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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756135/microbial-small-molecules-weapons-of-plant-subversion
#1
REVIEW
Ioannis A Stringlis, Hao Zhang, Corné M J Pieterse, Melvin D Bolton, Ronnie de Jonge
Covering: up to 2018Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut...
May 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736597/differential-mobility-spectrometry-mass-spectrometry-dms-ms-in-radiation-biodosimetry-rapid-and-high-throughput-quantitation-of-multiple-radiation-biomarkers-in-nonhuman-primate-urine
#2
Zhidan Chen, Stephen L Coy, Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Albert J Fornace, Paul Vouros
High-throughput methods to assess radiation exposure are a priority due to concerns that include nuclear power accidents, the spread of nuclear weapon capability, and the risk of terrorist attacks. Metabolomics, the assessment of small molecules in an easily accessible sample, is the most recent method to be applied for the identification of biomarkers of the biological radiation response with a useful dose-response profile. Profiling for biomarker identification is frequently done using an LC-MS platform which has limited throughput due to the time-consuming nature of chromatography...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715467/diversity-of-peptidic-and-proteinaceous-toxins-from-social-hymenoptera-venoms
#3
José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, Mario Sergio Palma
Among venomous animals, Hymenoptera have been suggested as a rich source of natural toxins. Due to their broad ecological diversity, venom from Hymenoptera insects (bees, wasps and ants) have evolved differentially thus widening the types and biological functions of their components. To date, insect toxinology analysis have scarcely uncovered the complex composition of bee, wasp and ant venoms which include low molecular weight compounds, highly abundant peptides and proteins, including several allergens. In Hymenoptera, these complex mixtures of toxins represent a potent arsenal of biological weapons that are used for self-defense, to repel intruders and to capture prey...
April 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672992/life-in-the-fast-lane-settled-pastoralism-in-the-central-eurasian-steppe-during-the-middle-bronze-age
#4
Margaret A Judd, Jessica L Walker, Alicia Ventresca Miller, Dmitry Razhev, Andrey V Epimakhov, Bryan K Hanks
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that the purported unstable climate in the South Urals region during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) resulted in health instability and social stress as evidenced by skeletal response. METHODS: The skeletal sample (n = 99) derived from Kamennyi Ambar 5 (KA-5), a MBA kurgan cemetery (2040-1730 cal. BCE, 2 sigma) associated with the Sintashta culture. Skeletal stress indicators assessed included cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and tibia periosteal new bone growth...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568736/a-new-approach-to-evaluating-the-risk-benefit-equation-for-dual-use-and-gain-of-function-research-of-concern
#5
Michael J Imperiale, Arturo Casadevall
In the twenty-first century, biology faces a problem that has previously vexed other disciplines such as physics, namely the prospect that its knowledge domain could be used to generate biological agents with altered properties that enhanced their weapon potential. Biological weapons bring the additional dimension that these could be self-replicating, easy to manufacture and synthesized with commonly available expertise. This resulted in increasing concern about the type of research done and communicated, despite the fact that such research often has direct societal benefits, bringing the dual-use dilemma to biology...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562120/new-weapons-in-the-toad-toolkit-a-review-of-methods-to-control-and-mitigate-the-biodiversity-impacts-of-invasive-cane-toads-rhinella-marina
#6
Reid Tingley, Georgia Ward-Fear, Lin Schwarzkopf, Matthew J Greenlees, Benjamin L Phillips, Gregory Brown, Simon Clulow, Jonathan Webb, Robert Capon, Andy Sheppard, Tanja Strive, Mark Tizard, Richard Shine
Our best hope of developing innovative methods to combat invasive species is likely to come from the study of high-profile invaders that have attracted intensive research not only into control, but also basic biology. Here we illustrate that point by reviewing current thinking about novel ways to control one of the world’s most well-studied invasions: that of the cane toad in Australia. Recently developed methods for population suppression include more effective traps based on the toad’s acoustic and pheromonal biology...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533075/analysis-of-the-precursors-simulants-and-degradation-products-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#7
REVIEW
Zygfryd Witkiewicz, Slawomir Neffe, Ewa Sliwka, Javier Quagliano
Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997)...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516754/functional-exploration-of-the-bacterial-type-vi-secretion-system-in-mutualism-azorhizobium-caulinodans-ors571-sesbania-rostrata-as-a-research-model
#8
Hsiao-Han Lin, Hsin-Mei Huang, Manda Yu, Erh-Min Lai, Hsiao-Lin Chien, Chi-Te Liu
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been considered the armed force of bacteria because it can deliver toxin effectors to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells for survival and fitness. Although many legume symbiotic rhizobacteria encode T6SS in their genome, the biological function of T6SS in these bacteria is still unclear. To elucidate this issue, we used Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 and its symbiotic host Sesbania rostrata as our research model. By using T6SS gene deletion mutants, we found that T6SS provides A...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505560/reading-the-tea-leaves-dead-transposon-copies-reveal-novel-host-and-transposon-biology
#9
Richard N McLaughlin
Transposable elements comprise a huge portion of most animal genomes. Unlike many pathogens, these elements leave a mark of their impact via their insertion into host genomes. With proper teasing, these sequences can relay information about the evolutionary history of transposons and their hosts. In a new publication, Larson and colleagues describe a previously unappreciated density of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) sequences that have been spliced (LINE-1 and other reverse transcribing elements are necessarily intronless)...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452767/uptake-and-distribution-of-organo-iodine-in-deep-sea-corals
#10
Nancy G Prouty, E Brendan Roark, Leslye M Mohon, Ching-Chih Chang
Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432816/new-weapons-to-penetrate-the-armor-novel-reagents-and-assays-developed-at-the-nci-ras-initiative-to-enable-discovery-of-ras-therapeutics
#11
REVIEW
Dominic Esposito, Andrew G Stephen, Thomas J Turbyville, Matthew Holderfield
Development of therapeutic strategies against RAS-driven cancers has been challenging due in part to a lack of understanding of the biology of the system and the ability to design appropriate assays and reagents for targeted drug discovery efforts. Recent developments in the field have opened up new avenues for exploration both through advances in the number and quality of reagents as well as the introduction of novel biochemical and cell-based assay technologies which can be used for high-throughput screening of compound libraries...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401327/beyond-the-dirty-dozen-a-proposed-methodology-for-assessing-future-bioweapon-threats
#12
Theodore J Cieslak, Mark G Kortepeter, Ronald J Wojtyk, Hugo-Jan Jansen, Ricardo A Reyes, James O Smith
Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Appropriately, in each of these cases, the possibility of bioterrorism was raised, although each outbreak ultimately proved to have a natural origin...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363950/developments-in-glycopeptide-antibiotics
#13
Mark A T Blaskovich, Karl A Hansford, Mark S Butler, ZhiGuang Jia, Alan E Mark, Matthew A Cooper
Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are a key weapon in the fight against drug resistant bacteria, with vancomycin still a mainstream therapy against serious Gram-positive infections more than 50 years after it was first introduced. New, more potent semisynthetic derivatives that have entered the clinic, such as dalbavancin and oritavancin, have superior pharmacokinetic and target engagement profiles that enable successful treatment of vancomycin-resistant infections. In the face of resistance development, with multidrug resistant (MDR) S...
February 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359226/chemical-language-and-warfare-of-bacterial-natural-products-in-bacteria-nematode-insect-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Yi-Ming Shi, Helge B Bode
Covering: up to November 2017Organismic interaction is one of the fundamental principles for survival in any ecosystem. Today, numerous examples show the interaction between microorganisms like bacteria and higher eukaryotes that can be anything between mutualistic to parasitic/pathogenic symbioses. There is also increasing evidence that microorganisms are used by higher eukaryotes not only for the supply of essential factors like vitamins but also as biological weapons to protect themselves or to kill other organisms...
January 23, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335000/molecular-characterization-of-babesia-microti-thioredoxin-bmtrx2-and-its-expression-patterns-induced-by-antiprotozoal-drugs
#15
Jingwei Huang, Kang Xiong, Houshuang Zhang, Yanzhen Zhao, Jie Cao, Haiyan Gong, Yongzhi Zhou, Jinlin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Human babesiosis is an infectious disease that is epidemic in various regions all over the world. The predominant causative pathogen of this disease is the intra-erythrocytic parasite Babesia microti. The thioredoxin system is one of the major weapons that is used in the resistance to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced by host immune system. In other intra-erythrocytic apicomplexans like the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, anti-oxidative proteins are promising targets for the development of anti-parasitic drugs...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298051/crispred-macrophages-for-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Moumita Ray, Yi-Wei Lee, Joseph Hardie, Rubul Mout, Gulen Yeşilbag Tonga, Michelle E Farkas, Vincent M Rotello
We present here an integrated nanotechnology/biology strategy for cancer immunotherapy that uses arginine nanoparticles (ArgNPs) to deliver CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing machinery into cells to generate SIRP-α knockout macrophages. The NP system efficiently codelivers single guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 protein required for editing to knock out the "don't eat me signal" in macrophages that prevents phagocytosis of cancer cells. Turning off this signal increased the innate phagocytic capabilities of the macrophages by 4-fold...
February 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282151/the-changing-face-of-clinical-trials-in-the-personalized-medicine-and-immuno-oncology-era-report-from-the-international-congress-on-clinical-trials-in-oncology-hemato-oncology-icto-2017
#17
Talia Golan, Michele Milella, Aliza Ackerstein, Ranaan Berger
In the past decade, the oncology community has witnessed major advances in the understanding of cancer biology and major breakthroughs in several different therapeutic areas, from solid tumors to hematological malignancies; moreover, the advent of effective immunotherapy approaches, such as immune-checkpoint blockade, is revolutionizing treatment algorithms in almost all oncology disease areas. As knowledge evolves and new weapons emerge in the "war against cancer", clinical and translational research need to adapt to a rapidly changing environment to effectively translate novel concepts into sustainable and accessible therapeutic options for cancer patients...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238905/biologic-agents-for-severe-asthma-patients-clinical-perspectives-and-implications
#18
REVIEW
Massimo Caruso, Jaymin Morjaria, Rosalia Emma, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Riccardo Polosa
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory multifactorial disorder of the airways characterized by the involvement of immune cells and mediators in its onset and maintenance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been unsatisfactory in controlling the underlying pathology, especially in the more severe states. Hence in the last couple of decades, new biological approaches targeting molecular mediators have been developed. In this narrative review we examine biological agents currently available for the management of severe asthma, focusing our attention on their clinical application, pros and cons, and in particular on gaps regarding the use of these agents...
March 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209145/altered-neuroendocrine-immune-responses-a-two-sword-weapon-against-traumatic-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Xuetao Yang, Jianxin Jiang
During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197625/chemical-warfare-agents-classes-and-targets
#20
Michael Schwenk
Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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