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Biological weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928908/striking-against-bioterrorism-with-advanced-proteomics-and-reference-methods
#1
Jean Armengaud
The intentional use by terrorists of biological toxins as weapons has been of great concern for many years. Amongst the numerous toxins produced by plants, animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, ricin is one of the most scrutinized by the media because it has already been used in biocrimes and acts of bioterrorism. Improving the analytical toolbox of national authorities to monitor these potential bioweapons all at once is of the utmost interest. Tandem mass spectrometry allows their absolute quantitation and exhibits advantageous sensitivity, discriminative power, multiplexing possibilities, and speed...
December 8, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920381/harvest-induced-evolution-insights-from-aquatic-and-terrestrial-systems
#2
REVIEW
Anna Kuparinen, Marco Festa-Bianchet
Commercial and recreational harvests create selection pressures for fitness-related phenotypic traits that are partly under genetic control. Consequently, harvesting can drive evolution in targeted traits. However, the quantification of harvest-induced evolutionary life history and phenotypic changes is challenging, because both density-dependent feedback and environmental changes may also affect these changes through phenotypic plasticity. Here, we synthesize current knowledge and uncertainties on six key points: (i) whether or not harvest-induced evolution is happening, (ii) whether or not it is beneficial, (iii) how it shapes biological systems, (iv) how it could be avoided, (v) its importance relative to other drivers of phenotypic changes, and (vi) whether or not it should be explicitly accounted for in management...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863218/discovery-of-ibomycin-a-potent-antifungal-weapon
#3
J Andrew Alspaugh
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Robbins et al. (2016) identify ibomycin, a unique compound with antifungal activity. Microbial physiological and genetic studies suggest that endocytic trafficking might be the site of action for this lead antifungal compound.
November 17, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849500/the-u-s-army-occupational-and-environmental-medicine-residency-at-aberdeen-proving-ground-maryland-1960-1996
#4
Joel C Gaydos, Timothy M Mallon, William A Rice
BACKGROUND: Reorganization of the Army and critical assessment of Army Graduate Medical Education programs prompted the Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) Consultant to the Army Surgeon General to initiate a review of current Army OEM residency training. Available information indicated the Army OEM residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was the first and longest operating Army OEM residency. Describing this residency was identified as the first step in the review, with the objectives of determining why the residency was started and sustained and its relevance to the needs of the Army...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808117/evaluation-of-uttroside-b-a-saponin-from-solanum-nigrum-linn-as-a-promising-chemotherapeutic-agent-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Lekshmi R Nath, Jaggaiah N Gorantla, Arun Kumar T Thulasidasan, Vinod Vijayakurup, Shabna Shah, Shabna Anwer, Sophia M Joseph, Jayesh Antony, Kollery Suresh Veena, Sankar Sundaram, Udaya K Marelli, Ravi S Lankalapalli, Ruby John Anto
We report, for the first time, the remarkable efficacy of uttroside B, a potent saponin from Solanum nigrum Linn, against liver cancer. The compound has been isolated and characterized from the leaves of Solanum nigrum Linn, a plant widely used in traditional medicine and is a rich resource of several anticancer molecules. Uttroside B, that comprises of β-D-glucopyranosyl unit at C-26 of the furostanol and β-lycotetraosyl unit at C-3, is ten times more cytotoxic to the liver cancer cell line, HepG2 (IC50: 0...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778086/-on-site-detection-of-bioterrorism-relevant-agents-rapid-detection-methods-for-viruses-bacteria-and-toxins-capabilities-and-limitations
#6
Daniel Stern, Martin Richter, Livia Schrick, Peter Lasch, Kathrin Keeren, Angela Polleichtner, Karin Lemmer, Andreas Nitsche, Roland Grunow, Christian Herzog, Brigitte G Dorner, Lars Schaade
In Europe, besides the threat of terrorist attacks involving conventional methods such as explosive devices and automatic weapons, there is also a potential threat of terrorist groups using non-conventional material like biological agents in the scope of future attacks. Consequently, rapid and reliable detection systems for biological agents are being developed and tested continuously to inform crisis management. For environmental detection, a broad spectrum of different laboratory-based techniques has been developed for relevant biological agents...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762064/ccnd1-bcl2-gene-network-a-direct-target-of-amifostine-in-human-acute-megakaryocytic-leukemia-cells
#7
Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine (AMF), 2-(3-Aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. In order to examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745954/intranasal-delivery-of-a-protein-subunit-vaccine-using-a-tobacco-mosaic-virus-platform-protects-against-pneumonic-plague
#8
Paul M Arnaboldi, Mariya Sambir, Christina D'Arco, Lauren A Peters, Jos F M L Seegers, Lloyd Mayer, Alison A McCormick, Raymond J Dattwyler
Yersinia pestis, one of history's deadliest pathogens, has killed millions over the course of human history. It has attributes that make it an ideal choice to produce mass casualties and is a prime candidate for use as a biological weapon. When aerosolized, Y. pestis causes pneumonic plague, a pneumonia that is 100% lethal if not promptly treated with effective antibiotics. Currently, there is no FDA approved plague vaccine. The current lead vaccine candidate, a parenterally administered protein subunit vaccine comprised of the Y...
November 11, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731616/benzimidazolium-based-self-assembled-fluorescent-aggregates-for-sensing-and-catalytic-degradation-of-diethylchlorophosphate
#9
Amanpreet Singh, Pushap Raj, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of chemical weapons has aroused researchers to develop sensors for chemical warfare agents (CWA) and likewise to abolish their harmful effects, the degradation through catalysis has great advantage. Chemically, the CWAs are versatile; however, mostly they contain organophosphates that act on inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. In this work, we have designed and synthesized some novel benzimidazolium based fluorescent cations and their fluorescent aggregates were fabricated using anionic surfactants (SDS and SDBS) in aqueous medium...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697042/animal-venom-peptides-potential-for-new-antimicrobial-agents
#10
Muriel Primon-Barros, Alexandre José Macedo
Microbial infections affect people worldwide, causing diseases with significant impact on public health, indicating the need for research and development of new antimicrobial agents. Animal venoms represent a vast and largely unexploited source of biologically active molecules with attractive candidates for the development of novel therapeutics. Venoms consist of complex mixtures of molecules, including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Since the discovery of AMPs, they have been studied as promising new antimicrobial drugs...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693491/oligo-clonal-nanobodies-as-an-innovative-targeting-agent-for-cancer-therapy-new-biology-and-novel-targeting-systems
#11
Shahryar Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Davoud Ahmadvand
Variable heavy chain of HcAb (VHH), the smallest intact antibody fragment, possesses sub-nanomolar affinity to antigens. In spite of conventional antibodies, these fragments recognize concave and linear epitopes. VHHs are one the best weapon for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine and biopharmaceutics. HER2 is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and ovarian cancers. For many reasons, HER2 is a prominent target for drug delivery to breast tumor. In this study, we designed a robust prokaryotic expression system to express functional VHHs against HER2 receptor...
January 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677796/a-bacillus-anthracis-genome-sequence-from-the-sverdlovsk-1979-autopsy-specimens
#12
Jason W Sahl, Talima Pearson, Richard Okinaka, James M Schupp, John D Gillece, Hannah Heaton, Dawn Birdsell, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Ramón Noseda, Antonio Fasanella, Alex Hoffmaster, David M Wagner, Paul Keim
: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that occurs naturally in wild and domestic animals but has been used by both state-sponsored programs and terrorists as a biological weapon. A Soviet industrial production facility in Sverdlovsk, USSR, proved deficient in 1979 when a plume of spores was accidentally released and resulted in one of the largest known human anthrax outbreaks. In order to understand this outbreak and others, we generated a Bacillus anthracis population genetic database based upon whole-genome analysis to identify all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a reference genome...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663838/antimicrobial-peptides-amps-ancient-compounds-that-represent-novel-weapons-in-the-fight-against-bacteria
#13
J M Ageitos, A Sánchez-Pérez, P Calo-Mata, T G Villa
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short peptidic molecules produced by most living creatures. They help unicellular organisms to successfully compete for nutrients with other organisms sharing their biological niche, while AMPs form part of the immune system of multicellular creatures. Thus, these molecules represent biological weapons that have evolved over millions of years as a result of an escalating arms race for survival among living organisms. All AMPs share common features, such as a small size, with cationic and hydrophobic sequences within a linear or cyclic structure...
September 20, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640728/impact-of-gene-editing-tools-like-crispr-cas9-on-the-public-health-response-to-disease-outbreaks
#14
Samuel M Pope
The purpose of this communication is to explore the implications of genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, on public health-related responses to outbreaks of disease. The recent commercialization of genome editing techniques makes the creation and release of genetically altered pathogens a much easier task, increasing the possibility to the point of needing discussion. Three areas need to be addressed: predictions concerning potential genetic alterations, predictions and implications concerning the release of genetically altered pathogens, and the short- and long-term implications of the release of genetically altered pathogens...
September 19, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636894/biological-and-environmental-hazards-associated-with-exposure-to-chemical-warfare-agents-arsenicals
#15
Changzhao Li, Ritesh K Srivastava, Mohammad Athar
Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636675/colorimetric-sensor-arrays-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-chemical-weapons-and-explosives
#16
Michael J Kangas, Raychelle M Burks, Jordyn Atwater, Rachel M Lukowicz, Pat Williams, Andrea E Holmes
There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes...
September 16, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563656/melanoma-immunotherapy-dominates-the-field
#17
REVIEW
Panagiotis Diamantopoulos, Helen Gogas
The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and despite early detection and intervention, the number of patients dying from metastatic disease continues to rise. The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains poor, with median survival between 6 and 9 months. Over the past 30 years and despite extensive clinical research, the treatment options for metastatic disease were limited and melanoma is still considered as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. Single-agent and combination chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted agent therapy and combination regimens failed to show a significant improvement in overall survival (OS)...
July 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522351/new-weapons-in-the-cryptococcus-infection-toolkit
#18
REVIEW
Leanne M Taylor-Smith, Robin C May
The global burden of fungal infections is unacceptably high. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis and accounts for a significant proportion of this burden. Cryptococci undergo a number of elaborate interactions with their hosts, including survival and proliferation within phagocytes as well as dissemination to the central nervous system and other tissues. In this review we highlight a number of exciting recent advances in the field of cryptococcal biology. In particular we discuss new insights into cryptococcal morphology and its impact on virulence, as well as describing novel findings revealing how cryptoccoci may 'talk' to each other...
August 11, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510421/intracellular-localization-of-dr5-and-related-regulatory-pathways-as-a-mechanism-of-resistance-to-trail-in-cancer
#19
Ufuk Mert, Ahter Dilsad Sanlioglu
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a prominent cytokine capable of inducing apoptosis. It can bind to five different cognate receptors, through which diverse intracellular pathways can be activated. TRAIL's ability to preferentially kill transformed cells makes it a promising potential weapon for targeted tumor therapy. However, recognition of several resistance mechanisms to TRAIL-induced apoptosis has indicated that a thorough understanding of the details of TRAIL biology is still essential before this weapon can be confidently unleashed...
August 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458577/toward-the-development-of-a-sustainable-scientific-research-culture-in-azerbaijan-2011-2015
#20
REVIEW
Saida Aliyeva, Peter Flanagan, April Johnson, Lisa Strelow
This review especially describes the dangerous pathogens research program in Azerbaijan (AJ) funded by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency under the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) from 2011 through 2015. The objectives of the CBEP are to prevent the proliferation of biological weapons; to consolidate and secure collections of dangerous pathogens in central repositories; to strengthen biosafety and biosecurity of laboratory facilities; and to improve partner nations' ability to detect, diagnose, report, and respond to outbreaks of disease caused by especially dangerous pathogens...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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