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Multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B immunization

Lin-Chong Su, Xiao-Yan Liu, An-Fang Huang, Wang-Dong Xu
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and provides the possibility to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory diseases. It is composed of an α chain (p35) and a β chain (EBI3). IL-35 mediates signaling by binding to its receptors, activates subsequent signaling pathways, and therefore, regulates the differentiation, function of T, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells. Recent findings have shown abnormal expression of IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune hepatitis, experimental autoimmune uveitis...
May 3, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Julie Mouchet, Bernard Bégaud
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination programs were set up worldwide in the early 1990s. Despite their major focus on reducing the burden of HB infection, they have seldom achieved the targeted population coverage in most countries, including the USA, with around 24.5% of adults being vaccinated against HB. Among proposed reasons for this is the persisting doubt about a possible link between HB vaccination and the occurrence of cases of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate a potential safety signal between MS and HB vaccination...
March 20, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Julie Mouchet, Francesco Salvo, Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Fabrizio De Ponti, Bernard Bégaud
BACKGROUND: The anti-hepatitis B immunization campaigns launched in the early 1990s were a major public health breakthrough and targeted various populations (at-risk adults, newborns, adolescents). However, debate is still active about a possible link between this vaccine and central demyelination. This study provides a pooled estimate of this risk based on a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of all available epidemiologic studies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception to 10 May 2017...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
M Löbermann, B Handorn, A Winkelmann, E C Reisinger, H P Hartung, U K Zettl
In June 2017 the European Court of Justice (ECJ) issued a verdict on the legal assessment of the association between hepatitis B immunization and the subsequent manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). This led to a high level of insecurity in the medical field as well as the normal population, especially in MS patients. The aim of this article is to briefly present the evidence-based medical facts and in particular to clearly highlight the legal aspects of the abovenamed ECJ verdict.
February 5, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Daniela Klotz, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Gerhauser
Type I interferons (IFNs) such as IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, and IFN-ω represent cytokines, which are deeply involved in the regulation and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. They possess strong antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities allowing their use in the therapy of different viral diseases, neoplasms, and immune-mediated disorders, respectively. Initially, treatment strategies were based on nonspecific inducers of type I IFNs, which were soon replaced by different recombinant proteins...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Delphine Lebrun, Maxime Hentzien, Lise Cuzin, David Rey, Véronique Joly, Laurent Cotte, Clotilde Allavena, Pierre Dellamonica, Amélie Servettaz, Firouzé Bani-Sadr
BACKGROUND: HIV infection and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (IADs) are both related to immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data on IAD in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of 26 IAD among PLHIV followed in a large French multicenter cohort in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era (from January 2000 to July 2013), and to describe their occurrence according to cART onset, the immuno-virological status of patients and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus coinfection...
September 24, 2017: AIDS
Keren E Dolan, Heather J Finley, Cathleen M Burns, Margaret G Gasta, Crystal M Gossard, Emily C Parker, Jessica M Pizano, Christy B Williamson, Elizabeth A Lipski
This article series provides a literature review of the disease-specific probiotic strains studied in published clinical trials in humans and animals. The goal of the series is to provide clinically useful tools. The table designs allow for quick access to supportive data related to disease states and will be helpful as a guide for both researchers and clinicians. This first article (part 1) focuses on mental health and neurological conditions. Future articles in this series will review conditions related to cardiometabolic and fatigue syndromes; ear, nose, throat, respiratory, and infectious diseases; immune and dermatological conditions; cancer, gastrointestinal and genitourinary; followed by an article focused on food-based probiotic strains and nutritional supplements...
October 2016: Integrative Medicine
M Haji Abdolvahab, M R K Mofrad, H Schellekens
Interferon beta (IFNβ) is a cytokine that is naturally produced by the immune system in response to biological and chemical stimuli. It signals by binding to the heterodimeric type I IFN receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains, and regulates the expression of a plethora of genes by means of the classical JAK/STAT and other pathways. IFNβ is pleiotropic in that it elicits antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities on numerous cell types. The biological activities underpin the mechanisms by which the protein is used to treat various diseases such as hepatitis C infection and multiple sclerosis...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Mark A Kane, Francois Roudot-Thoraval, Nicole Guerin, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Pierre Van Damme
Control of hepatitis B through routine infant immunization in more than 95% of countries has reduced the prevalence of chronic hepatitis carriers to less than 1%-2% in immunized cohorts of children even in high endemicity countries. In that context the authors of this editorial found the results of a paper by Gras et al in this issue concerning. They performed a Delphi survey of 37 French immunization experts and the results concluded that delayed hepatitis B immunization would cause "potential damage" only after 11 years...
August 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Manfred Relle, Julia Weinmann-Menke, Eva Scorletti, Lorenzo Cavagna, Andreas Schwarting
Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease, have complex pathogeneses and the factors which cause these disorders are not well understood. But all have in common that they arise from a dysfunction of the immune system, interpreting self components as foreign antigens. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of these complex inflammatory disorders that mainly affects women and can lead to inflammation and severe damage of virtually any tissue and organ...
November 2015: Autoimmunity Reviews
Tetsuya Akaishi, Ichiro Nakashima
Rituximab is a chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets CD20 molecules on the surface of B-cells, thereby depleting B-cells and regulating humoral immunity. This antibody is mostly used in CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma, but is also widely used in many other connective tissue and neurological disorders. These neurological disorders include multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, primary central nervous system lymphoma, inflammatory myopathy, and some other autoimmune-mediated neurological disorders...
October 2014: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Jenna N Kelly, Stephen D Barr
Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function...
2014: PloS One
Rossella Melchiotti, Kia Joo Puan, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Tuang Yeow Poh, Mireille Starke, Li Zhuang, Kerstin Petsch, Tuck Siong Lai, Fook Tim Chew, Anis Larbi, De Yun Wang, Michael Poidinger, Olaf Rotzschke
BACKGROUND: Extracellular ATP is a pro-inflammatory molecule released by damaged cells. Regulatory T cells (Treg) can suppress inflammation by hydrolysing this molecule via ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1), also termed as CD39. Multiple studies have reported differences in CD39+ Treg percentages in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Hepatitis B and HIV-1. In addition, CD39 polymorphisms have been implicated in immune-phenotypes such as susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and AIDS progression...
2014: BMC Medical Genetics
Jason G Weinger, Warren C Plaisted, Sonia M Maciejewski, Lewis L Lanier, Craig M Walsh, Thomas E Lane
Transplantation of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in rapid rejection that is mediated, in part, by T cells. However, the contribution of the innate immune response to allograft rejection in a model of viral-induced neurological disease has not been well defined. Herein, we demonstrate that the natural killer (NK) cell-expressing-activating receptor NKG2D participates in transplanted allogeneic NPC rejection in mice persistently infected with JHMV...
October 2014: Stem Cells
Branko Troskot, Miroslav Simunić
TNF-alpha blockers side effects vary according to the frequency and severity and mainly include immunogenicity (ability to cause immune reactions), infections, malignancies, heart failure, demyelinating disease and others. Treatment with TNF-alpha blockers may result in the formation of autoantibodies and, rarely, in the development of a lupus-like syndrome. They should not be administered to patients who have experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction. Urticaria, dyspnea and hypotension can occur after TNF-alpha inhibitors administration...
April 2013: Acta Medica Croatica: C̆asopis Hravatske Akademije Medicinskih Znanosti
Rosella Mechelli, Renato Umeton, Claudia Policano, Viviana Annibali, Giulia Coarelli, Vito A G Ricigliano, Danila Vittori, Arianna Fornasiero, Maria Chiara Buscarinu, Silvia Romano, Marco Salvetti, Giovanni Ristori
Though difficult, the study of gene-environment interactions in multifactorial diseases is crucial for interpreting the relevance of non-heritable factors and prevents from overlooking genetic associations with small but measurable effects. We propose a "candidate interactome" (i.e. a group of genes whose products are known to physically interact with environmental factors that may be relevant for disease pathogenesis) analysis of genome-wide association data in multiple sclerosis. We looked for statistical enrichment of associations among interactomes that, at the current state of knowledge, may be representative of gene-environment interactions of potential, uncertain or unlikely relevance for multiple sclerosis pathogenesis: Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV8-Kaposi sarcoma, H1N1-influenza, JC virus, human innate immunity interactome for type I interferon, autoimmune regulator, vitamin D receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and a panel of proteins targeted by 70 innate immune-modulating viral open reading frames from 30 viral species...
2013: PloS One
W Kim, S-H Kim, S-Y Huh, S-Y Kong, Y J Choi, H J Cheong, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vaccination against infection becomes important in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) because they are at an increased risk of infection due to long-term immunosuppressive therapy. However, it is unclear whether NMOSD patients under immunosuppression therapy show proper antibody formation after vaccination. Thus the antibody formation after influenza A (H1N1) vaccination in patients with NMOSD receiving rituximab was evaluated. METHODS: The study enrolled 26 patients with NMOSD, nine with multiple sclerosis and eight healthy controls...
June 2013: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990...
October 1, 2005: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Roberto Perez-Alvarez, Marta Pérez-de-Lis, Manuel Ramos-Casals
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological agents are therapies designed to target a specific molecular component of the immune system, and are currently licensed for use in autoimmune rheumatic, digestive, dermatological and systemic diseases. However, their use has been linked with the paradoxical development of autoimmune processes. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 1500 cases of autoimmune diseases induced by biologics have been reported, including a wide variety of both systemic (lupus, vasculitis, sarcoidosis, antiphospholipid syndrome and inflammatory myopathies) and organ-specific (interstitial lung disease, uveitis, optic neuritis, peripheral neuropathies, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune hepatitis) autoimmune processes...
January 2013: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Bi-Sheng Liu, Harry L A Janssen, André Boonstra
Currently, only about 30-50% of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients respond to IFN-based therapy. It has been suggested that IL-10 is involved in suppressing the activity of type I IFNs on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, the interaction between type I IFNs and IL-10 is still not clear. Here we report that IFN-α priming upregulated the expression of IL-10R1 on monocytes, and subsequently IL-10 induced a higher level of STAT3 phosphorylation in IFN-primed cells. This indicates that IFN-α increased the sensitivity of monocytes to IL-10, and as a result, TLR-induced IL-12p70 by IFN-pretreated cells was suppressed...
September 2012: European Journal of Immunology
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