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Brain trauma injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922895/benefits-of-the-tranexamic-acid-in-head-trauma-with-no-extracranial-bleeding-a-prospective-follow-up-of-180-patients
#1
Olfa Chakroun-Walha, Amal Samet, Mouna Jerbi, Abdennour Nasri, Aziza Talbi, Hassen Kanoun, Basma Souissi, Kamilia Chtara, Mounir Bouaziz, Hichem Ksibi, Noureddine Rekik
INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is one of the debated therapies in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We conducted this study to evaluate the benefits of TXA in TBI on the mortality and its safety in these patients. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized open-label trial including all patients, aged at 18 years or older, hospitalized in the emergency room during a 13-month period, for TBI. After the realization of the body CT scan, the patients were included if they had intracranial bleeding, and were then randomized according to their medical file number to receive or not the TXA...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922224/neuroendocrine-abnormalities-following-traumatic-brain-injury-an-important-contributor-to-neuropsychiatric-sequelae
#2
REVIEW
Amir M Molaie, Jamie Maguire
Neuropsychiatric symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common and contribute negatively to TBI outcomes by reducing overall quality of life. The development of neurobehavioral sequelae, such as concentration deficits, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and loss of emotional well-being has historically been attributed to an ambiguous "post-concussive syndrome," considered secondary to frank structural injury and axonal damage. However, recent research suggests that neuroendocrine dysfunction, specifically hypopituitarism, plays an important role in the etiology of these symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914560/predictive-factors-of-intracranial-bleeding-in-head-trauma-patients-receiving-antiplatelet-therapy-admitted-to-an-emergency-department
#3
Farès Moustafa, Jean Roubin, Bruno Pereira, Alain Barres, Jennifer Saint-Denis, Christophe Perrier, Marine Mondet, Frederic Dutheil, Jeannot Schmidt
BACKGROUND: In head trauma cases involving antiplatelet agent treatment, the French Society of Emergency Medicine recommends performing computed tomography (CT) scans to detect brain lesions, 90% of which are normal. The value of CT is still debatable given the scarce number of studies and controversial results. METHODS: We used the RATED registry (Registry of patient with Antithrombotic agents admitted to an Emergency Department, NCT02706080) to assess factors of cerebral bleeding related to antiplatelet agents following head trauma...
June 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913083/risk-factors-for-recurrent-neurotrauma-a-population-based-study-in-southeastern-michigan
#4
R David Hayward, Mary M Fessler, Joseph Buck, Richard D Fessler
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown an increased risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for individuals who suffer an initial TBI. The current study hypothesized that individuals with recurrent neurotrauma would originate from populations considered 'vulnerable', i.e. low income and/or with psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: Data from the Michigan State Inpatient Database from 2006 to 2014 for the Detroit metropolitan area enlisted a study population of 50 744 patients with neurotrauma...
June 18, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912812/multicenter-review-of-current-practices-associated-with-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-patients-after-trauma
#5
Amee M Bigelow, Katherine T Flynn-O'Brien, Pippa M Simpson, Mahua Dasgupta, Sheila J Hanson
OBJECTIVES: Frequency of venous thromboembolism in pediatric trauma patients admitted to PICUs is not insignificant, ranging up to 6%. Risk factors have been identified in this population. However, there is little consensus of actual venous thromboembolism prophylaxis practice. We examined factors associated with venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in PICUs. DESIGN: A retrospective study evaluating associations with mechanical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, pharmacologic venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, or dual therapy (DUAL) prophylaxis compared with no venous thromboembolism prophylaxis...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909182/diffuse-axonal-injury-dai-in-moderate-to-severe-head-injured-patients-pure-dai-vs-non-pure-dai
#6
Moinay Kim, Jae Sung Ahn, Wonhyoung Park, Suk Kyung Hong, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sung Woo Roh, Seungjoo Lee
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is known to be associated with poor outcome. DAI often associates with other intracranial injuries but their distinct features have not been established. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared clinical outcomes between pure and non-pure DAI patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total of 1047 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients visited our institute between 2011 and 2017. Age ranged between 15-85 years old and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score less than 13 were included...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908489/work-related-fatal-injuries-in-brescia-county-northern-italy-1982-to-2015-a-forensic-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Perotti, Maria Cristina Russo
Work-related deaths represent an important social problem. We report all the occupational fatal injuries recorded by the Brescia Institute of Forensic Medicine from 1982 to 2015. A total of 426 post-mortem examinations due to accidental work injuries were retrospectively analysed according to temporal distribution (year, month and day of the workplace accident); workers' characteristics (sex, age, nationality); type of occupation; cause of death; anatomical region of fatal injuries and timing of death. The accidental occupational events occurred with a mean of 12...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905916/epidemiological-trends-of-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-in-puerto-rico-from-november-10th-2006-through-may-24th-2011
#8
Ricardo H Brau, Yaritza Acevedo-Salas, Katya Giovannetti
OBJECTIVE: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), injury to the central nervous system (CNS) continues to be a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US today. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed to determine the incidence of all traumatic CNS injuries. Descriptive variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Quantitative variables were expressed as means and averages (plus/minus standard deviation); bivariate cross-tabulation and multiple regression analyses were employed to identify risk factors and compare epidemiological patterns of injury related variables...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905513/isolated-subdural-hematomas-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-part-1-the-association-between-radiographic-characteristics-and-neurosurgical-intervention
#9
Alessandro Orlando, A Stewart Levy, Benjamin A Rubin, Allen Tanner, Matthew M Carrick, Mark Lieser, David Hamilton, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
OBJECTIVE Isolated subdural hematomas (iSDHs) are one of the most common intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) types in the population with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15), account for 66%-75% of all neurosurgical procedures, and have one of the highest neurosurgical intervention rates. The objective of this study was to examine how quantitative hemorrhage characteristics of iSDHs in patients with mTBI at admission are associated with subsequent neurosurgical intervention. METHODS This was a 3...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905511/isolated-subdural-hematomas-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-part-2-a-preliminary-clinical-decision-support-tool-for-neurosurgical-intervention
#10
Alessandro Orlando, A Stewart Levy, Benjamin A Rubin, Allen Tanner, Matthew M Carrick, Mark Lieser, David Hamilton, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
OBJECTIVE A paucity of studies have examined neurosurgical interventions in the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) population with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Furthermore, it is not understood how the dimensions of an ICH relate to the risk of a neurosurgical intervention. These limitations contribute to a lack of treatment guidelines. Isolated subdural hematomas (iSDHs) are the most prevalent ICH in mTBI, carry the highest neurosurgical intervention rate, and account for an overwhelming majority of all neurosurgical interventions...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903577/increased-reduction-in-exsanguination-rates-leaves-brain-injury-as-the-only-major-cause-of-death-in-blunt-trauma
#11
D Jochems, L P H Leenen, F Hietbrink, R M Houwert, K J P van Wessem
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) related injuries and exsanguination have been the most common causes of death in trauma for decades. Despite improvements in haemorrhage control in recent years exsanguination is still a major cause of death. We conducted a prospective database study to investigate the current incidence of haemorrhage related mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database study of all trauma patients admitted to an urban major trauma centre between January 2007 and December 2016 was conducted...
May 23, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901458/dating-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-forensic-cases-using-immunohistochemical-markers-i-neurofilaments-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-precursor-protein
#12
María de Los Ángeles Romero Tirado, José Manuel Blanco Pampin, Rosalía Gallego Gómez
Studies about head trauma are experimental or have a clinical or prognosis purpose. In this study, we used samples from human autopsies to answer common medical-legal questions.We studied 21 problem cases and 4 controls. Samples were obtained directly from the injured area, fixed in 10% formalin during 24 hours and then preserved in 70% ethanol. This procedure optimizes the immunohistochemical technique.The neurofilament antibody shows beaded axons since the first moment; over time, they increase their density and diameter as survival time also increases...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895273/prevalence-of-acute-stress-disorder-among-road-traffic-accident-survivors-a-meta-analysis
#13
Wenjie Dai, Aizhong Liu, Atipatsa C Kaminga, Jing Deng, Zhiwei Lai, Jianzhou Yang, Shi Wu Wen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic accident (RTA), an unexpected traumatic event, may not only lead to death and serious physical injuries, but also could put survivors at an increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, particularly acute stress disorder (ASD). Early assessment of trauma-related psychological responses is important because acute trauma responses in the early post-traumatic period are among the robust predictors of long-term mental health problems. However, estimates of the prevalence of ASD among RTA survivors varied considerably across studies...
June 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893758/early-and-rapid-detection-of-uchl1-in-the-serum-of-brain-trauma-patients-a-novel-gold-nanoparticle-based-method-for-diagnosing-the-severity-of-brain-injury
#14
Gyaninder Pal Singh, Richa Nigam, Gaurav Singh Tomar, Mohan Monisha, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi, Arulselvi S, Kangana Sengar, Deepa Akula, Prashanth Panta, Roy Anindya
The clinical diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is based on neurological examination and neuro-imaging tools such as CT scanning and MRI. However, neurological examination at times may be confounded by consumption of alcohol or drugs and neuroimaging facilities may not be available at all centers. Human ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCHL1) is a well-accepted serum biomarker for severe TBI and can be used to detect the severity of a head injury. A reliable, rapid, cost effective, bedside and easy to perform method for the detection of UCHL1 is a pre-requisite for wide clinical applications of UCHL1 as a TBI biomarker...
June 12, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893520/calculated-decisions-pecarn-pediatric-head-injury-trauma-algorithm
#15
Daniel Runde, Joshua Beiner
The PECARN Pediatric Head Injury Prediction Rule is a well-validated clinical decision aid that allows clinicians to safely rule out the presence of clinically important traumatic brain injuries.
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893072/-process-in-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#16
Mengmeng Liu, Xinran Cheng, Kaikai Li, Mingrui Xu, Yongji Wu, Mengli Wang, Qianru Zhang, Wenyong Yan, Chang Luo, Shanting Zhao
Stem cell research has become a frontier in the field of life sciences, and provides an ideal model for exploring developmental biology problems such as embryogenesis, histiocytosis, and gene expression regulation, as well as opens up new doors for clinical tissue defective and inheritance diseases. Among them, menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are characterized by wide source, multi-directional differentiation potential, low immune rejection characteristics. Thus, MenSCs can achieve individual treatment and have the most advantage of the clinical application...
May 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889090/assessment-of-systemic-administration-of-pegylated-igf-1-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Diana M Sama, Shaun W Carlson, Binoy Joseph, Stefanie Saenger, Friedrich Metzger, Kathryn E Saatman
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury can result in lasting cognitive dysfunction due to degeneration of mature hippocampal neurons as well as the loss of immature neurons within the dentate gyrus. While endogenous neurogenesis affords a partial recovery of the immature neuron population, hippocampal neurogenesis may be enhanced through therapeutic intervention. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has the potential to improve cognitive function and promote neurogenesis after TBI, but its short half-life in the systemic circulation makes it difficult to maintain a therapeutic concentration...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885419/secondary-brain-injury-predicting-and-preventing-insults
#18
REVIEW
Christos Lazaridis, Craig G Rusin, Claudia S Robertson
Mortality or severe disability affects the majority of patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adherence to the brain trauma foundation guidelines has overall improved outcomes; however, traditional as well as novel interventions towards intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injury have come under scrutiny after series of negative randomized controlled trials. In fact, it would not be unfair to say there has been no single major breakthrough in the management of severe TBI in the last two decades...
June 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885319/the-90-day-prognostic-value-of-serum-cyclophilin-a-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Hang-Huang Jin, Tian-Ming Mao, Zhi-Qiang Bai, Yuan Chen, Hai-Long Ji, Yong Jin
BACKGROUND: Cyclophilin A is involved in many inflammatory diseases and its expression is up-regulated after brain injury. We determined if serum cyclophilin A could be used as a marker for severity and 90-day outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Serum cyclophilin A concentrations were quantified in 105 severe TBI patients and 105 healthy individuals. Its association with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, 90-day mortality and 90-day poor outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) were investigated...
June 6, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882173/prevalence-of-concomitant-traumatic-cranio-spinal-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Mark J Pandrich, Andreas K Demetriades
The biomechanical relationship between cranial and spinal structures makes concomitant injury likely. Concomitant cranio-spinal injuries are important to consider following trauma due to the serious consequences of a missed injury. The objective of this review was to estimate the prevalence of concomitant cranio-spinal injury in the adult trauma population. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies reporting the prevalence of concomitant cranio-spinal injury in the general adult trauma population was conducted on 21 March 2017...
June 7, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
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