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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534691/financial-woes-spell-trouble-for-the-biological-weapons-convention
#1
Kathryn Millett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497737/-phage-therapy-a-realistic-weapon-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#2
Nicolas Dufour, Laurent Debarbieux
The continuous increase in antibiotic resistance among bacteria in infectious diseases associated with the lack of new antibiotics able to circumvent them are urging physicians, researchers and politicians to look for others options for treatments. Among those, phage therapy (use of natural viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages) is one of the most promising approaches. In this review, we first focus on the problematic raised by multidrug resistant bacteria before addressing the main biological characteristics of bacteriophages, as well as the credibility and the relevance of phage therapy...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495766/ten-genome-sequences-of-human-and-livestock-isolates-of-bacillus-anthracis-from-the-country-of-georgia
#3
Ekaterine Khmaladze, Giorgi Dzavashvili, Gvantsa Chanturia, Mikeljon P Nikolich, Patrick S G Chain, Shannon L Johnson, Paata Imnadze
Bacillus anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax, is a proven biological weapon, and is endemic in Georgia, where human and animal cases are reported annually. Here, we present whole-genome sequences of 10 historical B. anthracis strains from Georgia.
May 11, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493905/melioidosis-clinical-impact-and-public-health-threat-in-the-tropics
#4
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Gautam Sethi, Lina H K Lim
This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452296/forensic-approaches-to-detect-possible-agents-of-bioterror
#5
Alfredo A González, Jessica I Rivera-Pérez, Gary A Toranzos
Many biological agents have been strategic pathogenic agents throughout history. Some have even changed history as a consequence of early discoveries of their use as weapons of war. Many of these bioagents can be easily isolated from the environment, and some have recently been genetically manipulated to become more pathogenic for biowarfare. However, it is difficult to determine accidental outbreaks of disease from intentional exposures. In this review, we examine how molecular tools have been used in combination with forensic research to resolve cases of unusual outbreaks and trace the source of the biocrime...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442608/unexpected-relations-of-historical-anthrax-strain
#6
M H Antwerpen, J W Sahl, D Birdsell, T Pearson, M J Pearce, C Redmond, H Meyer, P S Keim
In 1998, it was claimed that an 80-year-old glass tube intentionally filled with Bacillus anthracis and embedded in a sugar lump as a WWI biological weapon still contained viable spores. Today, genome sequencing of three colonies isolated in 1998 and subjected to phylogenetic analysis surprisingly identified a well-known B. anthracis reference strain isolated in the United States in 1981, pointing to accidental laboratory contamination.IMPORTANCE Next-generation sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analyses are useful and reliable tools for the classification of recent and historical samples...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398677/preparing-for-biological-threats-addressing-the-needs-of-pregnant-women
#7
REVIEW
Amelia K Watson, Sascha Ellington, Christina Nelson, Tracee Treadwell, Denise J Jamieson, Dana M Meaney-Delman
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus)...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388218/the-department-of-defense-chemical-and-biological-defense-program-an-enabler-of-the-third-offset-strategy
#8
Jason Roos, Calvin Chue, Diane DiEuliis, Peter Emanuel
The US Department of Defense (DOD) established programs to defend against chemical and biological weapons 100 years ago because military leaders understood that the operational capability of the US military is diminished when service member health is compromised. These threats to operational readiness can be from an overt attack using chemical and biological threats but may also arise from natural exposures. In the current era of rapidly emerging technologies, adversaries are not only rediscovering chemical and biological weapons; they are also displaying an increased propensity to employ them to cause strategic instability among deployed forces or nations undergoing conflict...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384583/effect-of-water-table-variations-and-input-of-natural-organic-matter-on-the-cycles-of-c-and-n-and-mobility-of-as-zn-and-cu-from-a-soil-impacted-by-the-burning-of-chemical-warfare-agents-a-mesocosm-study
#9
Hugues Thouin, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Pascale Gautret, Lydie Le Forestier, Dominique Breeze, Fabienne Séby, Marie-Paule Norini, Sebastien Dupraz
A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and of the input of bioavailable organic matter on the biogeochemical cycles of C and N, and on the behavior of metal(loid)s in a soil highly contaminated by the destruction of arsenical shells. An instrumented mesocosm was filled with contaminated soil taken from the "Place-à-Gaz" site. Four cycles of dry and wet periods of about one month were simulated for 276days. After two dry/wet cycles, organic litter sampled on the site was added above the topsoil...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292727/analysis-of-dna-from-post-blast-pipe-bomb-fragments-for-identification-and-determination-of-ancestry
#10
Esiri Tasker, Bobby LaRue, Charity Beherec, David Gangitano, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as pipe bombs are weapons used to detrimentally affect people and communities. A readily accessible brand of exploding targets called Tannerite® has been identified as a potential material for abuse as an explosive in pipe bombs. The ability to recover and genotype DNA from such weapons may be vital in the effort to identify suspects associated with these devices. While it is possible to recover DNA from post-blast fragments using short tandem repeat markers (STRs), genotyping success can be negatively affected by low quantities of DNA, degradation, and/or PCR inhibitors...
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291503/regenerative-and-antibacterial-properties-of-acellular-fish-skin-grafts-and-human-amnion-chorion-membrane-implications-for-tissue-preservation-in-combat-casualty-care
#11
Skuli Magnusson, Baldur Tumi Baldursson, Hilmar Kjartansson, Ottar Rolfsson, Gudmundur Fertram Sigurjonsson
BACKGROUND: Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271909/challenges-in-searching-for-therapeutics-against-botulinum-neurotoxins
#12
Marco Pirazzini, Ornella Rossetto
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins known. BoNTs are responsible for botulism, a deadly neuroparalytic syndrome caused by the inactivation of neurotransmitter release at peripheral nerve terminals. Thanks to their specificity and potency, BoNTs are both considered potential bio-weapons and therapeutics of choice for a variety of medical syndromes. Several variants of BoNTs have been identified with individual biological properties and little antigenic relation. This expands greatly the potential of BoNTs as therapeutics but poses a major safety problem, increasing the need for finding appropriate antidotes...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263059/postexposure-recovery-and-analysis-of-biological-agent-in-a-simulated-biothreat-scenario-using-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Sakshi Rajoria, Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Pallavi Gupta, Syed Imteyaz Alam
Some pathogens and toxins have the potential to be used as weapons of mass destruction and instigate population-based fear. Rapid, sensitive, and unambiguous identification of biothreat agents is of paramount importance for confirmation of the event and to mitigate the direct and indirect damages to public health and resources. Although there are several potential dissemination scenarios to describe an attack with a biological weapon, artificially generated bioaerosol is of the greatest concern from a bioterrorism or warfare perspective, potentially capable of causing mass destruction to a civilian or military population by inhalation of toxic bioaerosol...
March 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250257/clinical-study-of-new-tetravalent-type-a-b-e-and-f-botulinum-toxoid-vaccine-derived-from-m-toxin-in-japan
#14
Yasushi Torii, Nakaba Sugimoto, Tomoko Kohda, Shunji Kozaki, Kazunori Morokuma, Yoshikane Horikawa, Akihiro Ginnaga, Akihiko Yamamoto, Motohide Takahashi
Botulinum toxin is most poisonous substance, and it is thought to be a high risk of it being used as a biological weapon; researchers of the toxin are exposed to such a hazard. Botulinum toxoid vaccines have been produced and used in Japan.  However, clinical studies using these vaccines were conducted before establishment of the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research in Japan, and their immunogenicity and safety using a systematic approach were not assessed. In this study, we produced new tetravalent (type A, B, E, and F) botulinum toxoid vaccine, the first derived from M toxin in the world, and conducted quality control tests with reference to the minimum requirements in Japan for adsorbed tetanus toxoid vaccine...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242227/insects-arachnids-and-centipedes-venom-a-powerful-weapon-against-bacteria-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Filippo Fratini, Giovanni Cilia, Barbara Turchi, Antonio Felicioli
Currently, new antimicrobial molecules extracted or obtained by natural sources, could be a valide alternative to traditional antibiotics. Most of these molecules are represented by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are essential compounds of insect, arachnids and centipedes venom. AMPs, due to their strong effectiveness, low resistance rates and peculiar mode of action, seem to have all the suitable features to be a powerful weapon against several bacteria, especially considering the increasing antibiotic-resistance phenomena...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210074/second-look-surgery-plus-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-for-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-at-high-risk-of-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-does-it-really-save-lives
#16
EDITORIAL
Delia Cortes-Guiral, Dominique Elias, Pedro Antonio Cascales-Campos, Alfredo Badía Yébenes, Ismael Guijo Castellano, Ana Isabel León Carbonero, José Ignacio Martín Valadés, Jesus Garcia-Foncillas, Damian Garcia-Olmo
The treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has a 5-year recurrence-free or cure rate of at least 16%, so it is no longer labeled as a fatal disease, and offers prolonged survival for patients with a low peritoneal carcinomatosis index. Metachronous PC of colorectal origin is so predictable that there is a model which has been used to successfully determine the individual risk of each patient. Patients at risk are clearly identified; those with the highest risk have small peritoneal nodules present in the first surgery (70% probability of developing PC), ovarian metastases (60%), perforated tumor onset or intraoperative tumor rupture (50%)...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092448/prevention-of-the-development-or-use-of-biological-weapons
#17
Gigi Kwik Gronvall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063583/analysis-of-fingerprint-samples-testing-various-conditions-for-forensic-dna-identification
#18
Lana Ostojic, Elisa Wurmbach
Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete)...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027166/ncrp-vision-for-the-future-and-program-area-committee-activities
#19
John D Boice
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) believes that the most critical need for the nation in radiation protection is to train, engage, and retain radiation professionals for the future. Not only is the pipeline shrinking, but for some areas there is no longer a pipe! When the call comes to respond, there may be no one to answer the phone! The NCRP "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" initiative, Council Committee (CC) 2, and this year's annual meeting are to focus our efforts to find solutions and not just reiterate the problems...
February 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999233/smallpox-as-an-actual-biothreat-lessons-learned-from-its-outbreak-in-ex-yugoslavia-in-1972
#20
Elizabeta Ristanovic, Ana Gligic, Sonja Atanasievska, Vesna Protic-Djokic, Dragutin Jovanovic, Miodrag Radunovic
Variola (smallpox) virus is classified as class A of potential biological weapons, due to its microbiological, genetic, antigenic and epidemiological characteristics. The potential danger is more real because vaccination against smallpox has stopped since disease eradication in 1979. That is why we want to share our unique, rich experience and acquired knowledge in the fight against this highly contagious and deadly disease during the smallpox outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972. It was the largest postwar outbreak in Europe when there were officially registered 175 ill patients, 35 of them with lethal outcome...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
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