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Aurélie Fossey-Jouenne, Carine Vergne-Vaxelaire, Anne Zaparucha
Amino alcohols are versatile compounds with a wide range of applications. For instance, they have been used as chiral scaffolds in organic synthesis. Their synthesis by conventional organic chemistry often requires tedious multi-step synthesis processes, with difficult control of the stereochemical outcome. We present a protocol to enzymatically synthetize amino alcohols starting from the readily available L-lysine in 48 h. This protocol combines two chemical reactions that are very difficult to conduct by conventional organic synthesis...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Paolo Giuseppe Limoli, Enzo Maria Vingolo, Celeste Limoli, Sergio Zaccaria Scalinci, Marcella Nebbioso
This study is aimed at examining whether a suprachoroidal graft of autologous cells can improve best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and responses to microperimetry (MY) in eyes affected by dry Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) over time through the production and secretion of growth factors (GFs) on surrounding tissue. Patients were randomly assigned to each study group. All patients were diagnosed with dry AMD and with BCVA equal to or greater than 1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrew K Fuller, Benjamin D Bice, Ashlee R Venancio, Olivia M Crowley, Ambur M Staab, Stephanie J Georges, Julio R Hidalgo, Annika V Warncke, Melinda L Angus-Hill
Several recent studies have illustrated the beneficial effects of living in an enriched environment on improving human disease. In mice, environmental enrichment (EE) reduces tumorigenesis by activating the mouse immune system, or affects tumor bearing animal survival by stimulating the wound repair response, including improved microbiome diversity, in the tumor microenvironment. Provided here is a detailed procedure to assess the effects of environmental enrichment on the biodiversity of the microbiome in a mouse colon tumor model...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael D Guthrie, Donald L Gilbert, David A Huddleston, Ernest V Pedapati, Paul S Horn, Stewart H Mostofsky, Steve W Wu
We describe the development of a reproducible, child-friendly motor response inhibition task suitable for online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) characterization of primary motor cortex (M1) excitability and inhibition. Motor response inhibition prevents unwanted actions and is abnormal in several neuropsychiatric conditions. TMS is a non-invasive technology that can quantify M1 excitability and inhibition using single- and paired-pulse protocols and can be precisely timed to study cortical physiology with high temporal resolution...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Madeleine S Durkee, Landon D Nash, Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Duncan J Maitland, Kristen C Maitland
The rapid development of new optical imaging techniques is dependent on the availability of low-cost, customizable, and easily reproducible standards. By replicating the imaging environment, costly animal experiments to validate a technique may be circumvented. Predicting and optimizing the performance of in vivo and ex vivo imaging techniques requires testing on samples that are optically similar to tissues of interest. Tissue-mimicking optical phantoms provide a standard for evaluation, characterization, or calibration of an optical system...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yi-Chen Lee, Shui-Chin Lu, Yu-Lin Hsieh
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or those experiencing the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents may develop sensation disorders due to degeneration and injury of small-diameter sensory neurons, referred to as small fiber neuropathy. Present animal models of small fiber neuropathy affect both large- and small-diameter sensory fibers and thus create a neuropathology too complex to properly assess the effects of injured small-diameter sensory fibers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an experimental model of pure small fiber neuropathy to adequately examine these issues...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Harmen B Gudde, Debra Griffiths, Kenny R Coventry
The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hoda Fathali, Johan Dunevall, Soodabeh Majdi, Ann-Sofie Cans
Amperometry recording of cells subjected to osmotic shock show that secretory cells respond to this physical stress by reducing the exocytosis activity and the amount of neurotransmitter released from vesicles in single exocytosis events. It has been suggested that the reduction in neurotransmitters expelled is due to alterations in membrane biophysical properties when cells shrink in response to osmotic stress and with assumptions made that secretory vesicles in the cell cytoplasm are not affected by extracellular osmotic stress...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alessandro Pepe, Loredana Addimando, Jamal Dagdouke, Shaher Yagi, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: Subjective wellbeing can be defined in terms of good mental state, including positive and negative evaluations that people make of their affect and lives. The aim of this study was to identify specific domains of wellbeing that are salient to Palestinian teachers living in three different contexts (West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel) and to map how components of subjective wellbeing vary between the three cohorts. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews of teachers participating in 16 focus groups and from 36 key informants (including psychologists, counsellors, school principals, lawyers)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Mohammad Abu-Zaineh, Maame Esi Woode, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Interest in the Senian capability framework as an alternative approach to wellbeing measurement has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to look at the extent to which an individual's capability to achieve wellbeing in one dimension is associated with his or her attempt to achieve wellbeing in another dimension in a fragile setting affected by conflict. METHODS: Capability is defined as the ability to achieve health, knowledge, and wealth and is measured as latent variables using a structural equation model...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Zaher Nazzal, Hisham Sholi, Suha B Sholi, Mohammad B Sholi, Rawya Lahaseh
BACKGROUND: Mammography screening is an effective tool for early detection and management of breast cancer. Female health-care workers' awareness of breast cancer screening is important because their beliefs and behaviours could influence other women. The aim of this study was to assess mammography screening uptake by female health-care workers at primary health-care centres and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included all governmental primary health-care centres in the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Yousef Jaradat, Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Petter Kristensen, Rita Bast-Pettersen
BACKGROUND: Shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, mental health problems, and job dissatisfaction. Disparities between male and female nurses in the effect of shift work on mental distress and job satisfaction have been scarcely studied. We aimed to examine differences between female and male nurses in the associations between shift work and job satisfaction and mental health. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, male and female nurses were recruited to rate their job satisfaction on the Generic Job Satisfaction Scale and to complete the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Tiziana Leone, Diego Alburez-Gutierrez, Rula Gandour, Ernestina Coast, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts can undermine a country's health-care capacity and disrupt the delivery of basic health services. Yet the public health consequences of war remain difficult to quantify, mainly because adequate data do not exist. We hypothesised that the ongoing conflict in the occupied Palestinian territory (including the restrictions on free movement and the strain on health-care services) have had detrimental effects on maternal and child health outcomes. METHODS: We reconstructed data on delivery by caesarean section and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccination with pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys for 2000-14...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Suha Al-Butmeh, Njah Al-Khataib
BACKGROUND: The focus of this study was quality of life and mental health in elderly people living in the Bethlehem district. The aim of this study was to identify the most prevalent mental health problems and how they affect quality of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in June and July, 2010. We recruited a convenience sample of elderly people (aged 65 years and older) living in the Bethlehem district of occupied Palestinian territory. Using a structured questionnaire, we assessed quality of life with the WHOQOL-BREF and current psychological status and distress with the Brief Symptom Inventor...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Nidal Abukhaizaran, Mohammed Hashem, Osama Hroub, Souad Belkebir, Khaled Demyati
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for organ failure, but organs are scarce and their availability is affected by relational ties, religious beliefs, cultural influences, body integrity, medical mistrust, and other factors. This aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Palestinian population with respect to organ donation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used a validated questionnaire delivered by land telephone to collect data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to organ donation in the general population of the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Shaden Jobran, Randa Kattan, Jamal Shamaa, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses have an important role in paediatric respiratory tract infections. They are estimated to cause 2-5% of the overall respiratory tract infections and 4-10% of all pneumonias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and effect of adenoviral infection on the management of infected infants. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of patients infected with adenovirus and admitted to Caritas Baby Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Sanaa Al Najjar, Tamer Al Shaer
BACKGROUND: To meet the emerging needs of the increasing numbers of patients with non-communicable diseases and to provide optimum care with optimum contact time and minimum waiting time, as stated in UNRWA guidelines, the mobile phone text messaging system was implemented in UNRWA centres to remind patients of upcoming appointments and to thereby improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and regulate the work load in the clinics for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the causes for lack of adherence to the appointment system at UNRWA centres...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The atrocities in Syria have been covered in the four general medical weekly journals in the USA and the UK. Medical journal articles addressing political determinants of public health have rightly described and criticised the international community's failure to enforce humanitarian law while urging global bodies of power to ensure protection of civilians and civilian infrastructure and medical services. Discussions of the political influences on health of people in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip) seem to be considered politically out-of-bounds by some medical journals...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Liana Al-Labadi, Yazan Gammoh, Reham Shehada, Reem Shahin, Walaa Jbarah, Madleen Amro, Hanan Athamny
BACKGROUND: Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
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