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P Meimoun, J Clerc, D Ardourel, U Djou, S Martis, T Botoro, F Elmkies, H Zemir, A Luycx-Bore, J Boulanger
To test the usefulness of non-invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography by comparison to invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR), a new vasodilator-free index of coronary stenosis severity, in patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis of intermediate severity (IS) and stable coronary artery disease. 94 consecutive patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years) with angiographic LAD stenosis of IS (50-70 % diameter stenosis), were prospectively studied...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Huan He, Nino Paichadze, Adnan A Hyder, David Bishai
BACKGROUND: The relationship between economic development and road safety at sub-national level has not been well established. This study aims to assess the relationships between economic growth (measured by gross regional product (GRP)) and road traffic fatalities (RTFs) and crash fatality ratio (CFR) at sub-national level in Russia. METHODS: We used published secondary data on annual RTFs and CFR obtained from the traffic police and socioeconomic development indicators from the statistics department for each Russian federal region (referred to in Russia as "subject") for 2004-2011...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Sebastian Völz, Sara Svedlund, Bert Andersson, Gan Li-Ming, Bengt Rundqvist
Resistant hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is impaired in patients with hypertension and an independent predictor of cardiac mortality. However, there are no published data on CFR in the subset of treatment-resistant hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess CFR in patients with resistant hypertension. Twenty-five consecutive patients with primary resistant hypertension, scheduled for renal denervation, 25 matched patients with controlled hypertension, and 25 healthy controls underwent transthoracic colour Doppler echocardiography at rest and during adenosine infusion...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Naomi Dailey, Deb Niemeier, Carine Elkhoraibi, C Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Maurice Pitesky
While pasture-raised poultry comprises a small portion of the commercial poultry industry in North America, these alternative rearing systems have become increasingly popular. As such, it is critical to improve our understanding of husbandry practices and prevalence of zoonotic and epizoonotic diseases in these systems. This research reviews the results of a survey sent to 82 commercial pastured poultry farms in California. While the survey response was low (13.4%), it was enhanced by detailed in-person interviews and farm visits...
October 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam Pasipanodya, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  When treated with the same antibiotic dose, children achieve different 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24) because of maturation and between-child physiological variability on drug clearance. Children are also infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, each child will achieve different AUC0-24/MIC ratios when treated with the same dose. METHODS:  We used 10 000-subject Monte Carlo experiments to identify the oral doses of linezolid, moxifloxacin, and faropenem that would achieve optimal target exposures associated with optimal efficacy in children with disseminated tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sundru Manjulata Devi, Subramanian Aishwarya, Prakash M Halami
The present study was aimed to evaluate the diversity and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum-group cultures from vegetable origin. First, genotypic diversity of L. plantarum (n=34) was achieved by PCR of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and recA gene-specific multiplex PCR. The isolates were segregated into five groups namely, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and argentoratensis. Further discrimination was achieved by restriction fragment length polymorphism of probiotic adhesion genes viz...
October 5, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Rosario Musumeci, Enrico Calaresu, Jolanda Gerosa, Davide Oggioni, Simone Bramati, Patrizia Morelli, Ida Mura, Andrea Piana, Bianca Maria Are, Clementina Elvezia Cocuzza
Linezolid is the main representative of the oxazolidinones, introduced in 2000 in clinical practice to treat severe Gram-positive infections. This compound inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase centre of the 50S bacterial ribosomal subunit. The aim of this study was to characterize 12 clinical strains of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolated in Northern Italy. All isolates of Staphylococcus spp. studied showed a multi-antibiotic resistance phenotype. In particular, all isolates showed the presence of the mecA gene associated with SSCmec types IVa, V or I...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
David Carrick, Caroline Haig, Jaclyn Carberry, Vannesa Teng Yue May, Peter McCartney, Paul Welsh, Nadeem Ahmed, Margaret McEntegart, Mark C Petrie, Hany Eteiba, Mitchell Lindsay, Stuart Hood, Stuart Watkins, Ahmed Mahrous, Samuli M O Rauhalammi, Ify Mordi, Ian Ford, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Naveed Sattar, Keith G Oldroyd, Colin Berry
BACKGROUND: Failed myocardial reperfusion is common and prognostically important after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary flow reserve (CFR), a measure of vasodilator capacity, and the index of microvascular resistance (IMR; mmHg × s) in the culprit artery of STEMI survivors. METHODS: IMR (n = 288) and CFR (n = 283; mean age [SD], 60 [12] years) were measured acutely using guide wire-based thermodilution...
May 5, 2016: JCI Insight
Evans M Mpabalwani, Jason M Mwenda, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, are increasingly being introduced in national immunization programmes in Africa to prevent severe dehydrating acute gastroenteritis. A low-level risk of intussusception has been associated with rotavirus vaccines. We reviewed published data on intussusception in children <2 years of age in Africa. PubMed electronic database search was used to retrieve papers published on intussusception. The search was further refined to identify surveillance reports and case series conducted from 1980 to 2014, with at least 25 cases...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
(no author information available yet)
Erratum to: Hip Int. 2012 Sep-Oct;22(5):539-544. Assessing reproducibility for radiographic measurement of leg length inequality after total hip replacement. McWilliams AB, Grainger AJ, O'Connor PJ, Redmond AC, Stewart TD, Stone MH. PMID: 23100154 DOI:10.5301/HIP.2012.9751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] In the article "Assessing reproducibility for radiographic measurement of leg length inequality after total hip replacement", by Anthony B. McWilliams, Andrew J. Grainger, Philip J. O'Connor, Anthony C. Redmond, Todd D...
September 29, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Reshma Roshania, Michaela Mallow, Nelson Dunbar, David Mansary, Pranav Shetty, Taralyn Lyon, Kacey Pham, Matthew Abad, Erin Shedd, Anh-Minh A Tran, Sarah Cundy, Adam C Levine
BACKGROUND: The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest ever recorded. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) managed 5 Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Liberia and Sierra Leone, which cumulatively cared for about 2,500 patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patient data collected at the 5 ETUs over 1 year of operations. METHODS: To collect clinical and epidemiological data from the patient care areas, each chart was either manually copied across the fence between the high-risk zone and low-risk zone, imaged across the fence, or imaged in the high-risk zone...
September 28, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Run Fan, Dexi Li, Yang Wang, Tao He, Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu
A total of 57 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and 475 methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) collected from pigs in the Guangdong province of China in 2014 were investigated for the presence of the novel oxazolidinone-phenicol resistance gene optrA The optrA gene was detected in 6.9% (n=33) of the MRCoNS, all of which were MR-Staphylococcus sciuri, but in none of the MRSA. Five optrA-carrying MR-S. sciuri also harbored the multiresistance gene cfr Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and dru typing of the 33 optrA-carrying MR-S...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jianping Sha, Yuan Li, Xiaowen Chen, Yan Hu, Yajin Ren, Xingyi Geng, Zhiruo Zhang, Shelan Liu
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first isolated in 2012. The largest known outbreak outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015. As of 29 June 2016, 1769 laboratory-confirmed cases (630 deaths; 35.6 % case fatality rate [CFR]) had been reported from 26 countries, particularly in the Middle East. However, the CFR for hospital outbreaks was higher than that of family clusters in the Middle East and Korea. Here, we compared the mortality rates for 51 nosocomial outbreaks in the Middle East and one outbreak of MERS-CoV in South Korea...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Virology
M D Pirie, E G H Oliver, A Mugrabi de Kuppler, B Gehrke, N C Le Maitre, M Kandziora, D U Bellstedt
BACKGROUND: The disproportionate species richness of the world's biodiversity hotspots could be explained by low extinction (the evolutionary "museum") and/or high speciation (the "hot-bed") models. We test these models using the largest of the species rich plant groups that characterise the botanically diverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR): the genus Erica L. We generate a novel phylogenetic hypothesis informed by nuclear and plastid DNA sequences of c. 60 % of the c. 800 Erica species (of which 690 are endemic to the CFR), and use this to estimate clade ages (using RELTIME; BEAST), net diversification rates (GEIGER), and shifts in rates of diversification in different areas (BAMM; MuSSE)...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jaime R Torres, Luiza H Falleiros-Arlant, Lourdes Dueñas, Jorge Pleitez-Navarrete, Doris M Salgado, José Brea-Del Castillo
BACKGROUND: During the years 2014 and 2015, the Region of the Americas underwent a devastating epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Asian genotype, resulting in millions of affected individuals. However, epidemiological and clinical information on this experience is scarce. Prior knowledge of congenital and neonatal illness caused by CHIKV is limited and almost exclusively based on data obtained from a single outbreak of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype. The effect of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) on pregnancy outcomes and its consequences for infants born to infected mothers at the peak of the epidemic wave in Latin America are reviewed herein...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Erica Eggers Carroll
Good laboratory practice standards are US federal regulations enacted as part of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (40 CFR Part 160), the Toxic Substance Control Act (40 CFR Part 792), and the Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (21 CFR Part 58) to support protection of public health in the areas of pesticides, chemicals, and drug investigations in response to allegations of inaccurate data acquisition. Essentially, good laboratory practices (GLPs) are a system of management controls for nonclinical research studies involving animals to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of data collected as part of chemical (including pharmaceuticals) tests, from in vitro through acute to chronic toxicity tests...
October 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Matteo Bauckneht, Roberta Piva, Giulia Ferrarazzo, Valentina Ceriani, Ambra Buschiazzo, Silvia Morbelli, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti
Over the last several decades, radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) has been a mainstay for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD), based on the assumption that a detailed knowledge of stenosis localization and severity is not sufficient for clinical decision making. Furthermore, radionuclide MPI diagnostic accuracy has been implemented by the assessment of Coronary Flow Reserve (CFR) and Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF), as quantitative indexes of stenosis severity and surrogates of total ischaemic burden...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Joo Myung Lee, Chee Hae Kim, Bon-Kwon Koo, Doyeon Hwang, Jonghanne Park, Jinlong Zhang, Yaliang Tong, Ki-Hyun Jeon, Ji-In Bang, Minseok Suh, Jin Chul Paeng, Gi Jeong Cheon, Sang-Hoon Na, Jung-Min Ahn, Seung-Jung Park, Hyo-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the diagnostic accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging is improved by quantifying stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) in absolute terms. We evaluated a comprehensive quantitative (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography ((13)NH3-PET) diagnostic panel, including stress MBF, coronary flow reserve (CFR), and relative flow reserve (RFR) in conjunction with relative perfusion defect (PD) assessments to better detect functionally significant coronary artery stenosis...
September 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Girum Mekonnen, Salim S Hayek, Puja K Mehta, Qunna Li, Ernestine Mahar, Liping Mou, Tanya S Kenkre, John W Petersen, Babak Azarbal, Bruce Samuels, R David Anderson, Tara Sedlak, Melody Zaya, Megha Agarwal, Afsaneh Haftbaradaran, Margo Minissian, Eileen Handberg, Carl J Pepine, Christopher R Cogle, C Noel Bairey Merz, Edmund K Waller, Arshed A Quyyumi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ischemia stimulates a reparative response resulting in mobilization of circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). We hypothesized that women with chronic myocardial ischemia from coronary microvascular disease (CMD) will mobilize CPCs. METHODS: In 123 women with ischemic symptoms and signs but no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) enrolled in the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation - Coronary Vascular Dysfunction Study (WISE-CVD), we measured coronary flow reserve (CFR) in response to intracoronary adenosine...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
Wijnand J Stuijfzand, Roel S Driessen, Pieter G Raijmakers, Mischa T Rijnierse, Joren Maeremans, Maurits R Hollander, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert C van Rossum, Jo Dens, Alexander Nap, Niels van Royen, Paul Knaapen
AIMS: Previous studies on invasive assessment of collateral function in patients with a chronic total occlusion (CTO) have displayed only a limited increase in collateral flow and high occurrence of coronary steal during pharmacological stress. This could question the necessity for ischaemia testing prior to revascularization of CTOs in the presence of myocardial viability. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of perfusion impairments in patients with a CTO as assessed by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET)...
September 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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