF levels. The cases were divided into two groups of 40 adolescents exhibiting self-harm behavior (self-harm/diagnosed group) and 30 adolescents receiving psychiatric treatment but not exhibiting self-harm behaviors (non self-harm/diagnosed group)...
September 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016432/is-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-relevant-to-pulmonary-complications-and-mortality-in-multiply-injured-children
#15
Waleed Al-Mahdi, Mazen M Ibrahim, David A Spiegel, Alexandre Arkader, Michael Nance, Keith Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a well-recognized phenomenon in adult trauma populations. The "initial hit" of the traumatic event is often coupled with a systemic immune response characterized by changes in vital signs and laboratory indicators. A "second hit" from surgery during this time frame often results in acute lung injury, along with deterioration of the patient's clinical condition. We hypothesized that children and adolescents would experience SIRS physiology, but would not experience adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or "second hit" related death to the extent seen in the adult populations...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994788/evaluating-primary-blast-effects-in-vitro
#16
Niall J Logan, Hari Arora, Claire A Higgins
Exposure to blast events can cause severe trauma to vital organs such as the lungs, ears, and brain. Understanding the mechanisms behind such blast-induced injuries is of great importance considering the recent trend towards the use of explosives in modern warfare and terrorist-related incidents. To fully understand blast-induced injury, we must first be able to replicate such blast events in a controlled environment using a reproducible method. In this technique using shock tube equipment, shock waves at a range of pressures can be propagated over live cells grown in 2D, and markers of cell viability can be immediately analyzed using a redox indicator assay and the fluorescent imaging of live and dead cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993512/loss-of-nlrx1-exacerbates-neural-tissue-damage-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-following-brain-injury
#17
Michelle H Theus, Thomas Brickler, Armand L Meza, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Amanda Hazy, Denis Gris, Irving C Allen
Traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury results from severe disruptions in the cellular microenvironment leading to massive loss of neuronal populations and increased neuroinflammation. The progressive cascade of secondary events, including ischemia, inflammation, excitotoxicity, and free-radical release, contribute to neural tissue damage. NLRX1 is a member of the NLR family of pattern recognition receptors and is a potent negative regulator of several pathways that significantly modulate many of these events...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991814/management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-emergency-department-guideline-adherence-and-patient-safety
#18
Tomas Vedin, Marcus Edelhamre, Mathias Karlsson, Michael Bergenheim, Per-Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury is a common reason not only for emergency visits worldwide but also for significant morbidity and mortality. Several clinical guidelines exist but adherence is generally low. AIM: To study attitudes toward computed tomography of the head among emergency department Change to physicians throughout the article who manage patients with trauma to the head and doctors' adherence to guidelines. METHODS: Quantitative questionnaire study with questionnaires collected over 3 months before introduction of new guidelines...
October 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988806/3d-assessment-of-damaged-bicycle-helmets-and-corresponding-craniomaxillo-mandibular-skull-injuries-a-feasibility-study
#19
Gustaaf J C van Baar, Muhammad Ruslin, Maureen van Eijnatten, George K Sándor, Tymour Forouzanfar, Jan Wolff
OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, cyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The wearing of bicycle helmets is not mandatory in the Netherlands even though research has shown that wearing bicycle helmets can reduce head and brain injuries by up to 88%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using 3D technology to evaluate bicycle-related head injuries and helmet protection. METHODS: Three patients who had been involved in a bicycle accident while wearing a helmet were subjected to multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging after trauma...
September 29, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988342/spectrum-of-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury-relationship-between-functional-impairment-and-health-related-quality-of-life
#20
Anastasia Tsyben, Mathew Guilfoyle, Ivan Timofeev, Fahim Anwar, Judith Allanson, Joanne Outtrim, David Menon, Peter Hutchinson, Adel Helmy
BACKGROUND: The outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is heterogeneous and poorly defined and physical disability scales like the extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOSE) while providing valuation information in terms of broad categorisation of outcome are unlikely to capture the full spectrum of deficits. Quality of life questionnaires such as SF-36 are emerging as potential tools to help characterise factors important to patients' recovery. This study assessed the association between physical disability and subjective health rating...
October 7, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
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