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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734128/the-experience-of-initiating-injection-drug-use-and-its-social-context-a-qualitative-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis
#1
REVIEW
Andy Guise, Danielle Horyniak, Jason Melo, Ryan McNeill, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Understanding the experience of initiating injection drug use and its social contexts is crucial to inform efforts to prevent transitions into this mode of drug consumption and support harm reduction. We systematically reviewed and synthesized existing qualitative scientific literature to identify the socio-structural contexts for, and experiences of, the initiation of injection drug use. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS, and SSCI), along with a manual search, including of key journals and subject experts...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722317/reward-capacity-predicts-leptin-dynamics-during-laboratory-controlled-eating-in-women-as-a-function-of-body-mass-index
#2
Laura M Holsen, Benita Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The role of leptin in mesolimbic signaling of non-food-related rewards has been well established at the preclinical level, yet studies in humans are lacking. The present investigation explored the association between hedonic capacity and leptin dynamics and whether this association differed by BMI class. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 75 women (42 with BMIs in the lean range and 33 with BMIs in the obesity range), serum leptin before and after meal consumption was measured...
July 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721480/intermittent-and-daily-smokers-subjective-responses-to-smoking
#3
Saul Shiffman, Lauren Terhorst
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720377/sucrose-and-fat-content-significantly-affects-palatable-food-consumption-in-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#4
Christine M Tenk, Tina Felfeli
Hyperpalatable foods are highly pleasurable and possess a heightened capacity to stimulate eating. Adolescents appear especially vulnerable to hyperpalatable foods. These foods are typically high in sugar, fat, or both, but the specific elements that underlie their increased consumption are still not clearly understood. Combinations of high fat and high sugar may particularly intensify overeating. Animal models allow investigation of the consumption of these foods separately from many of the environmental and psychological influences that impact eating in humans...
July 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720042/exotic-dancing-and-relationship-violence-exploring-indigeneity-gender-and-agency
#5
Jade Le Grice
How should we begin to explore the complex considerations influencing young Indigenous New Zealand Māori women's sexuality? Centring a Māori woman's analysis through a Mana Wāhine methodology, and utilising an Indigenous form of storying, pūrākau, I explore this question by attending to my autobiographical memory of experiences of exotic dancing and moments of violence in heterosexual relationships. The analysis provides critical reflection on the interchanges between individual experience and the social and cultural conditions of a reality, informed by colonisation and historical trauma...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714914/online-vape-shop-customers-who-use-e-cigarettes-report-abstinence-from-smoking-and-improved-quality-of-life-but-a-substantial-minority-still-have-vaping-related-health-concerns
#6
Dinska Van Gucht, Karolien Adriaens, Frank Baeyens
(1) Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users) have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2) Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3) Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711797/symptom-severity-and-disability-in-psychiatric-disorders-the-u-s-collaborative-psychiatric-epidemiology-survey
#7
R García-Velázquez, M Jokela, T H Rosenström
BACKGROUND: While most psychiatric diagnoses are based on simple counts of symptoms, some symptoms may be sign of a more severe mental syndrome than others. This calls for validated estimates of the relative severity specific symptoms imply within a disorder. We focused on four diagnostic disorders: Manic Episode (ME), Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Symptom-specific severity parameters were estimated, and validated by examining their association with levels of self-reported disability in daily activities over and above the number of symptoms...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707006/editorial
#8
EDITORIAL
Guntram Lock
Dear colleagues, It is a pleasure to introduce you to the 2nd issue of UIO in 2017, demonstrating, again, the wide applications and promising developments in ultrasonography. The issue starts with a special editorial from Ioan Sporea from Romania, very well known for his scientific work on the clinical significance of elastography. Dr. Sporea outlines the central role of modern sonographic techniques for clinical decision making in modern hepatology. Together with the great advances in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, ultrasonography with elastography and CEUS as a "one stop shopping" facility may give us all the information we need to proceed to treatment, thus superseding liver biopsy in many (though definitively not all) patients with liver disease...
April 2017: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702870/randomized-controlled-trial-of-brief-mindfulness-training-and-hypnotic-suggestion-for-acute-pain-relief-in-the-hospital-setting
#9
Eric L Garland, Anne K Baker, Paula Larsen, Michael R Riquino, Sarah E Priddy, Elizabeth Thomas, Adam W Hanley, Patricia Galbraith, Nathan Wanner, Yoshio Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to a psychoeducation pain coping control. We also hypothesized that mindfulness and suggestion would produce significant improvements in secondary outcomes including relaxation, pleasant body sensations, anxiety, and desire for opioids, compared to the control condition...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699831/motivated-malleability-frontal-cortical-asymmetry-predicts-the-susceptibility-to-social-influence
#10
Robert Schnuerch, Stefan Pfattheicher
Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction-that is, approach versus avoidance orientation-is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1)...
July 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699053/vicarious-effort-based-decision-making-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Maya G Mosner, Jessica L Kinard, Sean McWeeny, Jasmine S Shah, Nathan D Markiewitz, Cara R Damiano-Goodwin, Margaret R Burchinal, Helena J V Rutherford, Rachel K Greene, Michael T Treadway, Gabriel S Dichter
This study investigated vicarious effort-based decision-making in 50 adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to 32 controls using the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Participants made choices to win money for themselves or for another person. When choosing for themselves, the ASD group exhibited relatively similar patterns of effort-based decision-making across reward parameters. However, when choosing for another person, the ASD group demonstrated relatively decreased sensitivity to reward magnitude, particularly in the high magnitude condition...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686560/-hoarding-disorder-in-dsm-5-clinical-description-and-cognitive-approach
#12
L Kalogeraki, I Michopoulos
Hoarding disorder is characterized by difficulty discarding or parting with possessions regardless their actual value as well as, in most cases, persistent acquisition of objects. Possessions are accumulated in large numbers that fill up and clutter active living space to the extent that its intended use is no longer possible resulting to significant functional impairment and/or distress. Saving and difficulty discarding appear to be associated to subjective beliefs about the instrumental, sentimental or intrinsic value of objects...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686528/the-vaginal-pressure-inducer-a-new-device-to-test-the-un-pleasurableness-and-tolerance-of-vaginal-pressure-and-the-influence-of-sexual-stimuli
#13
Reinhilde J Melles, Marieke D Dewitte, Moniek M Ter Kuile, Charlie Bonnemayer, Madelon M L Peters
To better understand the impact of sexual stimuli on genital pain, a new instrument was developed: the Vaginal Pressure Inducer (VPI). We administered gradually increasing vaginal pressure with the VPI to sexually functional women while watching a neutral, erotic or explicit sex film. Women had higher unpleasantness thresholds in a sexual context compared to a non-sexual context. Moreover, ratings of pleasurableness were higher in the sexual compared to neutral context and most so during the explicit sexual film...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685448/evaluation-of-pleasure-displeasure-induced-by-use-of-lipsticks-with-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-usefulness-of-2-channel-nirs-in-neuromarketing
#14
M Tanida, M Okabe, K Tagai, K Sakatani
In order to examine whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) would be a useful neuromarketing tool, we employed NIRS to evaluate the difference of pleasure-displeasure in women, induced by the use of different types of lipsticks. The subjects used lipsticks A and B; A is softer than B. Concentration changes of oxy-Hb were measured in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during use of lipsticks A and B. We evaluated the right and left dominancy of PFC activity by calculating the Laterality Index (LI) (LI = leftΔoxy-Hb - rightΔoxy-Hb); positive LI indicates left-dominant activity while negative LI indicate right-dominant activity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678639/women-s-experiences-with-genital-touching-sexual-pleasure-and-orgasm-results-from-a-u-s-probability-sample-of-women-ages-18-to-94
#15
Debby Herbenick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Jennifer Arter, Stephanie A Sanders, Brian Dodge
The study purpose was to assess, in a U.S. probability sample of women, experiences related to orgasm, sexual pleasure, and genital touching. In June 2015, 1,055 women ages 18 to 94 from the nationally representative GfK KnowledgePanel® completed a confidential, Internet-based survey. More than one-third of American women (37%) reported they needed clitoral stimulation in order to experience orgasm during intercourse and 18% said that vaginal penetration was sufficient for orgasm. Women reported diverse preferences for genital touch location, pressure, shape, and pattern...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673434/sexual-activity-and-physical-tenderness-in-older-adults-cross-sectional-prevalence-and-associated-characteristics
#16
Rosanne Freak-Poli, Maggie Kirkman, Gustavo De Castro Lima, Nese Direk, Oscar H Franco, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. AIM: To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands...
July 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669268/introduction-to-the-supratentorial-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-video-supplement
#17
Robert M Starke, Felipe C Albuquerque, Michael T Lawton
It is with great pleasure that we present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on supratentorial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We were privileged to view a remarkable number of outstanding videos demonstrating current state-of-the-art management of brain AVMs using endovascular and microsurgical modalities. Careful and critical review was required to narrow down the submitted videos to a workable volume for this supplement, which reflects the excellent work being done at multiple centers with these lesions...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668855/slow-release-l-cysteine-acetium%C3%A2-lozenge-is-an-effective-new-method-in-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-intervention
#18
Kari Syrjänen, Katja Eronen, Panu Hendolin, Lea Paloheimo, Carita Eklund, Anna Bäckström, Osmo Suovaniemi
BACKGROUND/AIM: Because of the major health problems and annual economic burden caused by cigarette smoking, effective new tools for smoking intervention are urgently needed. Our previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) provided promising results on the efficacy of slow-release L-cysteine lozenge in smoking intervention, but the study was not adequately powered. To confirm in an adequately-powered study the results of the previous RCT implicating that effective elimination of acetaldehyde in saliva by slow-release L-cysteine (Acetium® lozenge, Biohit Oyj, Helsinki), would assist in smoking cessation by reducing acetaldehyde-enhanced nicotine addiction...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668726/prudence-pleasure-and-cognitive-ageing-configurations-of-the-uses-and-users-of-brain-training-games-within-uk-media-2005-2015
#19
Martyn Pickersgill, Tineke Broer, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Ian Deary
The use of 'brain training' games is often regarded as relating to wider ideals of self-improvement and youthfulness. Hence, use is intertwined with discourses of 'active' ageing. This paper analyzes how the use and users of brain training games were configured in the UK media, from 2005 to 2015, and examines how notions of active ageing relate to these representations. Game users were rarely constructed solely as gamers, and were more often presented as prudent individuals focused on a serious goal. This configuration related to assumed and enjoined motivations for brain training; specifically, users were commonly framed as seeking to enhance cognition and limit/delay cognitive decline...
June 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668590/mapping-the-relationship-between-anxiety-anhedonia-and-depression
#20
E Samuel Winer, Jessica Bryant, Gregory Bartoszek, Enrique Rojas, Michael R Nadorff, Jenna Kilgore
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and depression are often comorbid conditions, but there is uncertainty as to how this comorbidity develops. Thus, in three studies, we attempted to discern whether anhedonia may be a key linking factor between anxiety and depression. METHODS: Three studies asked participants about their symptoms of anxiety and depression: in Study 1, 109 participants completed measures of anxiety, depression, activity avoidance, and perceived enjoyability and importance of avoided activities; in Study 2, 747 participants completed measures of anhedonia, anxiety, depression, and defensiveness; in Study 3, 216 participants completed measures assessing the same constructs as in Study 2 at four time-points (ranging 11 months in span)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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