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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#1
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924143/fructooligosaccharide-fos-and-galactooligosaccharide-gos-increase-bifidobacterium-but-reduce-butyrate-producing-bacteria-with-adverse-glycemic-metabolism-in-healthy-young-population
#2
Feitong Liu, Pan Li, Muxuan Chen, Yuemei Luo, M Prabhakar, Huimin Zheng, Yan He, Qi Qi, Haoyu Long, Yi Zhang, Huafang Sheng, Hongwei Zhou
The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16 g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917489/the-effects-of-single-or-combined-administration-of-galactooligosaccharide-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-on-cutaneous-mucus-immune-parameters-humoral-immune-responses-and-immune-related-genes-expression-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-fingerlings
#4
Maryam Modanloo, Siavash Soltanian, Mostafa Akhlaghi, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of single or combined administration of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and Pediococcus acidilactici on cutaneous mucus immune parameters, humoral immune responses and immune related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks as follows: non-supplemented (Control), prebiotic diet (10 g/kg GOS), probiotic diet (1 g/kg [0.9 × 10(7) CFU] lyophilized P. acidilactici) and synbiotic diet (10 GOS in combination with 1 g/kg [0...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915484/spontaneous-vesicle-formation-and-vesicle-to-micelle-transition-of-sodium-2-ketooctanate-in-water
#5
Huifang Xu, Na Du, Yawen Song, Shue Song, Wanguo Hou
Single-tailed short-chain alkyl keto-acids/salts, a class of fatty acid/salt derivatives, such as sodium 2-ketooctanate (KOCOONa), are a kind of weakly acid/salt type amphiphiles and plausible prebiotic molecules, and the current understanding of their aggregation behavior in aqueous solutions is still limited. Herein, the aggregation behavior of KOCOONa in aqueous solution was studied by changing its concentration (C), using equilibrium surface tension, conductivity, and fluorescence measurements. The aggregates formed were characterized using freeze-fracture and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#6
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914794/effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-human-health
#7
REVIEW
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914790/ancient-living-organisms-escaping-from-or-imprisoned-in-the-vents
#8
REVIEW
J Baz Jackson
We have recently criticised the natural pH gradient hypothesis which purports to explain how the difference in pH between fluid issuing from ancient alkali vents and the more acidic Hadean ocean could have driven molecular machines that catalyse reactions that are useful in prebiotic and autotrophic chemistry. In this article, we temporarily suspend our earlier criticism while we consider difficulties for primitive organisms to have managed their energy supply and to have left the vents and become free-living...
September 15, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911641/evaluation-of-the-prebiotic-effects-of-citrus-pectin-hydrolysate
#9
Yen-Yi Ho, Chia-Min Lin, Ming-Chang Wu
Citrus pectin enzyme hydrolysate (PEH) of different hydrolysis time intervals (6 hours, PEH-6; 12 hours, PEH-12; 24 hours, PEH-24; or 48 hours, PEH-48) or concentrations (1%, 2%, and 4%) was tested for its growth stimulation effect on two probiotics, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Higher monosaccharide concentrations and smaller molecular weights of PEHs were obtained by prolonging the hydrolysis time. In addition, higher PEH concentrations resulted in significantly higher (p < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911621/in%C3%A2-vitro-prebiotic-effects-and-quantitative-analysis-of-bulnesia-sarmienti-extract
#10
Md Ahsanur Reza, Md Akil Hossain, Seung-Jin Lee, Jong-Choon Kim, Seung-Chun Park
Prebiotics are used to influence the growth, colonization, survival, and activity of probiotics, and enhance the innate immunity, thus improving the health status of the host. The survival, growth, and activity of probiotics are often interfered with by intrinsic factors and indigenous microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, Bulnesia sarmienti aqueous extract (BSAE) was evaluated for the growth-promoting activity of different strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, and a simple, precise, cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of active prebiotic ingredients in the extract...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910143/the-lost-city-hydrothermal-field-a-spectroscopic-and-astrobiological-analogue-for-nili-fossae-mars
#11
Elena S Amador, Joshua L Bandfield, William J Brazelton, Deborah Kelley
Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface...
September 14, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906350/the-hundred-most-cited-publications-in-microbiota-of-diabetes-research-a-bibliometric-analysis
#12
Jiaxing Tian, Min Li, Fengmei Lian, Xiaolin Tong
BACKGROUND: Bibliometric analysis is an approach to evaluate the circumstances and trends in specific research field over time and to provide inspiration in future research and policy. Researches have a tremendous increase focus on the role of the microbiota in the development of diabetes in recent years; however, there is no published literature conducting a bibliometric analysis to explore the tendency. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed evaluation of the hundred most cited articles in microbiota of diabetes research...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903474/nitric-oxide-heat-shock-protein-axis-in-menopausal-hot-flushes-neglected-metabolic-issues-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-associated-with-deranged-heat-shock-response
#13
Antônio Azambuja Miragem, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
BACKGROUND: Although some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterised by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defence, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894517/effects-of-probiotic-and-prebiotic-supplementation-on-leptin-adiponectin-and-glycemic-parameters-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Vahideh Behrouz, Shima Jazayeri, Naheed Aryaeian, Mohamad Javad Zahedi, Fatemeh Hosseini
BACKGROUND According to previous studies, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation have desirable effects on glycemic parameters. Thus far, the effect of supplementation on the glycemic parameters and adipokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been assessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with probiotic and prebiotic on adiokines and glycemic parameters in the patients with NAFLD. METHODS In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 89 patients with NAFLD were randomly divided into three groups to receive one probiotic capsule + 16 g/d maltodextrin (probiotic group) or 16 g/d oligofructose powder + one placebo capsule (prebiotic group), and one placebo capsule + 16 g/d maltodextrin (control group) for 12 weeks...
July 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892703/xylooligosaccharides-production-by-crude-microbial-enzymes-from-agricultural-waste-without-prior-treatment-and-their-potential-application-as-nutraceuticals
#16
Sharmili Jagtap, Rehan Ahmed Deshmukh, Shylaja Menon, Santanu Das
Aspergillus fumigatus R1, on submerged fermentation using agricultural residues as carbon source produced extracellular xylanase (152IU/ml after 96h of incubation at 37°C with constant shaking at 100rpm). A maximum yield of 1gm% Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) mixture was obtained after 12h by enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan rich wheat husk without any prior pretreatment using the crude enzyme without any purification. HP-TLC data confirmed the presence of an array of XOS for its prebiotic properties by carrying out studies on ten standard probiotic cultures...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888668/effects-of-obesity-on-depression-a-role-for-inflammation-and-the-gut-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
Julieta Schachter, Jan Martel, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chih-Jung Chang, Tsung-Ru Wu, Chia-Chen Lu, Yun-Fei Ko, Hsin-Chih Lai, David M Ojcius, John D Young
Depression is a mental disorder associated with environmental, genetic and psychological factors. Recent studies indicate that chronic neuro-inflammation may affect brain physiology and alter mood and behavior. Consumption of a high-fat diet leads to obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The gut microbiota mediates many effects of a high-fat diet on human physiology and may also influence the mood and behavior of the host. We review here recent studies suggesting the existence of a link between obesity, the gut microbiota and depression, focusing on the mechanisms underlying the effects of a high-fat diet on chronic inflammation and brain physiology...
September 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887177/a-step-into-the-rna-world-conditional-analysis-of-hydrogel-formation-of-adenosine-5-monophosphate-induced-by-cyanuric-acid
#18
Takumi Yokosawa, Ryota Enomoto, Sho Uchino, Ito Hirasawa, Takuya Umehara, Koji Tamura
Nucleotide polymerization occurs by the nucleophilic attack of 3'-oxygen of the 3'-terminal nucleotide on the α-phosphorus of the incoming nucleotide 5'-triphosphate. The π-stacking of mononucleotides is an important factor for prebiotic RNA polymerization in terms of attaining the proximity of two reacting moieties. Adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are known to form hydrogel in the presence of cyanuric acid at neutral pH. However, we observed that other canonical ribonucleotides did not gel under the same condition...
September 5, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886641/length-and-sequence-relaxation-of-copolymers-under-recombination-reactions
#19
Alex Blokhuis, David Lacoste
We describe the kinetics and thermodynamics of copolymers undergoing recombination reactions, which are important for prebiotic chemistry. We use two approaches: the first one, based on chemical rate equations and the mass-action law describes the infinite size limit, while the second one, based on the chemical master equation, describes systems of finite size. We compare the predictions of both approaches for the relaxation of thermodynamic quantities towards equilibrium. We find that for some choice of initial conditions, the entropy of the sequence distribution can be lowered at the expense of increasing the entropy of the length distribution...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886400/breastfeeding-increases-microbial-community-resilience
#20
Isabel I Carvalho-Ramos, Rubens T D Duarte, Katia Brandt, Marina B Martinez, Carla R Taddei
OBJECTIVE: Since the present group had already described the composition of the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian infants under low social economic level, the aim of the present study was to analyze the microbial community structure changes in this group of infants during their early life due to external factors. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 11 infants monthly during the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding clinical and diet information and characterized according to breastfeeding practices...
September 5, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
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