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Mtbi concussion

Zhihui Yang, Fan Lin, Amanda S Weissman, Emily Jaalouk, Qing-Shan Xue, Kevin K W Wang
Despite the concussion/ mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) being the most frequent occurrence of traumatic brain injury, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury and its effects. To develop a better understanding of concussions, animals are often used because they provide a controlled, rigorous, and efficient model. Studies have adapted traditional animal models to perform mTBI to stimulate mild injury severity by changing the injury parameters. These models have been used because they can produce morphologically similar brain injuries to the clinical condition and provide a spectrum of injury severities...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jessica Lynn Temple, Margaret A Struchen, Monique R Pappadis
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the contribution of pre-injury family functioning and resources on self-reported post-concussive symptoms and functional outcomes in persons with mild TBI (mTBI). DESIGN: Participants with uncomplicated or complicated mTBIs were recruited from consecutive admissions to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma centre. Patients completed baseline assessments within 2 weeks of injury and an outcomes assessment at 3 months post-injury...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Leonard A Temme, Paul St Onge, Joseph Bleiberg
INTRODUCTION: Physiological and emotional stressors increase symptoms of concussion in recently injured individuals and both forms of stress-induced symptoms in people recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but who are asymptomatic when not stressed or are at rest. METHODS: Healthy asymptomatic adults (25.0 ± 5.1 years) with a history of mTBI (n = 36) and matched healthy controls (HC) (n = 36) with no mTBI history were exposed to three levels of normobaric hypoxic stress generated with the Reduced Oxygen Breathing Device (ROBD) (Environics, Inc...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Edrea Khong, Nicole Odenwald, Eyesha Hashim, Michael D Cusimano
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence for the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the human brain as a diagnostic tool for and predictor of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: All relevant studies in AMED, Embase, MEDLINE, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science through 20 May, 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that analyze traditional DTI measures [fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)] and the severity of PCS symptoms or the development of PCS in humans after an mTBI...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
David V Walsh, José E Capó-Aponte, Thomas Beltran, Wesley R Cole, Ashley Ballard, Joseph Y Dumayas
OBJECTIVES: The Department of Defense reported that 344,030 cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were clinically confirmed from 2000 to 2015, with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for 82.3% of all cases. Unfortunately, warfighters with TBI are often identified only when moderate or severe head injuries have occurred, leaving more subtle mTBI cases undiagnosed. This study aims to identify and validate an eye-movement visual test for screening acute mTBI. METHODS: Two-hundred active duty military personnel were recruited to perform the King-Devick® (KD) test...
September 11, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ingo Helmich
BACKGROUND: Concussions are common incidences in sports. However, game-specific characteristics such as tactics, field positions, etc. might positively/negatively contribute to the occurrence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in various sports such as soccer, volleyball, handball, or basketball. Thus, the intention of this study was to analyze game- specific characteristics of concussive incidents in active players from the perspective of different sportive disciplines. METHODS: Four sport-specific questionnaires for soccer, handball, volleyball and basketball were established using an online survey tool...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Coco O Bernard, Jennie A Ponsford, Audrey McKinlay, Dean McKenzie, David Krieser
OBJECTIVES: A notable minority of children will experience persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), likely maintained by a combination of injury and non-injury related factors. Adopting a prospective longitudinal design, this study aimed to investigate the relative influence of child, family, and injury factors on both acute and persistent PCS in young children. METHODS: Participants were 101 children aged 2-12 who presented to an Emergency Department, with either mTBI or minor bodily trauma (control)...
September 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Timothy B Meier, Melissa A Lancaster, Andrew R Mayer, T Kent Teague, Jonathan Savitz
There is a great need to identify potential long-term consequences of contact sport exposure and to identify molecular pathways that may be associated with these changes. We tested the hypothesis that football players with (Ath-mTBI) (n = 25) and without a concussion history (Ath) (n = 24) have altered resting state functional connectivity in regions with previously documented structural changes relative to healthy controls without football or concussion history (HC) (n = 27). As a secondary aim, we tested the hypothesis that group differences in functional connectivity are moderated by the relative ratio of neuroprotective to neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kathleen R Bell, Jesse R Fann, Jo Ann Brockway, Wesley R Cole, Nigel E Bush, Sureyya Dikmen, Tessa Hart, Ariel J Lang, Gerald Grant, Gregory Gahm, Mark A Reger, Jef St De Lore, Joan Machamer, Karin Ernstrom, Rema Raman, Sonia Jain, Murray B Stein, Nancy Temkin
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury for service members in recent military conflicts. There is insufficient evidence of how best to treat the consequences of mTBI. In a randomized, clinical trial, we evaluated the efficacy of telephone-delivered problem-solving treatment (PST) on psychological and physical symptoms in 356 post-deployment active duty service members from Joint Base Lewis McChord, Washington, and Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Members with medically confirmed mTBI sustained during deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan within the previous 24 months received PST or education-only (EO) interventions...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Channing A Sofko, Joseph M Currier, Benjamin D Hill, Kent D Drescher
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted (1) to examine differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived quality-of-life (QoL) and post-concussive symptoms (PCS) among veterans who experienced deployment-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) with or without loss of consciousness (LOC) and (2) to test the additive role of PCS on QOL. DESIGN: Two hundred and twelve Iraq/Afghanistan veterans who were admitted to a residential programme for PTSD were assessed shortly following intake...
August 26, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ralph G DePalma, Stuart W Hoffman
Between April 2007 and December 2015, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) screened one million combat veterans for traumatic brain injury (TBI), among 2.6 million deployed during operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). Since 2007, among those reporting, screened and referred for definitive evaluation, approximately 8.4% of these Veterans received a diagnosis of TBI, the majority characterized as mTBI/Concussion (mTBI) and, in great proportion, related to blast exposures. Mild Traumatic brain injury called "a signature injury" is also known as 'the invisible injury' of these conflicts...
August 20, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Hailong Song, Jiankun Cui, Agnes Simonyi, Catherine E Johnson, Graham K Hubler, Ralph G DePalma, Zezong Gu
Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders...
August 20, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Karen Barlow, Lorenzo D Marcil, Helen L Carlson, Deborah Dewey, Frank P MacMaster, Brian L Brooks, Marc Lebel
The biology of post-concussive symptoms is unclear. Symptoms are often increased during activities, and have been linked to decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and perfusion. The aim of this study was to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) in children with different clinical recovery patterns following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This was a prospective controlled cohort study of children with mTBI (ages 8 to 18 years) who were symptomatic with post concussive symptoms at one month post-injury (symptomatic, n=27) and children who had recovered quickly (asymptomatic, n=24)...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Shira Segev, Maayan Shorer, Yuri Rassovsky, Tammy Pilowsky Peleg, Alan Apter, Silvana Fennig
OBJECTIVE: Persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS) are a set of physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that often follow mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Some of these symptoms also occur in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the unique contribution of mTBI and PTSD to PPCS. The roles of neurocognitive and motivational factors were also addressed. METHOD: Sixty one children and adolescents (ages 6-18), at least 3 months post motor vehicle accident (MVA), participated in the study...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Michael Morin, Pierre Langevin, Philippe Fait
Background. There is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature on the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI; however, its involvement is clinically accepted. Objective. This paper reviews evidence for the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, and the efficacy of therapy for cervical spine with concussion-related symptoms. Methods. A keyword search was conducted on PubMed, ICL, SportDiscus, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published since 1990...
2016: Journal of Sports Medicine (Hindawi Publishing Corporation)
Richelle Mychasiuk, Harleen Hehar, Irene Ma, Sydney Candy, Michael J Esser
Despite the most common form of brain injury, there has been little progress in the prognosis and treatment of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Current 'return-to-play' guidelines are conservative, deterring the initiation of physical and social activity until patients are asymptomatic; but the effects of post-injury exercise have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, this study examined the effects of voluntary exercise on concussion recovery. Using a translational rodent model of concussion, we examined the influence of exercise on injury-associated behaviours that comprise post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and gene expression changes (bdnf, dnmt1, Igf-1, pgc1-a, Tert) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kelly M McAteer, Frances Corrigan, Emma Thornton, Renee Jade Turner, Robert Vink
A history of concussion, particularly repeated injury, has been linked to an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is characterized by abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and deficits in learning and memory. As yet the mechanisms associated with the development of CTE are unknown. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to develop and characterize a novel model of repetitive mTBI that accurately reproduces the key short and long-term functional and histopathological features seen clinically...
2016: PloS One
Yang Qin, Gai-Li Li, Xian-Hua Xu, Zhi-Yong Sun, Jian-Wen Gu, Fa-Bao Gao
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a common health issue. Several people repeatedly experience head impact milder than that causing concussion. The present study aimed to confirm the effects of such repeated impact on the brain structure and cognitive abilities. Rat models were established by closed skull weight-drop injury. The animals were anesthetized, subjected to single (s)-sham, s-mTBI, repetitive (r)-sham, and r-mTBI, and recovery times were recorded. MRI, including T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), as well as, neurological severity scores (mNSS) were assessed for the dynamics of the brain structure and neurological function...
August 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Peter B Walker, Jacob N Norris, Anna E Tshiffiley, Melissa L Mehalick, Craig A Cunningham, Ian N Davidson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common forms of neurotrauma that has affected more than 250,000 military service members over the last decade alone. While in battle, service members who experience TBI are at significant risk for the development of normal TBI symptoms, as well as risk for the development of psychological disorders such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). As such, these service members often require intense bouts of medication and therapy in order to resume full return-to-duty status...
July 21, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
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