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Michael Stoller, Steffen Gloekler, Rainer Zbinden, David Tueller, Franz Eberli, Stephan Windecker, Peter Wenaweser, Christian Seiler
AIMS: Testing the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) afterload reduction in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) by transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) acutely improves coronary hemodynamics. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective, pathophysiologic study in 40 patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. Endpoints were determined invasively immediately before and after TAVI without altering coronary stenotic lesions if present. Myocardial hyperemia was induced by intravenous adenosine...
March 20, 2018: EuroIntervention
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Zoë Pieters, Neil J Saad, Marina Antillón, Virginia E Pitzer, Joke Bilcke
Enteric fever is a febrile illness, occurring mostly in Asia and Africa, which can present as a severe and possibly fatal disease. Currently, a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1% is assumed when evaluating the global burden of enteric fever. Until now, no meta-analysis has been conducted to summarize mortality from enteric fever. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to aggregate all available evidence. We estimated an overall CFR of 2.49% (95% CI: 1.65%-3.75%, n=44), and a CFR in hospitalized patients of 4...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Takayuki Niida, Tadashi Murai, Taishi Yonetsu, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Junji Matsuda, Masahiro Hoshino, Makoto Araki, Masao Yamaguchi, Masahiro Hada, Sadamitsu Ichijyo, Rikuta Hamaya, Yoshinori Kanno, Mitsuaki Isobe, Tsunekazu Kakuta
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between fractional flow reserve (FFR) values and change in coronary physiological indices after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Decision making for revascularization when FFR is 0.75-0.80 is controversial. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 296 patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent physiological examinations before and after PCI...
March 8, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Danielle Bloch, Kenya Murray, Eric Peterson, Stephanie Ngai, Inessa Rubinstein, Tanya A Halse, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Laura Miller, Lola Arakaki, Arianne Ramautar, Mike Antwi, Paula Del Rosso, Marie Dorsinville, Sandhya Clark, Megan Halbrook, Joseph Kennedy, Sarah Braunstein, Don Weiss
Backgroun: d The case fatality rate (CFR) from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in New York City (NYC) is greater than national figures, with higher rates among females than males across all age groups. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 151 persons aged 15 years and older diagnosed with IMD in NYC during 2008-2016 identified through communicable disease surveillance. We examined demographic, clinical, and community-level associations with death to confirm the elevated risk of mortality among female IMD patients after adjusting for confounders and to determine factors associated with female IMD mortality...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Helena U Westergren, Li-Ming Gan, Marianne Månsson, Sara Svedlund
Background: The impact of personalized exercise training and a healthy dietary lifestyle in healthy volunteers on coronary flow reserve and cardiovascular function remains to be investigated in a controlled study setting. Purpose: To examine the effects of a Mediterranean-inspired diet combined with regular physical exercise (standard) and a personalized supervised exercise program (DAPS) on coronary flow reserve and cardiovascular function. Results: The number of males were 10 (59%) and 9 (47%) and mean age was 54 ± 12 and 55 ± 5 years in standard versus DAPS group, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Astrinos Voumvourakis, George Makavos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Konstantinos Katogiannis, Dimitris Benas, Dimitris Vlastos, Paraskevi Trivilou, Maria Varoudi, John Parissis, Efstathios Iliodromitis, John Lekakis
We investigated the association of endothelial glycocalyx damage with arterial stiffness, impairment of coronary microcirculatory function, and LV myocardial deformation in 320 untreated hypertensives and 160 controls. We measured perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual microvessels, a marker inversely related with glycocalyx thickness, coronary flow reserve (CFR), and Global Longitudinal strain (GLS) by echocardiography, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP). Hypertensives had higher PBR, PWV cSBP, and lower CFR and GLS than controls (P < ...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Kelsey M Minter, G Timothy Jannik, Brooke H Stagich, Kenneth L Dixon, Joseph R Newton
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the model CAP88 to estimate the total effective dose (TED) to an offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H: The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. For NESHAP compliance at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control, and SRS approved a dose assessment method in 1991 that models all radiological emissions as if originating from a generalized center of site (COS) location at two allowable stack heights (0 m and 61 m)...
April 2018: Health Physics
Pierre Delpech, Muna ALeryan, Brian Jones, Curtis Gemmell, Sue Lang
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are among the most commonly occurring infections and evidence suggests that these are increasing world-wide. The aetiology is diverse, but Staphylococcus aureus predominate and these are often resistant to antimicrobials that were previously effective. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone-class antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with SSTI caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of tedizolid in comparison to other clinically used antibacterials against antibiotic sensitive- and resistant-staphylococci, grown in planktonic cultures and as biofilms reflecting the growth of the microorganism during episodes of SSTI...
January 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Alexandre Blake, Veronique Sarr Keita, Delphine Sauvageot, Mamadou Saliou, Berthe Marie Njanpop, Fode Sory, Bertrand Sudre, Koivogui Lamine, Martin Mengel, Bradford D Gessner, Keita Sakoba
BACKGROUND: Cholera is endemic in Guinea, having suffered consecutive outbreaks from 2004 to 2008 followed by a lull until the 2012 epidemic. Here we describe the temporal-spatial and behavioural characteristics of cholera cases in Conakry during a three-year period, including the large-scale 2012 epidemic. METHODS: We used the national and African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) surveillance data collected from every cholera treatment centre in Conakry city from August 2011 to December 2013...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Tadashi Murai, Taishi Yonetsu, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Masahiro Hoshino, Masahiro Hada, Rikuta Hamaya, Yoshinori Kanno, Tetsumin Lee, Tsunekazu Kakuta
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of physiological indices in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We investigated the prognostic efficacy of physiological indices obtained after PCI in patients with NSTE-ACS. METHODS: Eighty-three patients (men: n = 70, age: 63.7 ± 9.7 years) undergoing PCI for NSTE-ACS within 48 hr postadmission were investigated. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR), and the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) of the culprit vessels were measured after the completion of PCI...
February 15, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Christina Weßels, Birgit Strommenger, Ingo Klare, Jennifer Bender, Sabine Messler, Frauke Mattner, Michael Krakau, Guido Werner, Franziska Layer
Objectives: To investigate an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE) in an interdisciplinary ICU, linezolid consumption and infection control measures taken. Methods: Routine surveillance of nosocomial infections revealed colonization and infection with LRSE affecting 14 patients during a 15 month period. LRSE isolates were analysed with respect to their clonal relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of cfr and/or mutations in the 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Seoyoung C Kim, Nishant R Shah, James R Rogers, Courtney F Bibbo, Marcelo F Di Carli, Daniel H Solomon
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels have been independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Stress myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) allows for measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and quantification of global left ventricular coronary flow reserve (CFR). A CFR <2.0 is considered impaired coronary vascular function, and it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the relationship between SUA and PET-measured markers of coronary vascular function...
2018: PloS One
Rongchao Cheng, Xiaoming Zhu, Yunling Li, Xiuping Bai, Li Xue, Li Wei
PURPOSE: Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is recognized as an indicator of myocardial perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in the present study, and divided into MACE and non-MACE groups according to the incidence of 12-month MACEs...
March 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Alejandro Álvaro-Meca, María A Jiménez-Sousa, Dariela Micheloud, Ainhoa Sánchez-Lopez, María Heredia-Rodríguez, Eduardo Tamayo, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: Sepsis has represented a substantial health care and economic burden worldwide during the previous several decades. Our aim was to analyze the epidemiological trends of hospital admissions, deaths, hospital resource expenditures, and associated costs related to sepsis during the twenty-first century in Spain. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all sepsis-related hospitalizations in Spanish public hospitals from 2000 to 2013. Data were obtained from records in the Minimum Basic Data Set...
February 12, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Shiro Nakamori, Hajime Sakuma, Kaoru Dohi, Masaki Ishida, Takashi Tanigawa, Akimasa Yamada, Shinichi Takase, Hiroshi Nakajima, Toshiki Sawai, Jun Masuda, Motonori Nagata, Yasutaka Ichikawa, Kakuya Kitagawa, Eitaro Fujii, Norikazu Yamada, Masaaki Ito
BACKGROUND: Recent studies using stress-rest perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) demonstrated a close correlation between myocardial ischemia and reduced fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, its diagnostic concordance may be reduced in patients with multivessel disease. We sought to evaluate the concordance of adenosine stress-rest perfusion CMR for predicting reduced FFR, and to determine the additive value of measuring global coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the coronary sinus in multivessel disease...
January 26, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Olumide Ajibola, Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Olusola Akintoye Omisakin
INTRODUCTION: Following the significant reduction of Neisseria meningitidis A (NmA) in most parts of northern Nigeria, a new strain of Neisseria meningitidis C (NmC) emerged in 2013 causing outbreaks in the north and recently spreading to southern parts of the Nigeria. This study provides detailed epidemiological investigation in the last four years. METHODS: Analysis of confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis in Kebbi, Nigeria from 2014 to June 2017 detected through Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
Takeshi Ide, Yoshio Takesue, Kazuro Ikawa, Norifumi Morikawa, Takashi Ueda, Yoshiko Takahashi, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Kenta Takeda, Shinichi Nishi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the optimum dosing regimen of linezolid in sepsis patients with and without renal dysfunction and sepsis patients on low-dose continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) using a pharmacokinetics/pharmacokinetics (PK/PD) approach. METHODS: Sepsis patients with and without renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min), and sepsis patients on low-dose CRRT (dose: 800 mL/h) were studied. The PK data were modeled using a two-compartment model, and then used for simulation...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Chengtao Sun, Peng Zhang, Xing Ji, Run Fan, Baoli Chen, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu
Objectives: To investigate the presence and molecular characteristics of oxazolidinone resistance genes cfr and optrA in staphylococci from household animals in rural China. Methods: Various samples were collected from household animals in 12 rural villages. Staphylococcal isolates showing florfenicol MICs ≥10 mg/L were identified and screened for the presence of cfr and/or optrA. PCR-positive isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, S1 nuclease PFGE and Southern blotting...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kathryn Dryer, Mark Gajjar, Nikhil Narang, Margaret Lee, Jonathan Paul, Atman P Shah, Sandeep Nathan, Javed Butler, Charles J Davidson, William F Fearon, Sanjiv J Shah, John Edward Abellera Blair
BACKGROUND: There are multiple proposed mechanisms for the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We hypothesize that coronary microvascular dysfunction is common in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective, observational study, patients undergoing cardiac catheterization with HFpEF (left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction {greater than or equal to} 50% and with clinical HF), were compared to similar patients without HFpEF...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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