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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335000/molecular-characterization-of-babesia-microti-thioredoxin-bmtrx2-and-its-expression-patterns-induced-by-antiprotozoal-drugs
#1
Jingwei Huang, Kang Xiong, Houshuang Zhang, Yanzhen Zhao, Jie Cao, Haiyan Gong, Yongzhi Zhou, Jinlin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Human babesiosis is an infectious disease that is epidemic in various regions all over the world. The predominant causative pathogen of this disease is the intra-erythrocytic parasite Babesia microti. The thioredoxin system is one of the major weapons that is used in the resistance to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced by host immune system. In other intra-erythrocytic apicomplexans like the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, anti-oxidative proteins are promising targets for the development of anti-parasitic drugs...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298051/crispred-macrophages-for-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
Moumita Ray, Yi-Wei Lee, Joseph Hardie, Rubul Mout, Gulen Yesilbag Tonga, Michelle E Farkas, Vincent M Rotello
We present here an integrated nanotechnology/biology strategy for cancer immunotherapy that uses arginine nanoparticles (ArgNPs) to deliver CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing machinery into cells to generate SIRP-α knockout macrophag-es. The NP system efficiently co-delivers single guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 protein required for editing to knock out the "don't eat me signal" in macrophages that prevents phagocytosis of cancer cells. Turning off this signal increased the innate phagocytic capabilities of the macrophages by 4-fold...
January 3, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282151/the-changing-face-of-clinical-trials-in-the-personalized-medicine-and-immuno-oncology-era-report-from-the-international-congress-on-clinical-trials-in-oncology-hemato-oncology-icto-2017
#3
Talia Golan, Michele Milella, Aliza Ackerstein, Ranaan Berger
In the past decade, the oncology community has witnessed major advances in the understanding of cancer biology and major breakthroughs in several different therapeutic areas, from solid tumors to hematological malignancies; moreover, the advent of effective immunotherapy approaches, such as immune-checkpoint blockade, is revolutionizing treatment algorithms in almost all oncology disease areas. As knowledge evolves and new weapons emerge in the "war against cancer", clinical and translational research need to adapt to a rapidly changing environment to effectively translate novel concepts into sustainable and accessible therapeutic options for cancer patients...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238905/biologic-agents-for-severe-asthma-patients-clinical-perspectives-and-implications
#4
REVIEW
Massimo Caruso, Jaymin Morjaria, Rosalia Emma, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Riccardo Polosa
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory multifactorial disorder of the airways characterized by the involvement of immune cells and mediators in its onset and maintenance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been unsatisfactory in controlling the underlying pathology, especially in the more severe states. Hence in the last couple of decades, new biological approaches targeting molecular mediators have been developed. In this narrative review we examine biological agents currently available for the management of severe asthma, focusing our attention on their clinical application, pros and cons, and in particular on gaps regarding the use of these agents...
December 14, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209145/altered-neuroendocrine-immune-responses-a-two-sword-weapon-against-traumatic-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Xuetao Yang, Jianxin Jiang
During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197625/chemical-warfare-agents-classes-and-targets
#6
Michael Schwenk
Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180291/fish-antimicrobial-peptides-amp-s-as-essential-and-promising-molecular-therapeutic-agents-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Uzma Shabir, Sajad Ali, Aqib Rehman Magray, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Parveena Firdous, Toyeeba Hassan, Ruqeya Nazir
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are generally considered as an essential component of innate immunity, thereby providing the first line of defense against wide range of pathogens. In addition, they can also kill the pathogens which are generally resistant to number of antibiotics, thereby providing the avenues for the development of future therapeutic agents. Fishes are constantly challenged by variety of pathogens which not only shows detrimental effect on their health but also increases risk of becoming resistant to conventional antibiotics...
November 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171073/evaluation-of-francisella-tularensis-%C3%AE-pdpc-as-a-candidate-live-attenuated-vaccine-against-respiratory-challenge-of-tularemia-in-c57bl-6j-mouse-model
#8
Deyu Tian, Akihiko Uda, Eun-Sil Park, Akitoyo Hotta, Osamu Fujita, Akio Yamada, Kazuhiro Hirayama, Kozue Hotta, Yuuki Koyama, Mika Azaki, Shigeru Morikawa
Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia, is an intracellular and Gram-negative bacterium. F. tularensis has received significant attention in recent decades because of their history as biological weapons. Thus, the development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia has been an important goal. The attenuated F. tularensis strain δpdpC, in which the pathogenicity determinant protein C gene (pdpC) was disrupted by TargeTron mutagenesis, was investigated as a potential vaccine candidate for tularemia in the present study...
November 24, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139032/radium-biophysics-and-radiobiology-tracing-the-history-of-radiobiology-in-twentieth-century-china
#9
Christine Yi Lai Luk
Radiobiology assesses the biological hazards of exposure to radioactive substances and nuclear radiation. This article explores the history of radiobiology in twentieth-century China by examining the overlapping of radium research and biophysics, from roughly the 1920s Nationalist period to the 1960s Communist period; from the foreign purchase of radium by the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board during the Republican era, to the institutional establishment of radiobiology as a subset of biophysics in the People's Republic...
November 2, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135312/rethinking-the-biological-and-toxin-weapons-convention
#10
Daniel Gerstein, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132197/humanized-mice-for-the-evaluation-of-francisella-tularensis-vaccine-candidates
#11
Hanseul Oh, C-Yoon Kim, Chang-Hwan Kim, Gyeung-Haeng Hur, Ji Min Lee, Seo-Na Chang, Jae-Hak Park
Francisella tularensis (FT), a highly infectious pathogen, is considered to be a potential biological weapon owing to the current lack of a human vaccine against it. Tul4 and FopA, both outer membrane proteins of FT, play an important role in the bacterium's immunogenicity. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of mice-humanized with human CD34+ cells (hu-mice)-to a cocktail of recombinant Tul4 and FopA (rTul4 and rFopA), which were codon-optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Not only did the cocktail-immunized hu-mice produce a significant human immunoglobulin response, they also exhibited prolonged survival against an attenuated live vaccine strain as well as human T cell in the spleen...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089110/chest-response-assessment-of-post-mortem-swine-under-blast-loadings
#12
Johanna Boutillier, Sébastien De Mezzo, Caroline Deck, Pascal Magnan, Pierre Naz, Rémy Willinger
To better protect soldiers from blast threat, that principally affect air-filled organs such a lung, it is necessary to develop an adapted injury criterion and, prior to this, to evaluate the response of a biological model against that threat. The objective of this study is to provide some robust data to quantify the chest response of post-mortem swine under blast loadings. 7 post-mortem swine (54.5 ± 2.6 kg), placed side-on to the threat and against the ground, were exposed to 5 shock-waves of increasing intensities...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076758/are-sigma-receptor-modulators-a-weapon-against-multiple-sclerosis-disease
#13
Simona Collina, Marta Rui, Silvia Stotani, Emanuele Bignardi, Daniela Rossi, Daniela Curti, Fabrizio Giordanetto, Alessio Malacrida, Arianna Scuteri, Guido Cavaletti
Effective therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are still missing. This neurological disease affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. To date, biological immunomodulatory drugs are effective and safe during short-term treatment, but they are suitable only for parenteral administration and they are expensive. Accordingly, academic and industrial environments are still focusing their efforts toward the development of new MS drugs. Considering that neurodegeneration is a contributory factor in the onset of MS, herein we will focus on the crucial role played by sigma 1 receptors (S1Rs) in MS...
October 27, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038886/forces-generated-in-stabbing-attacks-an-evaluation-of-the-utility-of-the-mild-moderate-and-severe-scale
#14
Gary Nolan, Sarah V Hainsworth, Guy N Rutty
The commonest way of killing in the UK is by a sharp instrument. Knight reported in 1975 that it is impossible to discern with any degree of certainty the degree of force used to create a stab wound. Despite this, expert witnesses continue to approximate the degree of force used for their reports and evidence in court. It is usually subjectively categorized as mild, moderate or severe, based solely on the examination of the wound. We undertook a study considering forces generated in a range of blunt trauma actions, using a novel force plate dynamometer to measure the peak forces obtained by adult male and female volunteers...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031042/humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-of-mice-challenged-with-yersinia-pestis-antigenic-preparations
#15
Elida A Leal, Josimar D Moreira, Fernanda F Nunes, Larissa R Souza, Janaina M Martins, Vicente P C Toledo, Alzira M P Almeida, Tania M P Guimarães
OBJECTIVES: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response...
October 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976977/children-bereaved-by-fatal-intimate-partner-violence-a-population-based-study-into-demographics-family-characteristics-and-homicide-exposure
#16
Eva Alisic, Arend Groot, Hanneke Snetselaar, Tielke Stroeken, Elise van de Putte
BACKGROUND: In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974947/fungal-lactamases-their-occurrence-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Minglu Gao, Anthony E Glenn, Alex A Blacutt, Scott E Gold
Fungi are absorptive feeders and thus must colonize and ramify through their substrate to survive. In so doing they are in competition, particularly in the soil, with myriad microbes. These microbes use xenobiotic compounds as offensive weapons to compete for nutrition, and fungi must be sufficiently resistant to these xenobiotics. One prominent mechanism of xenobiotic resistance is through production of corresponding degrading enzymes. As typical examples, bacterial β-lactamases are well known for their ability to degrade and consequently confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, a serious emerging problem in health care...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941957/challenges-associated-with-the-behaviour-of-radioactive-particles-in-the-environment
#18
Brit Salbu, Valery Kashparov, Ole Christian Lind, Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Mathew P Johansen, David P Child, Per Roos, Carlos Sancho
A series of different nuclear sources associated with the nuclear weapon and fuel cycles have contributed to the release of radioactive particles to the environment. Following nuclear weapon tests, safety tests, conventional destruction of weapons, reactor explosions and fires, a major fraction of released refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) were present as entities ranging from sub microns to fragments. Furthermore, radioactive particles and colloids have been released from reprocessing facilities and civil reactors, from radioactive waste dumped at sea, and from NORM sites...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927535/potentiation-of-hydrogen-peroxide-toxicity-from-catalase-inhibition-to-stable-dna-iron-complexes
#19
REVIEW
Tulip Mahaseth, Andrei Kuzminov
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is unique among general toxins, because it is stable in abiotic environments at ambient temperature and neutral pH, yet rapidly kills any type of cells by producing highly-reactive hydroxyl radicals. This life-specific reactivity follows the distribution of soluble iron, Fe(II) (which combines with H2O2 to form the famous Fenton's reagent),Fe(II) is concentrated inside cells, but is virtually absent outside them. Because of the immediate danger of H2O2, all cells have powerful H2O2 scavengers, the equally famous catalases, which enable cells to survive thousand-fold higher concentrations of H2O2 and, in combination with adequate movement of H2O2 across membranes, make the killing H2O2 concentrations virtually impractical to generate in vivo...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926810/revisiting-the-biogeochemistry-of-arsenic-in-the-baltic-sea-impact-of-anthropogenic-activity
#20
Lei Li, Christa Pohl, Jing-Ling Ren, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Xiu-Hong Cao, Günther Nausch, Jing Zhang
With the increase in anthropogenic environmental disruption, the behavior of arsenic in the Baltic Sea has received more scientific attention because of its complex forms and toxicity, and was re-visited to determine if there have been measurable changes recently. A cruise was conducted in 10-19 May 2011 to investigate the species and distribution of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) revealing links between the hydrographic dynamics and biological/chemical reactions in the Baltic Sea...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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