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Immune system modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049934/molecular-changes-associated-with-escitalopram-response-in-a-stress-based-model-of-depression
#1
Cristina Benatti, Silvia Alboni, Joan M C Blom, Julien Mendlewicz, Fabio Tascedda, Nicoletta Brunello
Converging evidence points at hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and neuroinflammation as important factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this study, we examined the molecular effects associated with a response to a week-long treatment with escitalopram in the chronic escape deficit (CED) model, a validated model of depression based on the induction of an escape deficit after exposure of rats to an unavoidable stress...
October 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049362/parallel-and-costly-changes-to-cellular-immunity-underlie-the-evolution-of-parasitoid-resistance-in-three-drosophila-species
#2
John E McGonigle, Alexandre B Leitão, Sarah Ommeslag, Sophie Smith, Jonathan P Day, Francis M Jiggins
A priority for biomedical research is to understand the causes of variation in susceptibility to infection. To investigate genetic variation in a model system, we used flies collected from single populations of three different species of Drosophila and artificially selected them for resistance to the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and found that survival rates increased 3 to 30 fold within 6 generations. Resistance in all three species involves a large increase in the number of the circulating hemocytes that kill parasitoids...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049330/the-prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-in-oropharyngeal-cancer-in-a-new-zealand-population
#3
Rebecca Lucas-Roxburgh, Jackie Benschop, Bruce Lockett, Ursula van den Heever, Ruth Williams, Laryssa Howe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in New Zealand (NZ) has more than doubled over the last 14 years with 126 cases in 2010. Overseas studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a significant role in the development of these cancers. However, the role of HPV in OPC and the burden on the NZ health system is unclear. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and the genotypes of HPV associated with OPC in New Zealand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049091/tumor-microenvironment-and-models-of-ovarian-cancer-the-11th-biennial-rivkin-center-ovarian-cancer-research-symposium
#4
Karen McLean, Geeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the latest research advances on the topics of the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment and models of ovarian cancer. METHODS: In September 2016, a symposium of the leaders in the field of ovarian cancer research was convened to present and discuss current advances and future directions in ovarian cancer research. RESULTS: One session was dedicated to Tumor Microenvironment and Models of Ovarian Cancer, and included a keynote presentation from Anil Sood, MD, and an invited oral presentation from David Huntsman, MD...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048978/antitumor-effect-of-oral-cancer-vaccine-with-bifidobacterium-delivering-wt1-protein-to-gut-immune-system-is-superior-to-wt1-peptide-vaccine
#5
Toshiro Shirakawa, Koichi Kitagawa
Despite the revolutionary progress of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) for cancer immunotherapy, CPIs are effective only in a subset of patients. Combining CPIs and cancer vaccines to achieve better clinical outcomes is a reasonable approach since CPI enhances cancer vaccine-induced tumor-associated antigen (TAA) specific CTL. Among the various TAAs so far identified, WT1 protein is one of the most promising TAAs as a cancer vaccine target. Until now clinical trials of WT1 vaccine have demonstrated only modest clinical efficacy...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046894/fatty-acid-mimetic-micelles-for-dual-delivery-of-antigens-and-imidazoquinoline-adjuvants
#6
Sema Sevimli, Frances C Knight, Pavlo Gilchuk, Sebastian Joyce, John T Wilson
Vaccine design has undergone a shift towards the use of purified protein subunit vaccines, which offer increased safety and greater control over antigen specificity, but at the expense of immunogenicity. Here we report the development of a new polymer-based vaccine delivery platform engineered to enhance immunity through the co-delivery of protein antigens and the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist imiquimod (IMQ). Owing to the preferential solubility of IMQ in fatty acids, a series of block copolymer micelles with a fatty acid-mimetic core comprising lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA), and a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) corona decorated with pyridyl disulfide ethyl methacrylate (PDSM) moieties for antigen conjugation were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization...
February 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046675/interpreting-t-cell-cross-reactivity-through-structure-implications-for-tcr-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
Dinler A Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Martiela V Freitas, Marcus F A Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizée, Lydia E Kavraki, Liisa K Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F Vieira
Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising avenues for cancer treatment, making use of the patient's own immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Clinical trials with T-cell-based immunotherapies have shown dramatic tumor regressions, being effective in multiple cancer types and for many different patients. Unfortunately, this progress was tempered by reports of serious (even fatal) side effects. Such therapies rely on the use of cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes, an essential part of the adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046636/targeting-the-immune-system-with-plant-lectins-to-combat-microbial-infections
#8
REVIEW
Jannyson J B Jandú, Roberval N Moraes Neto, Adrielle Zagmignan, Eduardo M de Sousa, Maria C A Brelaz-de-Castro, Maria T Dos Santos Correia, Luís C N da Silva
The arsenal of drugs available to treat infections caused by eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes has been declining exponentially due to antimicrobial resistance phenomenon, leading to an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies. Host-directed immunotherapy has been reported as an attractive option to treat microbial infections. It consists in the improvement of host defenses by increasing the expression of inflammatory mediators and/or controlling of inflammation-induced tissue injury. Although the in vitro antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of lectins have been extensively demonstrated, few studies have evaluated their in vivo effects on experimental models of infections...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046481/reevaluation-of-immune-activation-in-the-era-of-cart-and-an-aging-hiv-infected-population
#9
Lesley R de Armas, Suresh Pallikkuth, Varghese George, Stefano Rinaldi, Rajendra Pahwa, Kristopher L Arheart, Savita Pahwa
Biological aging is associated with immune activation (IA) and declining immunity due to systemic inflammation. It is widely accepted that HIV infection causes persistent IA and premature immune senescence despite effective antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression; however, the effects of combined HIV infection and aging are not well defined. Here, we assessed the relationship between markers of IA and inflammation during biological aging in HIV-infected and -uninfected populations. Antibody response to seasonal influenza vaccination was implemented as a measure of immune competence and relationships between IA, inflammation, and antibody responses were explored using statistical modeling appropriate for integrating high-dimensional data sets...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046347/investigating-immune-gene-signatures-in-peripheral-blood-from-subjects-with-allergic-rhinitis-undergoing-nasal-allergen-challenge
#10
Young Woong Kim, Amrit Singh, Casey P Shannon, Jenny Thiele, Lisa M Steacy, Anne K Ellis, Helen Neighbour, Daniel R Gliddon, Pascal L C Hickey, Mark Larché, Scott J Tebbutt
Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) is a human model of allergic rhinitis (AR) that delivers standardized allergens locally to the nasal mucosa allowing clinical symptoms and biospecimens such as peripheral blood to be collected. Although many studies have focused on local inflammatory sites, peripheral blood, an important mediator and a component of the systemic immune response, has not been well studied in the setting of AR. We sought to investigate immune gene signatures in peripheral blood collected after NAC under the setting of AR...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046274/genetic-depletion-or-hyperresponsiveness-of-natural-killer-cells-do-not-affect-atherosclerosis-development
#11
Wared Nour Eldine, Jeremie Joffre, Kazem Zibara, Andreas Giraud, Bruno Esposito, Lynda Zeboudj, José Vilar, Megumi Terada, Patrick Bruneval, Eric Vivier, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Ziad Mallat, Sophie Ugolini, Alain Tedgui
Rationale: Chronic inflammation is central in the development of atherosclerosis. Both innate and adaptive immunity are involved. Although several studies have evaluated the functions of NK cells in experimental animal models of atherosclerosis, it is not yet clear whether NK cells behave as protective or pro-atherogenic effectors. One of the main caveats of previous studies was the lack of specificity in targeting loss- or gain-of-function of NK cells. Objective: We used two selective genetic approaches to investigate the role of NK cells in atherosclerosis: 1) Ncr1i(Cre/+)R26(lsl-DTA/+) mice in which NK cells were depleted, 2) Noé mice in which NK cells are hyperresponsive...
October 18, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045972/-acetylsalicylic-acid-treatment-enhanced-immunomodulatory-function-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-gingiva
#12
R L Yang, T T Yu, Y H Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in immunomodulation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gingiva (GMSCs), and to explore the role of ASA in enhancing the immumomodulation of GMSCs and the capacity of GMSCs to treat immune disorders and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Flow cytometry analysis were used to analyze the role of ASA in the expression of stem cells surface markers CD146, CD105, CD90, CD34 and CD45 in GMSCs,and the GMSCs proliferation was analyzed by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045882/untangling-the-hairball-fitness-based-asymptotic-reduction-of-biological-networks
#13
Félix Proulx-Giraldeau, Thomas J Rademaker, Paul François
Complex mathematical models of interaction networks are routinely used for prediction in systems biology. However, it is difficult to reconcile network complexities with a formal understanding of their behavior. Here, we propose a simple procedure (called ϕ¯) to reduce biological models to functional submodules, using statistical mechanics of complex systems combined with a fitness-based approach inspired by in silico evolution. The ϕ¯ algorithm works by putting parameters or combination of parameters to some asymptotic limit, while keeping (or slightly improving) the model performance, and requires parameter symmetry breaking for more complex models...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045460/conjugated-nanoliposome-with-the-her2-neu-derived-peptide-gp2-as-an-effective-vaccine-against-breast-cancer-in-mice-xenograft-model
#14
Atefeh Razazan, Javad Behravan, Atefeh Arab, Nastaran Barati, Leila Arabi, Zahra Gholizadeh, Mahdi Hatamipour, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Fatemeh Mosaffa, Mohamad Hosein Ghahremani, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
One of the challenging issues in vaccine development is peptide and adjuvant delivery into target cells. In this study, we developed a vaccine and therapeutic delivery system to increase cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against a breast cancer model overexpressing HER2/neu. Gp2, a HER2/neu-derived peptide, was conjugated to Maleimide-mPEG2000-DSPE micelles and post inserted into liposomes composed of DMPC, DMPG phospholipids, and fusogenic lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant (DMPC-DMPG-DOPE-MPL-Gp2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044530/gingival-tissue-an-extrasynovial-source-of-malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducts-citrullinated-and-carbamylated-proteins
#15
R Bright, G M Thiele, J Manavis, T R Mikuls, J B Payne, P M Bartold
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postranslational modification of proteins can lead to the production of autoantibodies and loss of immune tolerance. This process has been hypothesised to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that inflamed human gingival tissue provides an extrasynovial source of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts, citrullinated and carbamylated proteins all of which are considered to be linked to the development of rheumatoid arthritis...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044422/the-response-of-the-innate-immune-and-cardiovascular-systems-to-lps-in-pregnant-and-nonpregnant-mice
#16
Julia Zöllner, Laura G Howe, Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Masao Takata, Fabiana Gordon, James Leiper, Mark R Johnson
Sepsis is the leading cause of direct maternal mortality, but there are no data directly comparing the response to sepsis in pregnant and nonpregnant (NP) individuals. This study uses a mouse model of sepsis to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular response to sepsis is more marked during pregnancy. Female CD1 mice had radiotelemetry probes implanted and were time mated. NP and day 16 pregnant CD-1 mice received intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 μg, serotype 0111: B4). In a separate study, tissue and serum (for RNA, protein and flow cytometry studies), aorta and uterine vessels (for wire myography) were collected after LPS or vehicle control administration...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044377/heparosan-coated-liposomes-for-drug-delivery
#17
Rachel S Lane, F Michael Haller, Anais A E Chavaroche, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Liposomal encapsulation is a useful drug delivery strategy for small molecules, especially chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. Doxil® is a doxorubicin-containing liposome ("dox-liposome") that passively targets drug to tumors while reducing side effects caused by free drug permeating and poisoning healthy tissues. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the hydrophilic coating of Doxil® that protects the formulation from triggering the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Evading the MPS prolongs dox-liposome circulation time thus increasing drug deposition at the tumor site...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044209/cell-penetrating-interactomic-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-in-a-mouse-model-of-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction
#18
So Yeong Cheon, Jeong Min Kim, Eun Hee Kam, Chun-Chang Ho, Eun Jung Kim, Seungsoo Chung, Ji-Hyun Jeong, Diane Da-Hyun Lee, Sang-Won Lee, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Some patients experience impaired cognitive functioning after surgery, a phenomenon referred to as postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Signs of POCD are closely associated with the development of systemic or hippocampal inflammation. However, the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of prevention/treatment options for POCD still remain unclear. After injury, the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is thought to regulate or stimulate inflammation amplification. Therefore, we designed a cell-penetrating fusion protein called nt-p65-TMD, which inhibits NF-κB p65 activation by translocating into the nucleus...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044140/therapeutic-potential-of-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-a1-for-preventing-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Yodai Kobayashi, Hirosuke Sugahara, Kousuke Shimada, Eri Mitsuyama, Tetsuya Kuhara, Akihito Yasuoka, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao
It has previously been shown that the consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects not only on peripheral tissues but also on the central nervous system and behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, raising the possibility that treatment with probiotics could be an effective therapeutic strategy for managing neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 (B. breve A1) on behavior and physiological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042780/frequencies-of-circulating-b-and-t-lymphocytes-as-indicators-for-stroke-outcomes
#20
Yanling Wang, Jihong Liu, Xuemei Wang, Zongjian Liu, Fengwu Li, Fenghua Chen, Xiaokun Geng, Zhili Ji, Huishan Du, Xiaoming Hu
BACKGROUND: Stroke has high mortality and morbidity. Biomarkers are required for to predict stroke outcomes, which could help clinicians to provide rationale approaches for patient management. The dynamic changes in circulating immune cells have been reported in stroke patients and animal models of stroke. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore biomarkers to predict stroke outcomes by investigating the relationship between the frequencies of circulating immune cells and stroke outcomes...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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