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Renata N Florindo, Valquiria P Souza, Lívia R Manzine, Cesar M Camilo, Sandro R Marana, Igor Polikarpov, Alessandro S Nascimento
Bifidobacterium is an important genus of probiotic bacteria colonizing the human gut. These bacteria can uptake oligosaccharides for the fermentative metabolism of hexoses and pentoses, producing lactate, acetate as well as short-chain fatty acids and propionate. These end-products are known to have important effects on human health. β-glucosidases (EC are pivotal enzymes for the metabolism and homeostasis of Bifidobacterium, since they hydrolyze small and soluble saccharides, typically producing glucose...
March 16, 2018: Biochimie
Sasikumar Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Karthiyaini Damodharan, Joo-Won Suh, Seung Hwan Yang
The present study was focused on the production, characterization and in vitro prebiotic evaluation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Bacillus sonorensis MJM60135isolated from Ganjang (fermented soy sauce). StrainMJM60135 showed the highest production(8.4±0.8 g/L) of EPS compared to other isolates that were screened for EPS production based on ropy culture morphology. Further, MJM60135 was cultured in 5L medium and EPS was extracted by ethanol precipitation. Emulsification activity of EPS was higher in toluene than o -xylene...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Carl Peter J Maury
A crucial stage in the origin of life was the emergence of the first molecular entity that was able to replicate, transmit information, and evolve on the early Earth. The amyloid world hypothesis posits that in the pre-RNA era, information processing was based on catalytic amyloids. The self-assembly of short peptides into β-sheet amyloid conformers leads to extraordinary structural stability and novel multifunctionality that cannot be achieved by the corresponding nonaggregated peptides. The new functions include self-replication, catalytic activities, and information transfer...
March 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Mohammed Al Za'abi, Suhail Al Salam, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Priyadarsini Manoj, Abderrahim Nemmar, Badreldin H Ali
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of treatment with gum acacia (GA), a prebiotic shown previously to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), in diabetic and non - diabetic rats with adenine - induced CKD has been investigated using several conventional and novel physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic and non - diabetic rats were randomly divided into several groups, and given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
George Kunnackal John, Lin Wang, Julie Nanavati, Claire Twose, Rajdeep Singh, Gerard Mullin
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Matthew P Kroonblawd, Fabio Pietrucci, Antonino Marco Saitta, Nir Goldman
We demonstrate the capability of creating robust density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for chemical reactivity in prebiotic mixtures through force matching to short time scale quantum free energy estimates. Molecular dynamics using density functional theory (DFT) is a highly accurate approach to generate free energy surfaces for chemical reactions, but the extreme computational cost often limits the time scales and range of thermodynamic states that can feasibly be studied. In contrast, DFTB is a semi-empirical quantum method that affords up to a thousandfold reduction in cost and can recover DFT-level accuracy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi, Hedayat Hosseini, Nader Karimian Khosroshahi, Farzane Shahraz, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Manije Kamran, Rozita Komeili, Emma Chiavaro
This study aims to evaluate the performance of two types of prebiotic sausages formulated with resistant starch (RS) and β-glucan (BG) extract (in ratios of 2.22:1.33 and 2.75:1.88) during frying and chilled storage. The oxidative stability indices and microbial counts were determined. The incorporation of two types of prebiotic dietary fibre increased frying loss and oil absorption. However, the moisture content of prebiotic sausages after production was higher than of conventional sausages and it decreased significantly during storage...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Aifric O'Sullivan, Jaime Salcedo, Josep Rubert
Our daily food intake provides the nutrients to maintain health. However, in addition to the nutritional values, food can promote health and be beneficial in preventing diseases. Human milk is a unique food source that contains essential nutrients in the right balance and other bioactive factors that make it the ideal food for all healthy term infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in health, at several levels: acting as prebiotics promoting the growth of beneficial bacterial strains, preventing the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine, and modulating the immune response against bacterial infections...
March 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Christina Schneider, Sidney Becker, Hidenori Okamura, Antony Crisp, Tynchtyk Amatov, Michael Stadlmeier, Thomas Carell
The RNA world hypothesis assumes that life on earth started with small RNA molecules that catalyzed their own formation. Vital to this hypothesis is the need for prebiotic routes towards RNA. Contemporary RNA, however, is not only constructed from the four canonical nucleobases (A, C, G and U), but it contains in addition many chemically modified (non-canonical) bases. A yet open question is if these non-canonical bases were formed in parallel to the canonical bases (chemical origin), or whether they were created later, when life demanded higher functional diversity (biological origin)...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Brooke Anderson, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy
Pyrophosphate linkages are important in extant biology and are hypothesized to have played a role in prebiotic chemistry and in the origination of oligonucleotides. Inspired by the possible role of pyrophosphate as backbones of primordial oligomers, we synthesized DNA oligomers with varying amounts of pyrophosphate inserts (ppDNA) and investigated their base-pairing properties. As expected, with increasing amounts of pyrophosphate inserts in the backbone the thermal stability of ppDNA-DNA duplexes was compromised...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Naoya Yamaguchi, Shinya Anraku, Erwan Paineau, Cyrus R Safinya, Patrick Davidson, Laurent J Michot, Nobuyoshi Miyamoto
Exploring the interaction of nucleic acids with clay minerals is important to understand such issues as the persistence in soils of biomolecules and the appearance of genetic polymers in prebiotic environments. Colloidal dispersions of double stranded DNA and clay nanosheets may also provide interesting model systems to study the statistical physics of mixtures of semi-flexible rods and plates. Here, we show that adding very small amounts of DNA to liquid-crystalline montmorillonite and beidellite smectite clay suspensions strongly widens the isotropic/nematic phase coexistence region...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sophie A Poeker, Annelies Geirnaert, Laura Berchtold, Anna Greppi, Lukasz Krych, Robert E Steinert, Tomas de Wouters, Christophe Lacroix
Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jurairat Rungruangsaphakun, Suttipun Keawsompong
Copra meal is a good source of galactomannan and it s mannooligosaccharides have prebiotic properties. However, limited data are available concerning the ideal requirements for mannan hydrolysis. Thus, optimum hydrolysis conditions for the production of oligosaccharides from copra meal hydrolysate were investigated using response surface methodology. Model validation provided good agreement between experimental results and predicted responses. Maximum oligosaccharide of 14.41 ± 0.09 mg/ml (20 ml) was obtained at an enzyme concentration of 16...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Gianfranco Picone, Martina Zappaterra, Diana Luise, Alessia Trimigno, Francesco Capozzi, Vincenzo Motta, Roberta Davoli, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Trevisi
Background: Colostrum is the first secretion produced by mammary glands during the hours immediately preceding and succeeding parturition. This secretion differs from milk and represents an essential vehicle of passive immunity, prebiotic compounds and growth factors involved in intestinal development. Most of the literature concerning colostrum composition refers mainly to human and cow; and little is known about pig colostrum metabolome and how it varies between pig breeds and different farrowing parity...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yuqin Shi, Jun Liu, Qiaojuan Yan, Xin You, Shaoqing Yang, Zhengqiang Jiang
Prebiotic effects of curdlan (1 → 3)-β-d-glucan oligosaccharides (GOS) were examined. GOS was tolerant against simulated gastrointestinal digestion, as well as low pH, thermal, and Maillard reaction conditions likely occurred during food processing. Growth of tested Lactobacillus (L.) strains was improved by GOS except L. brevis NRRL B-4527. E. coli did not grow on GOS as the only carbon source. In vitro batch fermentation using human faecal microbiota showed that GOS significantly increased the population of Lactobacillus sp...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Lucas M B Yoshihara, Elizabeth P G Arêas
The coacervation of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was investigated. The work focused on the effects of pH, ionic strength, I, temperature, T, and mass fraction of the macromolecular components on the coacervation process by spectrophotometry, and on characteristics of the resulting coacervate phase by rheology in the linear and non-linear regimes. Coacervation was found to be highest at HEWL mass fraction ≈0.25 with very slight dependence on pH in the range from 5 to 9. The process was favored at I < 0...
March 2, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Mohamed S Ayyat, Adham A Al-Sagheer, Khaled M Abd El-Latif, Bakry A Khalil
The effect of organic selenium, prebiotics, or probiotics on productive performances, blood biochemistry, and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits was studied throughout summer and winter seasons. In an 8-week feeding trial, a total of 100 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed to 10 groups. Two seasons (winter and summer) and five diets fortified with 0 (control), 0.03 mg selenium, 3 g Bio-Mos®, 1 g Bactocell® (1 × 1010  CFU) or 3 g yeast/kg diet were used in 2 × 5 factorial design...
March 7, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
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