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Brain trauma injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241696/serious-concomitant-injuries-in-pediatric-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Keita Shibahashi, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Yoshihiro Okura, Hidenori Hoda, Yuichi Hamabe
BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death among children. Although several studies have reported the negative effects of concomitant injuries on mortality in adults with TBI, their effect on pediatric patients remains unclear. Our objective was to describe the effect of serious concomitant injuries on outcomes, in pediatric patients with severe TBI. METHODS: We identified pediatric patients (<18 years) with severe TBI, between 2004 and 2015, through the Japan Trauma Data Bank...
December 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241468/-addendum-to-the-dutch-guideline-for-minor-head-brain-injury
#2
C L van den Brand, J van der Naalt, G Hageman, H P Bienfait, R A van der Kruijk, K Jellema
- After introduction of the Dutch guideline for 'Care for patients with minor head/brain injury' (LTH guideline) in 2010, the number of CT scans has increased. Some of these scans were for patients with only trivial trauma and may not have been necessary.- In addition, since this guideline was implemented, there have been changes in the use of anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitors. Non-vitamin-K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and platelet aggregation inhibitors, or combinations of these, are prescribed more often...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239310/micrornas-as-diagnostic-markers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236167/evaluation-of-the-yield-of-24-h-close-observation-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-anticoagulation-therapy-a-retrospective-multicenter-study-and-meta-analysis
#4
Merelijne A Verschoof, Charlotte C M Zuurbier, Frank de Beer, Jonathan M Coutinho, Evert A Eggink, Björn M van Geel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on anticoagulants have an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). However, consensus is lacking on whether to admit them after normal initial cranial CT. We evaluated the yield of 24-h neurological observation. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study including adult patients admitted over a 5-year period with mTBI on anticoagulation [therapeutic dose heparin, direct oral anticoagulant, or vitamin K antagonist (VKA) with international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228667/metformin-ameliorates-sepsis-induced-brain-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#5
Guangming Tang, Huiyun Yang, Jing Chen, Mengrao Shi, Lingqing Ge, Xuhua Ge, Guoji Zhu
Sepsis-induced brain injuries increase mortality, morbidity, cognitive impairment and lack of effective therapeutic treatment. Previous studies have suggested that metformin provides neuroprotective effects against ischemia, brain trauma and other brain damage, but whether metformin protects a septic brain remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the possible effects and the mechanism of metformin against septic brain damage using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Mice were randomly divided into five groups: the Sham group, CLP group, CLP+ Met group, CLP+ vehicle group and CLP+ Met+ LY group...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227406/unexpected-blooming-artifact-in-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Akilesh Ramasamy, Balasubramanian Madhan, Balasubramanian Krishnan
Unexpected foreign bodies are occasionally discovered during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These are often present unknown to the patient, missed during routine pre-MRI screening and result in unnecessary delay during MRI. The authors present a patient with traumatically embedded foreign body in the scalp that escaped pre-MRI screening and caused susceptibility artifacts during brain MRI. The object was surgically removed to allow the imaging to be completed. Patients with suspicion or history of facial trauma or with dental restorations are referred to concerned specialists for compatibility of hardware, restorations and for assessing risks during MRI due to these...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227053/quantifying-the-funding-gap-for-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-at-a-major-trauma-centre-in-south-africa
#7
V Y Kong, J J Odendaal, J L Bruce, G L Laing, E Jerome, B Sartorius, P Brysiewicz, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Trauma is an eminently preventable disease. However, prevention programs divert resources away from other priorities. Costing trauma related diseases helps policy makers to make decisions on re-source allocation. We used data from a prospective digital trauma registry to cost Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) at our institution over a two-year period and to estimate the funding gap that exists in the care of TBI. METHOD: All patients who were admitted to the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) with TBI were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry (HMER)...
November 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227049/rib-fracture-fixation-in-a-south-african-public-trauma-service
#8
G V Oosthuizen, J De Wet, J L Bruce, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Rib fractures and flail chests have traditionally been treated nonoperatively. Current literature suggests that it is not only safe and feasible but also desirable to perform fixation of severe rib fractures. Our unit in the Pietermaritzburg public sector adopted rib fracture fixation in 2014 and in this audit we assess its feasibility in our setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We audited our first nine cases of rib fracture fixation performed to date, of which seven were males...
November 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226021/holmes-tremor-secondary-to-a-stabbing-lesion-in-the-midbrain
#9
Rubens Gisbert Cury, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Christian Freitas, Luis Filipe de Souza Godoy, Wellingson Silva Paiva
Background: The development of Holmes tremor (HT) after a direct lesion of the midbrain has rarely been reported in the literature, although several etiologies have been linked with HT, such as stroke, brainstem tumors, multiple sclerosis, head trauma, or infections. Phenomenology Shown: A 31-year-old male, having been stabbed in the right eye, presented with a rest and action tremor in the left upper limb associated with left hemiparesis with corresponding post-contrast volumetric magnetic resonance imaging T1 with sagittal oblique reformation showing the knife trajectory reaching the right midbrain...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225159/histopathology-of-periarticular-non-hereditary-heterotopic-ossification
#10
REVIEW
Kristin L Foley, Nader Hebela, Mary Ann Keenan, Robert J Pignolo
In the mature adult skeleton, new bone formation is normally restricted to regeneration of osseous tissue at sites of fracture. However, heterotopic ossification, or the formation of bone outside the normal skeleton, can occur within muscle, adipose, or fibrous connective tissue. Periarticular non-hereditary heterotopic ossification (NHHO) may occur after musculoskeletal trauma, following CNS injury, with certain arthropathies, or following injury or surgery that is often sustained in the context of age-related pathology...
December 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214853/psychometric-properties-of-the-satisfaction-with-life-scale-in-people-with-traumatic-brain-spinal-cord-or-burn-injury-a-national-institute-on-disability-independent-living-and-rehabilitation-research-model-system-study
#11
Dagmar Amtmann, Fraser D Bocell, Alyssa Bamer, Allen W Heinemann, Jeanne M Hoffman, Shannon B Juengst, Marta Rosenberg, Jeffery C Schneider, Shelley Wiechman, Kara McMullen
This study evaluated the measurement properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 17,897 people with spinal cord injury (48%, n = 8,566), traumatic brain injury (44%, n = 7,941), and burn injury (8%, n = 1,390), 1 year following injury. We examined measurement invariance across the groups, unidimensionality, local independence, reliability from a classical test and item response theory (IRT) framework, and fit to a unidimensional IRT model. The results support unidimensionality and local independence of the SWLS...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210926/hospital-readmissions-after-pediatric-trauma
#12
Aline B Maddux, Peter E DeWitt, Peter M Mourani, Tellen D Bennett
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate, etiology, and timing of unplanned and planned hospital readmissions and to identify risk factors for unplanned readmission in children who survive a hospitalization for trauma. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of a probabilistically linked dataset from the National Trauma Data Bank and the Pediatric Health Information System database, 2007-2012. SETTING: Twenty-nine U.S. children's hospitals...
November 28, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208736/pathophysiological-and-behavioral-deficits-in-developing-mice-following-rotational-acceleration-deceleration-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Guoxiang Wang, Yi Ping Zhang, Zhongwen Gao, Lisa B E Shields, Fang Li, Tianci Chu, Huayi Lv, Thomas Moriarty, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from trauma in infants and young children. An AHT animal model was developed on 12-day-old mice subjected to 90° head extension-flexion sagittal shaking repeated 30, 60, 80, and 100 times. The mortality and time until return of consciousness were dependent on the number of repeats and severity of the injury. Under 60 times of repeated head shakings, the pups demonstrated apnea and/or bradycardia immediately after injury. Acute oxygen desaturation was observed by pulse oximetry during respiratory and cardiac suppression...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205071/impact-of-helmet-use-in-equestrian-related-traumatic-brain-injury-a-matched-pairs-analysis
#14
Georg Bier, Malte N Bongers, Ahmed Othman, Johann-Martin Hempel, Volker Vieth, Walter Heindel, Ulrike Ernemann, Matthias C Burg
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury is an important health concern in equestrian sports. Nevertheless, the use of safety helmets, especially in recreational riding, is reported to be rare. The purpose of this study was to perform the first matched-pairs analysis of traumatic brain injury with regard to the use of helmets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective database analysis 40 patients (mean age: 35 ± 17.13 years; 34 female & 6 male) were combined in 20 matched pairs based on age group, gender and trauma mechanism...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204981/neuroprotective-effects-of-oleocanthal-a-compound-in-virgin-olive-oil-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Mesut Mete, Isıl Aydemir, Ulkun Unlu Unsal, Fatih Collu, Gokhan Vatandas, Beyhan Gurcu, Yusuf Kurtulus Duransoy, Fatma Taneli, Mehmet Ibrahim Tugrul, Mehmet Selcuki
AIM: TBI has two distinct phases: primary and secondary injury. Many agents have been used to prevent secondary injury. Oleocanthal (OC) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties similar nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of OC in a rat model of TBI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six adult male, Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into 4 groups. group 1, sham (n = 5). group 2, trauma (n = 5): Rats were treated with 10 mg/kg saline intraperitoneally (IP) twice a day...
November 1, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203228/mild-fluid-percussion-injury-induces-diffuse-axonal-damage-and-reactive-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#16
Melissa A Powell, Raiford T Black, Terry L Smith, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips
Despite the regenerative capacity of the olfactory bulb (OB), head trauma causes olfactory disturbances in up to 30% of patients. While models of olfactory nerve transection, olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) ablation, or direct OB impact have been used to examine OB recovery, these models are severe and not ideal for study of OB synaptic repair. We posited that a mild fluid percussion brain injury (mFPI), delivered over mid-dorsal cortex, would produce diffuse OB deafferentation without confounding pathology...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201849/concurrent-surgery-of-craniectomy-and-splenectomy-as-initial-treatment-in-severe-traumatic-head-injury-a-case-report
#17
Hyeong Rae Lee, Nam Kyu You, Sook Jin Seo, Mi Sun Choi
It is not a common case for neurosurgery department and the other departments to perform joint operation at the same time. Patients with severe head injury are a condition in which vital signs are unstable due to severe brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure, and emergency surgery is required. A 44-year-old man visited the trauma center with a motorcycle accident. The Glasgow Coma Scale score at the time of emergency department was 3 points, and the pupil was fixed at 6 mm on both sides. His medical history was unknown...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201843/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-bilateral-decompression-surgery-for-immediate-contralateral-hematoma-after-craniectomy-following-acute-subdural-hematoma
#18
Young Hwan Choi, Tea Kyoo Lim, Sang Gu Lee
Objective: Immediate contralateral epidural hematoma (EDH) and traumatic intracerebral hematoma (T-ICH) after craniectomy for traumatic subdural hematoma (SDH) are rare but devastating post-operative complications. Their clinical features and outcomes are not well studied. In this report, we present the clinical features and outcomes of immediate contralateral acute hematoma cases requiring a second operation. Methods: This study includes 10 cases of immediate contralateral EDH and T-ICH following bilateral craniectomy for the evacuation of traumatic SDH and contralateral hematoma between 2004 and 2015...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201841/the-combined-use-of-cardiac-output-and-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-to-maintain-optimal-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-and-minimize-complications-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Jin Shup So, Jung-Ho Yun
Objective: To show the effect of dual monitoring including cardiac output (CO) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patiens. We hypothesized that meticulous treatment using dual monitoring is effective to sustain maintain minimal intensive care unit (ICU) complications and maintain optimal ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) for severe TBI patiens. Methods: We included severe TBI, below Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 8 and head abbreviation injury scale (AIS) >4 and performed decompressive craniectomy at trauma ICU of our hospital...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201838/ganoderma-lucidum-protects-rat-brain-tissue-against-trauma-induced-oxidative-stress
#20
Özevren Hüseyin, İrtegün Sevgi, Deveci Engin, Aşır Fırat, Pektanç Gülsüm, Deveci Şenay
Objective: Traumatic brain injury causes tissue damage, breakdown of cerebral blood flow and metabolic regulation. This study aims to investigate the protective influence of antioxidant Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides (GLPs) on brain injury in brain-traumatized rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley conducted a head-traumatized method on rats by dropping off 300 g weight from 1 m height. Groups were categorized as control, G. lucidum, trauma, trauma+ G. lucidum (20 mL/kg per day via gastric gavage)...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
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