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Multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572132/interferon-beta-from-molecular-level-to-therapeutic-effects
#1
M Haji Abdolvahab, M R K Mofrad, H Schellekens
Interferon beta (IFNβ) is a cytokine that is naturally produced by the immune system in response to biological and chemical stimuli. It signals by binding to the heterodimeric type I IFN receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains, and regulates the expression of a plethora of genes by means of the classical JAK/STAT and other pathways. IFNβ is pleiotropic in that it elicits antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities on numerous cell types. The biological activities underpin the mechanisms by which the protein is used to treat various diseases such as hepatitis C infection and multiple sclerosis...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261211/editorial-on-what-is-a-potentially-damaging-vaccination-delay-in-children-younger-than-2-years
#2
Mark A Kane, Francois Roudot-Thoraval, Nicole Guerin, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Pierre Van Damme
Control of hepatitis B through routine infant immunization in more than 95% of countries has reduced the prevalence of chronic hepatitis carriers to less than 1%-2% in immunized cohorts of children even in high endemicity countries. In that context the authors of this editorial found the results of a paper by Gras et al in this issue concerning. They performed a Delphi survey of 37 French immunization experts and the results concluded that delayed hepatitis B immunization would cause "potential damage" only after 11 years...
August 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26164648/genetics-and-novel-aspects-of-therapies-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#3
REVIEW
Manfred Relle, Julia Weinmann-Menke, Eva Scorletti, Lorenzo Cavagna, Andreas Schwarting
Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease, have complex pathogeneses and the factors which cause these disorders are not well understood. But all have in common that they arise from a dysfunction of the immune system, interpreting self components as foreign antigens. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of these complex inflammatory disorders that mainly affects women and can lead to inflammation and severe damage of virtually any tissue and organ...
November 2015: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25296871/-rituximab-anti-cd20-in-neurological-disorders
#4
Tetsuya Akaishi, Ichiro Nakashima
Rituximab is a chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets CD20 molecules on the surface of B-cells, thereby depleting B-cells and regulating humoral immunity. This antibody is mostly used in CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma, but is also widely used in many other connective tissue and neurological disorders. These neurological disorders include multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, primary central nervous system lymphoma, inflammatory myopathy, and some other autoimmune-mediated neurological disorders...
October 2014: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24983760/in-silico-analysis-of-functional-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-human-trim22-gene
#5
Jenna N Kelly, Stephen D Barr
Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24970562/genetic-analysis-of-an-allergic-rhinitis-cohort-reveals-an-intercellular-epistasis-between-fam134b-and-cd39
#6
Rossella Melchiotti, Kia Joo Puan, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Tuang Yeow Poh, Mireille Starke, Li Zhuang, Kerstin Petsch, Tuck Siong Lai, Fook Tim Chew, Anis Larbi, De Yun Wang, Michael Poidinger, Olaf Rotzschke
BACKGROUND: Extracellular ATP is a pro-inflammatory molecule released by damaged cells. Regulatory T cells (Treg) can suppress inflammation by hydrolysing this molecule via ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1), also termed as CD39. Multiple studies have reported differences in CD39+ Treg percentages in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Hepatitis B and HIV-1. In addition, CD39 polymorphisms have been implicated in immune-phenotypes such as susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and AIDS progression...
2014: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24898518/activating-receptor-nkg2d-targets-rae-1-expressing-allogeneic-neural-precursor-cells-in-a-viral-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Jason G Weinger, Warren C Plaisted, Sonia M Maciejewski, Lewis L Lanier, Craig M Walsh, Thomas E Lane
Transplantation of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in rapid rejection that is mediated, in part, by T cells. However, the contribution of the innate immune response to allograft rejection in a model of viral-induced neurological disease has not been well defined. Herein, we demonstrate that the natural killer (NK) cell-expressing-activating receptor NKG2D participates in transplanted allogeneic NPC rejection in mice persistently infected with JHMV...
October 2014: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24471296/-side-effects-and-contraindications-for-biological-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Branko Troskot, Miroslav Simunić
TNF-alpha blockers side effects vary according to the frequency and severity and mainly include immunogenicity (ability to cause immune reactions), infections, malignancies, heart failure, demyelinating disease and others. Treatment with TNF-alpha blockers may result in the formation of autoantibodies and, rarely, in the development of a lupus-like syndrome. They should not be administered to patients who have experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction. Urticaria, dyspnea and hypotension can occur after TNF-alpha inhibitors administration...
April 2013: Acta Medica Croatica: C̆asopis Hravatske Akademije Medicinskih Znanosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23696811/a-candidate-interactome-aggregate-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-data-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Rosella Mechelli, Renato Umeton, Claudia Policano, Viviana Annibali, Giulia Coarelli, Vito A G Ricigliano, Danila Vittori, Arianna Fornasiero, Maria Chiara Buscarinu, Silvia Romano, Marco Salvetti, Giovanni Ristori
Though difficult, the study of gene-environment interactions in multifactorial diseases is crucial for interpreting the relevance of non-heritable factors and prevents from overlooking genetic associations with small but measurable effects. We propose a "candidate interactome" (i.e. a group of genes whose products are known to physically interact with environmental factors that may be relevant for disease pathogenesis) analysis of genome-wide association data in multiple sclerosis. We looked for statistical enrichment of associations among interactomes that, at the current state of knowledge, may be representative of gene-environment interactions of potential, uncertain or unlikely relevance for multiple sclerosis pathogenesis: Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV8-Kaposi sarcoma, H1N1-influenza, JC virus, human innate immunity interactome for type I interferon, autoimmune regulator, vitamin D receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and a panel of proteins targeted by 70 innate immune-modulating viral open reading frames from 30 viral species...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23521577/reduced-antibody-formation-after-influenza-vaccination-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-treated-with-rituximab
#10
W Kim, S-H Kim, S-Y Huh, S-Y Kong, Y J Choi, H J Cheong, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vaccination against infection becomes important in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) because they are at an increased risk of infection due to long-term immunosuppressive therapy. However, it is unclear whether NMOSD patients under immunosuppression therapy show proper antibody formation after vaccination. Thus the antibody formation after influenza A (H1N1) vaccination in patients with NMOSD receiving rituximab was evaluated. METHODS: The study enrolled 26 patients with NMOSD, nine with multiple sclerosis and eight healthy controls...
June 2013: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23491014/machen-impfungen-krank
#11
Zingg
Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990...
October 1, 2005: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23114587/biologics-induced-autoimmune-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Roberto Perez-Alvarez, Marta Pérez-de-Lis, Manuel Ramos-Casals
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological agents are therapies designed to target a specific molecular component of the immune system, and are currently licensed for use in autoimmune rheumatic, digestive, dermatological and systemic diseases. However, their use has been linked with the paradoxical development of autoimmune processes. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 1500 cases of autoimmune diseases induced by biologics have been reported, including a wide variety of both systemic (lupus, vasculitis, sarcoidosis, antiphospholipid syndrome and inflammatory myopathies) and organ-specific (interstitial lung disease, uveitis, optic neuritis, peripheral neuropathies, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune hepatitis) autoimmune processes...
January 2013: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22685028/type-i-and-iii-interferons-enhance-il-10r-expression-on-human-monocytes-and-macrophages-resulting-in-il-10-mediated-suppression-of-tlr-induced-il-12
#13
Bi-Sheng Liu, Harry L A Janssen, André Boonstra
Currently, only about 30-50% of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients respond to IFN-based therapy. It has been suggested that IL-10 is involved in suppressing the activity of type I IFNs on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, the interaction between type I IFNs and IL-10 is still not clear. Here we report that IFN-α priming upregulated the expression of IL-10R1 on monocytes, and subsequently IL-10 induced a higher level of STAT3 phosphorylation in IFN-primed cells. This indicates that IFN-α increased the sensitivity of monocytes to IL-10, and as a result, TLR-induced IL-12p70 by IFN-pretreated cells was suppressed...
September 2012: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22515979/immunosuppressive-properties-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-advances-and-applications
#14
REVIEW
M P De Miguel, S Fuentes-Julián, A Blázquez-Martínez, C Y Pascual, M A Aller, J Arias, F Arnalich-Montiel
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from a variety of tissues, such as bone marrow, skeletal muscle, dental pulp, bone, umbilical cord and adipose tissue. MSCs are used in regenerative medicine mainly based on their capacity to differentiate into specific cell types and also as bioreactors of soluble factors that will promote tissue regeneration from the damaged tissue cellular progenitors. In addition to these regenerative properties, MSCs hold an immunoregulatory capacity, and elicit immunosuppressive effects in a number of situations...
June 2012: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22322149/interferon-modulates-central-nervous-system-function
#15
REVIEW
Cruz Reyes-Vázquez, Bertha Prieto-Gómez, Nachum Dafny
The interferons (IFNs) are an endogenous pleiotropic family of cytokines that perform fundamental physiological functions as well as protecting host organisms from disease and in maintaining homeostasis. This review covers the effects of endogenous IFN on the nervous system. It starts with the description of its receptors, followed how it modulate neuronal activity, mood, sleep, temperature, the endocrine system, the opioid system and how it regulate food consumption and the immune system. Similar to other multifunctional cytokines, an excessive or inappropriate activity of IFNs can cause toxicity and even death...
March 9, 2012: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22270022/vaccination-against-infection-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Micha Loebermann, Alexander Winkelmann, Hans-Peter Hartung, Hartmut Hengel, Emil C Reisinger, Uwe K Zettl
Bacterial and viral infections have been shown to induce relapses and accelerate the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Vaccination to prevent communicable disease in such patients is, therefore, of key importance. Reports of potentially detrimental effects of immunization on the course of MS, however, have prompted patients and physicians to adopt a cautious attitude towards the use of vaccines. The risks associated with a number of vaccines have been investigated in patients with MS. Vaccines against some diseases, such as tetanus and hepatitis B, are not associated with an elevated risk of MS exacerbation, whereas vaccines against other diseases, such as yellow fever, are contraindicated in patients with MS...
2011: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22232667/t-helper-cell-and-cd40-dependent-germline-igm-prevents-chronic-virus-induced-demyelinating-disease
#17
Cristina Gil-Cruz, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Sonja Firner, Ari Waisman, Ingo Bechmann, Volker Thiel, Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Burkhard Ludewig
Generation of antiviral IgM is usually considered as a marker of a short-lived initial antibody response that is replaced by hypermutated and more-efficient IgG. However, once viruses have established a particular niche for their persistence (e.g., within the CNS), the immune system has to specifically mobilize a broad range of antimicrobial effectors to contain the pathogen in the long term. Infection of the CNS with the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) provides a unique model situation in which the extent of inflammatory CNS disease is determined by the balance between antiviral immune control, viral replication, and immune-mediated damage...
January 24, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22155203/prolactin-and-autoimmunity
#18
REVIEW
Shahar Shelly, Mona Boaz, Hedi Orbach
Sex hormones, especially estrogen and prolactin (PRL), have an important role in modulating the immune response. PRL is secreted from the pituitary gland as well as other organs and cells particularly lymphocytes. PRL has an immune stimulatory effect and promotes autoimmunity. PRL interferes specifically with B cell tolerance induction, enhances proliferative response to antigens and mitogens and increases the production of immune globulins, cytokines and autoantibodies. Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) in women present with clinical manifestations of galactorrhea, primary or secondary amenorrhea, delayed menarche or a change in the menses either in the amount or in the regularity...
May 2012: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22045528/-immunostimulating-drugs-and-cytokines
#19
REVIEW
Nicola Lehners, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Marc S Raab
Cytokines are essential regulators of hematopoesis and the immune system. Genetic engineering of recombinant cytokines has facilitated their implementation in many clinical areas. In the field of oncology the granulopoetic human growth factors G-CSF and GM-CSF are of particular importance. They can be applied to prevent chemotherapy induced neutropenia. Furthermore, they allow for mobilization of hematopoetic stem cells in order to obtain peripheral blood stem cell transplants. Another class of cytokines, the interferons, possess immunomodulating, antiproliferative, and antiviral properties...
November 2011: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21431896/immunizations-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Mauricio F Farez, Jorge Correale
The role of vaccinations in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) or in risk of relapse has not been well established. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of immunizations on risk of developing MS in adults as well as in subsequent risk of relapse. Systematic search for publications in MEDLINE (1966-January 2011), EMBASE (1977-January 2011) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1961-January 2011). Both randomized clinical trials and non-randomized studies addressing the effect of any Center for Diseases Control (CDC) recommended vaccine for children, adults or travelers and BCG on risk of MS or disease relapse were included...
July 2011: Journal of Neurology
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