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Bianca Bianco, Erik Montagna
ABSTRACTGenetic mitochondrial disorders are responsible for the most common inborn errors of metabolism, caused by mutations in either nuclear genes or in mitochondrial DNA. This article presents the prokaryotic origin of the organelle and the relation between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, as well as current evolutionary models for such mechanisms. It also addresses the structure of mitochondrial genes, their expression pattern, clinical features of gene defects, risk of transmission and current techniques to avoid these events in assisted human reproduction...
April 2016: Einstein
V A Pereyra, C A Gomez, L La Manna, G Roux, A A Lanteri, N C Vallejos, A E Marvaldi
The pine weevils that occur in plantations of Pinus spp. in Andean Patagonia of Argentina belong to the species Pissodes castaneus (De Geer), a Eurasian endemic species, according to the identification based on molecular and morphological characters. Sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear genes (28 S rDNA and ITS2) were obtained for individuals of 13 afforestations, covering the entire distribution area of the established populations in the Andean Patagonia of Argentina. Sequence comparison with representative species of the genus (European, North American, and Chinese species) shows that Patagonian specimens are conspecific to those of P...
February 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
L S Marteis, M A M Sallum, D Natal, T M P Oliveira, R A Gama, S S Dolabella, R L C Santos
Caatinga is one of the least known biomes of Brazil in relation to biodiversity. The dry condition of semiarid areas has been associated in the past with low richness of fauna and flora, not encouraging studies in this region. There is a lack of mosquito records including anophelines. Thus, to investigate the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Caatinga biome, we collected immature mosquitoes in aquatic habitats in a conservation reserve located in the northwestern portion of Sergipe state. The captured specimens were initially identified as Anopheles albitarsis l...
September 2015: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mauricio Menacho-Márquez, Carlos J Rodríguez-Hernández, M Ángeles Villaronga, Jorge Pérez-Valle, José Gadea, Borja Belandia, José R Murguía
β-Lapachone (β-lap) is a novel anticancer agent that selectively induces cell death in human cancer cells, by activation of the NQO1 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and radical oxygen species (ROS) generation. We characterized the gene expression profile of budding yeast cells treated with β-lap using cDNA microarrays. Genes involved in tolerance to oxidative stress were differentially expressed in β-lap treated cells. β-lap treatment generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were efficiently blocked by dicoumarol, an inhibitor of NADH dehydrogenases...
2015: Cell Cycle
Ernesto Recuero, David Buckley, Mario García-París, Jan W Arntzen, Dan Cogălniceanu, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Widespread species with morphologically and ecologically differentiated populations are key to understand speciation because they allow investigating the different stages of the continuous process of population divergence. The alpine newt, Ichthyosaura alpestris, with a range that covers a large part of Central Europe as well as isolated regions in all three European Mediterranean peninsulas, and with strong ecological and life-history differences among populations, is an excellent system for such studies. We sampled individuals across most of the range of the species, and analyzed mitochondrial (1442 bp) and nuclear (two nuclear genes -1554 bp- and 35 allozyme loci) markers to produce a time-calibrated phylogeny and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the species...
December 2014: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jacqueline Oliva-Ramírez, María Maximina B Moreno-Altamirano, Benjamín Pineda-Olvera, Patricia Cauich-Sánchez, F Javier Sánchez-García
Biological functions show rhythmic fluctuations with 24-hr periodicity regulated by circadian proteins encoded by the so-called 'clock' genes. The absence or deregulation of circadian proteins in mice leads to metabolic disorders and in vitro models have shown that the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages follows a circadian rhythm so showing a link between circadian rhythmicity, metabolism and immunity. Recent evidence reveals that mitochondrial shape, position and size, collectively referred to as mitochondrial dynamics, are related to both cell metabolism and immune function...
November 2014: Immunology
Sandy Milena Caldera, María Cristina Jaramillo, Suljey Cochero, Alveiro Pérez-Doria, Eduar Elías Bejarano
INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue in urban areas. Despite its epidemiological importance, the genetic variability of Colombian populations of this species is unknown. OBJETIVE: To determine the genetic variability of mitocondrial gene ND4, which codes for subunit 4 of the enzyme NADH deshydrogenase, between populations of Ae. aegypti from municipalities of Sincelejo and Guaranda. The incidences of dengue reported from these two localities are high and low, respectively...
September 2013: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Rocío Santos-García, Benito Sánchez-Domínguez, Mario D Cordero, José V Rios-Santos, María R Jaramillo-Santos, Mariano H Climent, Pedro Bullon
OBJECTIVE: [corrected] Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology, which affects predominantly women. Mitochondrial alteration could have a role in the pathophysilogical mechanisms of inflammatory conditions as FM and periodontitis. The aim of the present study was assay the relationship between both diseases and mitochondrial dysfunction. PATIENT AND METHODS: We study the presence of periodontitis in twelve patients diagnosed of FM and mitochondrial dysfunction described...
February 2012: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
C R McArthur, G D Clark-Walker
Restriction endonuclease digestion of mitocondrial DNAs from the nine Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts have revealed that three separate pairs of species, namely D. bruxellensis/B. lambicus; B. abstinens/B. custersii and B. anomalus/B. clausenii have identical genomes. This observation suggests that such analysis of mtDNA could be an important procedure for yeast taxonomy. Sizes of mtDNAs showed a graded range from the 28 kbp molecule in B. custersianus to the 100 kbp molecule in B. custersii. Furthermore, although the mtDNAs from D...
March 1983: Current Genetics
Mara L Martínez, Mariana G Domínguez, Gabriel E Morici, Regino Cavia, Daniela P Montes de Oca, Rosario Lovera, Javier H Schapiro, Jorge L Caracostantogolo
En un estudio exploratorio de roedores de la especie Rattus norvegicus de la provincia de Buenos Aires, se observó que ciertos metacestodos de tenias se encontraban enquistados en el hígado del hospedador. Nuestro objetivo fue identificar esta forma larval, basándonos en estudios morfológicos y moleculares. Para la caracterización molecular del parásito, se amplificó y secuenció el ADN ribosomal (28S) y mitocondrial (COI). Sobre la base de los datos tanto morfológicos como moleculares, y utilizando herramientas bioinformáticas, el metacestodo se identificó como Cysticercus fasciolaris...
July 2013: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Kavya M, Raju Regmi, Partha P Mondal
Super-resolution microscopy has tremendously progressed our understanding of cellular biophysics and biochemistry. Specifically, 4pi fluorescence microscopy technique stands out because of its axial super-resolution capability. All types of 4pi-microscopy techniques work well in conjugation with deconvolution techniques to get rid of artifacts due to side-lobes. In this regard, we propose a technique based on spatial filter in a 4pi-type-C confocal setup to get rid of these artifacts. Using a special spatial filter, we have reduced the depth-of-focus...
September 2013: Review of Scientific Instruments
Ligia Mercedes Jimenez, Susy Mendez, Susana Dunner, Javier Cañón, Oscar Cortés
In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds...
December 2012: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Rachel M Greer, Michael Peyton, Jill E Larsen, Luc Girard, Yang Xie, Adi F Gazdar, Patrick Harran, Lai Wang, Rolf A Brekken, Xiaodong Wang, John D Minna
Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP) are key regulators of apoptosis and are inhibited by the second mitocondrial activator of caspases (SMAC). Previously, a small subset of TNF-α-expressing non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was found to be sensitive to SMAC mimetics alone. In this study, we determined if a SMAC mimetic (JP1201) could sensitize nonresponsive NSCLC cell lines to standard chemotherapy. We found that JP1201 sensitized NSCLCs to doxorubicin, erlotinib, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, and the combination of carboplatin with paclitaxel in a synergistic manner at clinically achievable drug concentrations...
December 15, 2011: Cancer Research
Haiying Liu, Yunfeng Liu, Luxia Wang, Dexing Xu, Bingliang Lin, Renqian Zhong, Sitang Gong, Mauro Podda, Pietro Invernizzi
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by the presence of anti-mitocondrial autoantibodies (AMA) which has an essential role also for diagnosis. In addition, also some anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) have been shown to be highly specific PBC. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of PBC among the adults referring hospital for annual health check-up in Southern China by screening sera for PBC-specific autoantibodies. METHODS: AMA and ANA were screened in 8,126 adults (mean age 44 ± 15 years, 48% females) by indirect immunofluorenscence (IIF)...
2010: BMC Gastroenterology
F Axelband, J Dias, F M Ferrão, M Einicker-Lamas
Thyroid hormones play a wide range of important physiological activities in almost all organism. As changes in these hormones levels-observed in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism-promote serious derangements of the cardiovascular system, it is important to know their mechanisms of action. Although the classic genomic actions which are dependent on interaction with nuclear receptors to modulate cardiac myocytes genes expression, there is growing evidence about T(3) and T(4)-triggered nongenomic pathways, resulted from their binding to plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or mitocondrial receptors that leads to a rapidly regulation of cardiac functions...
January 2011: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Felipe M Martins, Alan R Templeton, Ana C O Pavan, Beatriz C Kohlbach, João S Morgante
BACKGROUND: The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites. With the objective of testing for Pleistocene ecological vicariance, we sequenced a mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker and two nuclear markers (RAG2 and DRB) to try to understand how Pleistocene glaciations affected the distribution of intraspecific lineages in this bat...
2009: BMC Evolutionary Biology
R F Butterworth
Mammalian brain contains two types of benzodiazepine receptors namely the "central-type" receptor which forme part of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex, and the so-called "peripheral-type" receptor found predominantly on mitocondrial membranes of astrocytes. Brain GABA-related benzodiazepine receptors are unchanged in hepatic encephalopathy. On the other hand, human and experimental hepatic encephalopathy are associated with increased densities of "peripheral type" benzodiazepine receptor. Results of several studies using agonists and antagonists of both types of benzodiazepine receptors are discussed in this review...
July 1990: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Luciano Pereira Maniglia, Bruna Carolina Lemos Moreira, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da Silva, Vânia Belintani Piatto, José Victor Maniglia
UNLABELLED: The A1555G mitochondrial mutation is the main alteration associated with aminoglycoside-induced deafness. AIM: to investigate the prevalence of the A1555G mutation in patients sensorineural hearing loss patients with and without aminoglycosides antibiotic use. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a study of 27 cases with deafness as the sample, and 100 neonates with normal hearing as the control group. DNA was extracted from blood leukocyte samples, and specific oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify the cytochrome b gene and the region which encloses the A1555G mutation of the mitocondrial DNA using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism...
September 2008: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
J Montoya
AIM: To describe the scientific contributions and biography of Giuseppe Attardi (1923-2008), in particular his work on the human mitochondrial genetic system of crucial importance for the discovery and understanding of the mechanisms that produce the mitochondrial diseases. DEVELOPMENT: Giuseppe Attardi was an Italian-born medical doctor that worked with outstanding researchers as James Watson, Francois Jacob, and Renato Dulbecco, all Nobel Prizes of Medicine until 1963 that was promoted to Professor of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena (USA)...
November 1, 2008: Revista de Neurologia
Belén Simón, José Luis Cenis, Francisco Beitia, Saif Khalid, Ignacio M Moreno, Aurora Fraile, Fernando García-Arenal
ABSTRACT The genetic structure of field populations of begomoviruses and their whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci in Pakistan was analyzed. Begomoviruses and B. tabaci populations were sampled from different crops and weeds in different locations in Punjab and Sindh provinces, in areas where cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) occurs or does not occur. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the intergenic region in the viral DNA-A provided evidence of two clusters of isolates: viruses isolated from species in the family Malvaceae, and viruses isolated from other dicotyledon families...
November 2003: Phytopathology
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