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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096408/rhythm-judgments-reveal-a-frequency-asymmetry-in-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound-synchrony
#1
Magdalena Wojtczak, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
In modern Western music, melody is commonly conveyed by pitch changes in the highest-register voice, whereas meter or rhythm is often carried by instruments with lower pitches. An intriguing and recently suggested possibility is that the custom of assigning rhythmic functions to lower-pitch instruments may have emerged because of fundamental properties of the auditory system that result in superior time encoding for low pitches. Here we compare rhythm and synchrony perception between low- and high-frequency tones, using both behavioral and EEG techniques...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096341/harmonic-template-neurons-in-primate-auditory-cortex-underlying-complex-sound-processing
#2
Lei Feng, Xiaoqin Wang
Harmonicity is a fundamental element of music, speech, and animal vocalizations. How the auditory system extracts harmonic structures embedded in complex sounds and uses them to form a coherent unitary entity is not fully understood. Despite the prevalence of sounds rich in harmonic structures in our everyday hearing environment, it has remained largely unknown what neural mechanisms are used by the primate auditory cortex to extract these biologically important acoustic structures. In this study, we discovered a unique class of harmonic template neurons in the core region of auditory cortex of a highly vocal New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), across the entire hearing frequency range...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096012/effects-of-music-therapy-and-distraction-cards-on-pain-relief-during-phlebotomy-in-children
#3
Diler Aydin, Nejla Canbulat Sahiner
AIM: To investigate three different distraction methods (distraction cards, listening to music, and distraction cards + music) on pain and anxiety relief in children during phlebotomy. METHODS: This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. The sample consisted of children aged 7 to 12years who required blood tests. The children were randomized into four groups, distraction cards, music, distraction cards + music, and controls. Data were obtained through face-to-face interviews with the children, their parents, and the observer before and after the procedure...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096005/effect-of-recorded-male-lullaby-on-physiologic-response-of-neonates-in-nicu
#4
Leila Taheri, Marzieh Kargar Jahromi, Mohammad Abbasi, Mohsen Hojat
PURPOSE: Most infants in the NICU are exposed to sensory overloads and deprivations as part of their care. This study conducted to assess the effect of lullaby on physiologic response of neonates admitted to NICU. METHOD: This is a randomized double-blind intervention trial which was performed on 52 neonates in Jahrom (Iran) 2013-2014. The samples were randomly assigned into lullaby group and a control group (sampling was sequential and randomization was by lottery)...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094427/minimalism-in-art-medical-science-and-neurosurgery
#5
Ali İhsan Ökten
The word ''minimalism'' is a word derived from French the word ''minimum''. Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is ''the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something'', its expression in mathematics can be described as ''the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal''. Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other...
December 21, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093846/speaking-a-tone-language-enhances-musical-pitch-perception-in-3-5-year-olds
#6
Sarah C Creel, Mengxing Weng, Genyue Fu, Gail D Heyman, Kang Lee
Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination)...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093218/-the-effect-of-different-genres-of-music-on-the-stress-levels-of-kennelled-dogs
#7
A Bowman, F J Dowell, N P Evans
Classical music has been shown to reduce stress in kennelled dogs; however, rapid habituation of dogs to this form of auditory enrichment has also been demonstrated. The current study investigated the physiological and behavioural response of kennelled dogs (n=38) to medium-term (5days) auditory enrichment with five different genres of music including Soft Rock, Motown, Pop, Reggae and Classical, to determine whether increasing the variety of auditory stimulation reduces the level of habituation to auditory enrichment...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088063/verbal-and-musical-short-term-memory-variety-of-auditory-disorders-after-stroke
#8
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087244/practice-makes-perfect-correlations-between-prior-experience-in-high-level-athletics-and-robotic-surgical-performance-do-not-persist-after-task-repetition
#9
Kevin Shee, Fady M Ghali, Elias S Hyams
OBJECTIVE: Robotic surgical skill development is central to training in urology as well as in other surgical disciplines. Here, we describe a pilot study assessing the relationships between robotic surgery simulator performance and 3 categories of activities, namely, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics. DESIGN: A questionnaire was administered to preclinical medical students for general demographic information and prior experiences in surgery, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081008/elastic-properties-of-amorphous-t-0-75y0-75b14-t%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sc-ti-v-y-zr-nb-and-the-effect-of-o-incorporation-on-bonding-density-and-elasticity-t-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ti-zr
#10
Oliver Hunold, Philipp Keuter, Pascal Bliem, Denis Music, Friederike Wittmers, Anna L Ravensburg, Daniel Primetzhofer, Jochen M Schneider
We have systematically studied the effect of transition metal valence electron concentration (VEC) of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (a-T 0.75Y0.75B14, T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) on the elastic properties, bonding, density and electronic structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. As the transition metal VEC is increased in both periods, the bulk modulus increases linearly with molar- and mass density. This trend can be understood by a concomitant decrease in cohesive energy. T'  =  Ti and Zr were selected to validate the predicted data experimentally...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080146/perceptions-vs-evidence-therapeutic-substitutes-for-antipsychotics-in-patients-with-dementia-in-long-term-care
#11
Brianne L Olivieri-Mui, John W Devlin, Aileen Ochoa, Danielle Schenck, Becky Briesacher
OBJECTIVE: To compare differences between clinician perceptions of therapeutic substitutes for antipsychotics prescribed to patients with dementia in long term care (LTC) and published evidence. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach that included a drug information search, online survey of 55 LTC clinicians and a comprehensive literature review was used. For 41 pharmacologic antipsychotic substitute candidates identified, LTC clinicians rated the likelihood they would substitute each for patients with dementia and identified non-pharmacologic antipsychotic substitutes...
January 12, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069444/rhythmic-entrainment-as-a-musical-affect-induction-mechanism
#12
REVIEW
W Trost, C Labbé, D Grandjean
One especially important feature of metrical music is that it contains periodicities that listeners' bodily rhythms can adapt to. Recent psychological frameworks have introduced the notion of rhythmic entrainment, among other mechanisms, as an emotion induction principle. In this review paper, we discuss rhythmic entrainment as an affect induction mechanism by differentiating four levels of entrainment in humans-perceptual, autonomic physiological, motor, and social-all of which could contribute to a subjective feeling component...
January 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067551/emotional-recognition-from-dynamic-facial-vocal-and-musical-expressions-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Joanie Drapeau, Nathalie Gosselin, Isabelle Peretz, Michelle McKerral
OBJECTIVES: To assess emotion recognition from dynamic facial, vocal and musical expressions in sub-groups of adults with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) of different severities and identify possible common underlying mechanisms across domains. METHODS: Forty-one adults participated in this study: 10 with moderate-severe TBI, nine with complicated mild TBI, 11 with uncomplicated mild TBI and 11 healthy controls, who were administered experimental (emotional recognition, valence-arousal) and control tasks (emotional and structural discrimination) for each domain...
October 24, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067077/clinical-outcomes-with-the-kanso%C3%A2-off-the-ear-cochlear-implant-sound-processor
#14
Stefan J Mauger, Marian Jones, Esti Nel, Janine Del Dot
OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical outcomes and subjective ratings of the Kanso™ off-the-ear (OTE) cochlear implant sound processor. DESIGN: Prospective, within-subject design investigating outcomes with a range of single and dual-microphone programmes for Kanso compared to conventional behind-the-ear (BTE) sound processors. STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty post-lingually hearing-impaired cochlear implant recipients who were experienced Nucleus® 5 or Nucleus® 6 BTE users...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065607/integer-ratio-priors-on-musical-rhythm-revealed-cross-culturally-by-iterated-reproduction
#15
Nori Jacoby, Josh H McDermott
Probability distributions over external states (priors) are essential to the interpretation of sensory signals. Priors for cultural artifacts such as music and language remain largely uncharacterized, but likely constrain cultural transmission, because only those signals with high probability under the prior can be reliably reproduced and communicated. We developed a method to estimate priors for simple rhythms via iterated reproduction of random temporal sequences. Listeners were asked to reproduce random "seed" rhythms; their reproductions were fed back as the stimulus and over time became dominated by internal biases, such that the prior could be estimated by applying the procedure multiple times...
January 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064077/that-note-sounds-wrong-age-related-effects-in-processing-of-musical-expectation
#16
Andrea R Halpern, Ioanna Zioga, Martin Shankleman, Job Lindsen, Marcus T Pearce, Joydeep Bhattarcharya
Part of musical understanding and enjoyment stems from the ability to accurately predict what note (or one of a small set of notes) is likely to follow after hearing the first part of a melody. Selective violation of expectations can add to aesthetic response but radical or frequent violations are likely to be disliked or not comprehended. In this study we investigated whether a lifetime of exposure to music among untrained older adults would enhance their reaction to unexpected endings of unfamiliar melodies...
January 5, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060779/topology-and-electronic-structure-of-flexible-nb-ru-o2-thermoelectrics
#17
Denis Music, Volker Schnabel, Jozef Bednarcik
Using combinatorial reactive sputtering, we have synthesised Nb-Ru-O thin films on Kapton (polyimide) with the Ru/Nb ratio from 0.5 to 1.1 in a dioxide type of environment. Based on correlative analysis, including synchrotron diffraction experiments and density functional theory, the topology of these amorphous samples is characterised by short metal-oxygen bonds and very pronounced metal-metal interactions within the second coordination shell. We suggest that the role of Nb is within bond length reduction and promotion of quantum confinement, giving rise to an increase in the Seebeck coefficient...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059346/real-time-distributed-fiber-microphone-based-on-phase-otdr
#18
Carolina Franciscangelis, Walter Margulis, Leif Kjellberg, Ingemar Soderquist, Fabiano Fruett
The use of an optical fiber as a real-time distributed microphone is demonstrated employing a phase-OTDR with direct detection. The method comprises a sample-and-hold circuit capable of both tuning the receiver to an arbitrary section of the fiber considered of interest and to recover in real-time the detected acoustic wave. The system allows listening to the sound of a sinusoidal disturbance with variable frequency, music and human voice with ~60 cm of spatial resolution through a 300 m long optical fiber.
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057578/the-effect-of-beat-frequency-on-eye-movements-during-free-viewing
#19
Emese Maróti, Balázs Knakker, Zoltán Vidnyánszky, Béla Weiss
External periodic stimuli entrain brain oscillations and affect perception and attention. It has been shown that background music can change oculomotor behavior and facilitate detection of visual objects occurring on the musical beat. However, whether musical beats in different tempi modulate information sampling differently during natural viewing remains to be explored. Here we addressed this question by investigating how listening to naturalistic drum grooves in two different tempi affects eye movements of participants viewing natural scenes on a computer screen...
January 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057489/representations-of-modality-general-valence-for-videos-and-music-derived-from-fmri-data
#20
Jongwan Kim, Svetlana V Shinkareva, Douglas H Wedell
This study tested for neural representations of valence that are shared across visual and auditory modalities referred to as modality-general representations. On a given trial participants made either affective or semantic judgments of short silent videos or music samples. For each modality valence was manipulated at three levels, positive, neutral, and negative, while controlling for the level of arousal. Whole-brain crossmodal identification of affect indicated the presence of modality-general valence representations that distinguished 1) positive from negative trials (signed valence) and 2) valenced from non-valenced trials (unsigned valence)...
January 2, 2017: NeuroImage
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