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Biological weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139032/radium-biophysics-and-radiobiology-tracing-the-history-of-radiobiology-in-twentieth-century-china
#1
Christine Yi Lai Luk
Radiobiology assesses the biological hazards of exposure to radioactive substances and nuclear radiation. This article explores the history of radiobiology in twentieth-century China by examining the overlapping of radium research and biophysics, from roughly the 1920s Nationalist period to the 1960s Communist period; from the foreign purchase of radium by the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board during the Republican era, to the institutional establishment of radiobiology as a subset of biophysics in the People's Republic...
November 2, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135312/rethinking-the-biological-and-toxin-weapons-convention
#2
Daniel Gerstein, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132197/humanized-mice-for-the-evaluation-of-francisella-tularensis-vaccine-candidates
#3
Hanseul Oh, C-Yoon Kim, Chang-Hwan Kim, Gyeung-Haeng Hur, Ji Min Lee, Seo-Na Chang, Jae-Hak Park
Francisella tularensis (FT), a highly infectious pathogen, is considered to be a potential biological weapon owing to the current lack of a human vaccine against it. Tul4 and FopA, both outer membrane proteins of FT, play an important role in the bacterium's immunogenicity. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of mice-humanized with human CD34+ cells (hu-mice)-to a cocktail of recombinant Tul4 and FopA (rTul4 and rFopA), which were codon-optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Not only did the cocktail-immunized hu-mice produce a significant human immunoglobulin response, they also exhibited prolonged survival against an attenuated live vaccine strain as well as human T cell in the spleen...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089110/chest-response-assessment-of-post-mortem-swine-under-blast-loadings
#4
Johanna Boutillier, Sébastien De Mezzo, Caroline Deck, Pascal Magnan, Pierre Naz, Rémy Willinger
To better protect soldiers from blast threat, that principally affect air-filled organs such a lung, it is necessary to develop an adapted injury criterion and, prior to this, to evaluate the response of a biological model against that threat. The objective of this study is to provide some robust data to quantify the chest response of post-mortem swine under blast loadings. 7 post-mortem swine (54.5 ± 2.6 kg), placed side-on to the threat and against the ground, were exposed to 5 shock-waves of increasing intensities...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076758/are-sigma-receptor-modulators-a-weapon-against-multiple-sclerosis-disease
#5
Simona Collina, Marta Rui, Silvia Stotani, Emanuele Bignardi, Daniela Rossi, Daniela Curti, Fabrizio Giordanetto, Alessio Malacrida, Arianna Scuteri, Guido Cavaletti
Effective therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are still missing. This neurological disease affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. To date, biological immunomodulatory drugs are effective and safe during short-term treatment, but they are suitable only for parenteral administration and they are expensive. Accordingly, academic and industrial environments are still focusing their efforts toward the development of new MS drugs. Considering that neurodegeneration is a contributory factor in the onset of MS, herein we will focus on the crucial role played by sigma 1 receptors (S1Rs) in MS...
October 27, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038886/forces-generated-in-stabbing-attacks-an-evaluation-of-the-utility-of-the-mild-moderate-and-severe-scale
#6
Gary Nolan, Sarah V Hainsworth, Guy N Rutty
The commonest way of killing in the UK is by a sharp instrument. Knight reported in 1975 that it is impossible to discern with any degree of certainty the degree of force used to create a stab wound. Despite this, expert witnesses continue to approximate the degree of force used for their reports and evidence in court. It is usually subjectively categorized as mild, moderate or severe, based solely on the examination of the wound. We undertook a study considering forces generated in a range of blunt trauma actions, using a novel force plate dynamometer to measure the peak forces obtained by adult male and female volunteers...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031042/humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-of-mice-challenged-with-yersinia-pestis-antigenic-preparations
#7
Elida A Leal, Josimar D Moreira, Fernanda F Nunes, Larissa R Souza, Janaina M Martins, Vicente P C Toledo, Alzira M P Almeida, Tania M P Guimarães
OBJECTIVES: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response...
October 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976977/children-bereaved-by-fatal-intimate-partner-violence-a-population-based-study-into-demographics-family-characteristics-and-homicide-exposure
#8
Eva Alisic, Arend Groot, Hanneke Snetselaar, Tielke Stroeken, Elise van de Putte
BACKGROUND: In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974947/fungal-lactamases-their-occurrence-and-function
#9
REVIEW
Minglu Gao, Anthony E Glenn, Alex A Blacutt, Scott E Gold
Fungi are absorptive feeders and thus must colonize and ramify through their substrate to survive. In so doing they are in competition, particularly in the soil, with myriad microbes. These microbes use xenobiotic compounds as offensive weapons to compete for nutrition, and fungi must be sufficiently resistant to these xenobiotics. One prominent mechanism of xenobiotic resistance is through production of corresponding degrading enzymes. As typical examples, bacterial β-lactamases are well known for their ability to degrade and consequently confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, a serious emerging problem in health care...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941957/challenges-associated-with-the-behaviour-of-radioactive-particles-in-the-environment
#10
Brit Salbu, Valery Kashparov, Ole Christian Lind, Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Mathew P Johansen, David P Child, Per Roos, Carlos Sancho
A series of different nuclear sources associated with the nuclear weapon and fuel cycles have contributed to the release of radioactive particles to the environment. Following nuclear weapon tests, safety tests, conventional destruction of weapons, reactor explosions and fires, a major fraction of released refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) were present as entities ranging from sub microns to fragments. Furthermore, radioactive particles and colloids have been released from reprocessing facilities and civil reactors, from radioactive waste dumped at sea, and from NORM sites...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927535/potentiation-of-hydrogen-peroxide-toxicity-from-catalase-inhibition-to-stable-dna-iron-complexes
#11
REVIEW
Tulip Mahaseth, Andrei Kuzminov
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is unique among general toxins, because it is stable in abiotic environments at ambient temperature and neutral pH, yet rapidly kills any type of cells by producing highly-reactive hydroxyl radicals. This life-specific reactivity follows the distribution of soluble iron, Fe(II) (which combines with H2O2 to form the famous Fenton's reagent),Fe(II) is concentrated inside cells, but is virtually absent outside them. Because of the immediate danger of H2O2, all cells have powerful H2O2 scavengers, the equally famous catalases, which enable cells to survive thousand-fold higher concentrations of H2O2 and, in combination with adequate movement of H2O2 across membranes, make the killing H2O2 concentrations virtually impractical to generate in vivo...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926810/revisiting-the-biogeochemistry-of-arsenic-in-the-baltic-sea-impact-of-anthropogenic-activity
#12
Lei Li, Christa Pohl, Jing-Ling Ren, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Xiu-Hong Cao, Günther Nausch, Jing Zhang
With the increase in anthropogenic environmental disruption, the behavior of arsenic in the Baltic Sea has received more scientific attention because of its complex forms and toxicity, and was re-visited to determine if there have been measurable changes recently. A cruise was conducted in 10-19 May 2011 to investigate the species and distribution of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) revealing links between the hydrographic dynamics and biological/chemical reactions in the Baltic Sea...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923125/why-we-write-nuclear-history
#13
David K Hecht
Nuclear history always compels. Scholars (and readers) can immerse themselves in the existential threat posed by the atomic bomb and its successor weapons, the tantalizing prospect of carbon-free energy, or the study of a natural phenomenon deeply at odds with our everyday experience of the world. There is thus always something profound at stake when we write nuclear history - be it physical, economic or intellectual. And while it may seem that the end of the Cold War should have diminished the academic attention accorded to the subject, it actually just allowed the historiography to evolve...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918043/mir-206-133b-cluster-a-weapon-against-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jing-Yu Pan, Cheng-Cao Sun, Zhuo-Yue Bi, Zhen-Long Chen, Shu-Jun Li, Qing-Qun Li, Yu-Xuan Wang, Yong-Yi Bi, De-Jia Li
Lung cancer is a deadly disease that ends numerous lives around the world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs involved in a variety of biological processes, such as cell growth, organ development, and tumorigenesis. The miR-206/133b cluster is located on the human chromosome 6p12.2, which is essential for growth and rebuilding of skeletal muscle. The miR-206/133b cluster has been verified to be dysregulated and plays a crucial role in lung cancer. miR-206 and miR-133b participate in lung tumor cell apoptosis, proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, drug resistance, and cancer treatment...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875359/volatile-chemical-emission-as-a-weapon-of-rearguard-action-a-game-theoretic-model-of-contest-behavior
#15
Mike Mesterton-Gibbons, Yao Dai, Marlène Goubault, Ian C W Hardy
We use a game-theoretic model to explore whether volatile chemical (spiroacetal) emissions can serve as a weapon of rearguard action. Our basic model explores whether such emissions serve as a means of temporary withdrawal, preventing the winner of the current round of a contest from translating its victory into permanent possession of a contested resource. A variant of this model explores an alternative possibility, namely, that such emissions serve as a means of permanent retreat, attempting to prevent a winner from inflicting costs on a fleeing loser...
November 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781769/unraveling-neisseria-meningitidis-pathogenesis-from-functional-genomics-to-experimental-models
#16
REVIEW
Marco Soriani
Neisseria meningitidis is a harmless commensal bacterium finely adapted to humans. Unfortunately, under "privileged" conditions, it adopts a "devious" lifestyle leading to uncontrolled behavior characterized by the unleashing of molecular weapons causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute meningitis. Indeed, despite the lack of a classic repertoire of virulence genes in N. meningitidis separating commensal from invasive strains, molecular epidemiology and functional genomics studies suggest that carriage and invasive strains belong to genetically distinct populations characterized by an exclusive pathogenic potential...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757431/perforin-a-key-shaped-weapon-in-the-immunological-arsenal
#17
REVIEW
Bradley A Spicer, Paul J Conroy, Ruby H P Law, Ilia Voskoboinik, James C Whisstock
Cytotoxic lymphocytes play a key role in immune homeostasis through elimination of virally-infected and transformed target cells. They do this by employing the potent pore-forming protein, perforin, a molecule that permits cytotoxic proteases such as granzyme B to enter the target cell cytoplasm. The synergistic activities of perforin and granzymes bring about the destruction of target cells in a process that is now more clearly understood as a result of structural and cellular biology. These data are helping the development of new classes of immunosuppressive molecules for use in treating immune driven disease and in enhancing the success of transplant therapies...
July 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750897/inhibition-of-clostridium-perfringens-epsilon-toxin-by-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-derivatives
#18
Tanisha M Robinson, Laszlo Jicsinszky, Andrei V Karginov, Vladimir A Karginov
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is considered as one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons. The goal of this work was to identify inhibitors of ETX using a novel approach for the inactivation of pore-forming toxins. The approach is based on the blocking of the target pore with molecules having the same symmetry as the pore itself. About 200 various β-cyclodextrin derivatives were screened for inhibitors of ETX activity using a colorimetric cell viability assay. Several compounds with dose-dependent activities at low micromolar concentrations have been identified...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700661/highly-sensitive-sandwich-immunoassay-and-immunochromatographic-test-for-the-detection-of-clostridial-epsilon-toxin-in-complex-matrices
#19
Cécile Féraudet-Tarisse, Christelle Mazuet, Serge Pauillac, Maren Krüger, Caroline Lacroux, Michel R Popoff, Brigitte G Dorner, Olivier Andréoletti, Marc Plaisance, Hervé Volland, Stéphanie Simon
Epsilon toxin is one of the four major toxins of Clostridium perfringens. It is the third most potent clostridial toxin after botulinum and tetanus toxins and is thus considered as a potential biological weapon classified as category B by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In the case of a bioterrorist attack, there will be a need for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method to monitor food and water contamination by this toxin, and for a simple human diagnostic test. We have produced and characterized five monoclonal antibodies against common epitopes of epsilon toxin and prototoxin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690600/differential-growth-of-francisella-tularensis-which-alters-expression-of-virulence-factors-dominant-antigens-and-surface-carbohydrate-synthases-governs-the-apparent-virulence-of-ft-schus4-to-immunized-animals
#20
Kristen M Holland, Sarah J Rosa, Kolbrun Kristjansdottir, Donald Wolfgeher, Brian J Franz, Tiffany M Zarrella, Sudeep Kumar, Raju Sunagar, Anju Singh, Chandra S Bakshi, Prachi Namjoshi, Eileen M Barry, Timothy J Sellati, Stephen J Kron, Edmund J Gosselin, Douglas S Reed, Karsten R O Hazlett
The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is both a potential biological weapon and a naturally occurring microbe that survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with distinct phenotypes in various environments. Previously, we used a number of measurements to characterize Ft grown in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth as (1) more similar to infection-derived bacteria, and (2) slightly more virulent in naïve animals, compared to Ft grown in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB). In these studies we observed that the free amino acids in MHB repress expression of select Ft virulence factors by an unknown mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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