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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328633/size-induced-segregation-in-the-stepwise-microhydration-of-hydantoin-and-its-role-on-proton-induced-charge-transfer
#1
Florent Calvo, Marie-Christine Bacchus-Montabonel
Recent photochemistry experiments provided evidence for the formation of hydantoin by irradiation of interstellar ice analogues. The significance of these results and the importance of hydantoin in prebiotic chemistry and polypeptide synthesis motivate the present theoretical investigation, in which we analyzed the effects of stepwise hydration on the structures, electronic and thermodynamical properties of microhydrated hydantoin using a variety of computational approaches. We generally find microhydration to proceed around the hydantoin heterocycle until 5 water molecules are reached, at which stage hydration becomes segregated with a water cluster forming aside the heterocycle...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323180/low-amounts-of-dietary-fibre-increase-in-vitro-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-without-changing-human-colonic-microbiota-structure
#2
Daisuke Sasaki, Kengo Sasaki, Naoko Ikuta, Takahiro Yasuda, Itsuko Fukuda, Akihiko Kondo, Ro Osawa
This study investigated the effect of various prebiotics (indigestible dextrin, α-cyclodextrin, and dextran) on human colonic microbiota at a dosage corresponding to a daily intake of 6 g of prebiotics per person (0.2% of dietary intake). We used an in vitro human colonic microbiota model based on batch fermentation starting from a faecal inoculum. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that addition of 0.2% prebiotics did not change the diversity and composition of colonic microbiota. This finding coincided with results from a clinical study showing that the microbiota composition of human faecal samples remained unchanged following administration of 6 g of prebiotics over seven days...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321594/estimating-the-capacity-for-production-of-formamide-by-radioactive-minerals-on-the-prebiotic-earth
#3
Zachary R Adam, Yayoi Hongo, H James Cleaves, Ruiqin Yi, Albert C Fahrenbach, Isao Yoda, Masashi Aono
Water creates special problems for prebiotic chemistry, as it is thermodynamically favorable for amide and phosphodiester bonds to hydrolyze. The availability of alternative solvents with more favorable properties for the formation of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth may have helped bypass this so-called "water paradox". Formamide (FA) is one such solvent, and can serve as a nucleobase precursor, but it is difficult to envision how FA could have been generated in large quantities or accumulated in terrestrial surface environments...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319888/formation-of-cyanamide-glyoxal-oligomers-in-aqueous-environments-relevant-to-primeval-and-astrochemical-scenarios-a-spectroscopic-and-theoretical-study
#4
Nieves Lavado, Juan García de la Concepción, Reyes Babiano, Pedro Cintas
The condensation of cyanamide and glyoxal, two well-known prebiotic monomers, in aqueous phase has been investigated in great detail, demonstrating the formation of oligomeric species of varied structure, though consistent with generalizable patterns. This chemistry involving structurally simple substances also illustrates the ability of building molecular complexity under prebiotically plausible conditions, not only on Earth but also on extraterrestrial scenarios. We show that cyanamide-glyoxal reactions in water lead to mixtures comprising both acyclic and cyclic fragments, largely based on fused five- and six-membered rings, which can be predicted by computation...
January 10, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319093/nutriosomes-prebiotic-delivery-systems-combining-phospholipids-a-soluble-dextrin-and-curcumin-to-counteract-intestinal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#5
Ana Catalán-Latorre, Maria Pleguezuelos-Villa, Ines Castangia, Maria Letizia Manca, Carla Caddeo, Amparo Nácher, Octavio Díez-Sales, José Esteban Peris, Ramon Pons, Elvira Escribano-Ferrer, Anna Maria Fadda, Maria Manconi
Nutriosomes, new phospholipid nanovesicles specifically designed for intestinal protection were developed by simultaneously loading a water-soluble dextrin (Nutriose® FM06) and a natural antioxidant (curcumin). Nutriosomes were easily fabricated in a one-step, organic solvent-free procedure. The stability and delivery performances of the vesicles were improved by adding hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. All the vesicles were small in size (mean diameter ∼168 nm), negatively charged (zeta potential ∼-38 mV, irrespective of their composition), and self-assembled predominantly in unilamellar vesicles stabilized by the presence of Nutriose®, which was located in both the inter-lamellar and inter-vesicle media, as confirmed by cryo-TEM and SAXS investigation...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317495/structural-and-mechanistic-analysis-of-a-%C3%AE-glycoside-phosphorylase-identified-by-screening-a-metagenomic-library
#6
Spencer S Macdonald, Ankoor Patel, Veronica L C Larmour, Connor Morgan-Lang, Steven J Hallam, Brian L Mark, Stephen G Withers
Glycoside phosphorylases have considerable potential as catalysts for the assembly of useful glycans for products ranging from functional foods and prebiotics to novel materials. However, the substrate diversity of currently identified phosphorylases is relatively small, limiting their practical applications. To address this limitation, we developed a high-throughput screening approach using the activated substrate 2,4-dinitrophenyl β-D-glucoside (DNPGlc) and inorganic phosphate for identifying glycoside phosphorylase activity and used it to screen a large insert metagenomic library...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316965/decreased-microglial-activation-through-gut-brain-axis-by-prebiotics-probiotics-or-synbiotics-effectively-restored-cognitive-function-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#7
Titikorn Chunchai, Wannipa Thunapong, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Keerati Wanchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Gabrielle Metzler, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only obese-insulin resistance, but also cognitive decline and microglial hyperactivity. Modified gut microbiota by prebiotics and probiotics improved obese-insulin resistance. However, the effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on cognition and microglial activity in an obese-insulin resistant condition have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic (Xyloolidosaccharide), probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei HII01), or synbiotics in male obese-insulin resistant rats induced by a HFD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311556/linked-cycles-of-oxidative-decarboxylation-of-glyoxylate-as-protometabolic-analogs-of-the-citric-acid-cycle
#8
Greg Springsteen, Jayasudhan Reddy Yerabolu, Julia Nelson, Chandler Joel Rhea, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy
The development of metabolic approaches towards understanding the origins of life, which have focused mainly on the citric acid (TCA) cycle, have languished-primarily due to a lack of experimentally demonstrable and sustainable cycle(s) of reactions. We show here the existence of a protometabolic analog of the TCA involving two linked cycles, which convert glyoxylate into CO2 and produce aspartic acid in the presence of ammonia. The reactions proceed from either pyruvate, oxaloacetate or malonate in the presence of glyoxylate as the carbon source and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under neutral aqueous conditions and at mild temperatures...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311119/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-systemic-inflammatory-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jose C Clemente, Julia Manasson, Jose U Scher
The role of the gut microbiome in models of inflammatory and autoimmune disease is now well characterized. Renewed interest in the human microbiome and its metabolites, as well as notable advances in host mucosal immunology, has opened multiple avenues of research to potentially modulate inflammatory responses. The complexity and interdependence of these diet-microbe-metabolite-host interactions are rapidly being unraveled. Importantly, most of the progress in the field comes from new knowledge about the functional properties of these microorganisms in physiology and their effect in mucosal immunity and distal inflammation...
January 8, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310853/immobilization-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-4-glucanase-from-bacillus-sp-on-porous-silica-for-production-of-%C3%AE-glucooligosaccharides
#10
Hwa Jin Cho, Won Je Jang, Soo Young Moon, Jong Min Lee, Jang-Ho Kim, Hyon-Sob Han, Kang-Woong Kim, Bong-Joo Lee, In-Soo Kong
(1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucan has been determined to have various beneficial effects due to its unique structure. β-glucooligosaccharides (β-GOS), which are hydrolysates of barley (1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucan, provide a useful prebiotic material for selective growth of probiotic bacteria. In this study, recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (Bg1314) from Bacillus sp. SJ-10 (KCCM 90078) was immobilized on porous silica using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking reagent to achieve efficient production of β-GOS. We investigated the effects of factors such as the amounts of enzyme and glutaraldehyde, reaction temperature, and pH on catalytic activity...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310610/pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-taking-probiotics-or-prebiotics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Alexander Jarde, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Paul Moayyedi, Jennifer C Stearns, Stephen M Collins, Joseph Beyene, Sarah D McDonald
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit. It has been speculated that probiotics might help prevent preterm birth, but in two previous systematic reviews possible major increases in this risk have been suggested. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women taking probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics. METHODS: We searched six electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science's Core collection and BIOSIS Preview) up to September 2016 and contacted authors for additional data...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308815/glycosylation-of-a-model-proto-rna-nucleobase-with-non-ribose-sugars-implications-for-the-prebiotic-synthesis-of-nucleosides
#12
David M Fialho, Kimberly C Clarke, Megan K Moore, Gary B Schuster, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, Nicholas V Hud
The emergence of nucleosides is an important, but poorly understood, element of the origins of life. We show that 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP), a possible ancestral nucleobase of RNA, is glycosylated in water by non-ribose sugars in yields comparable to those previously reported for its reaction with ribose. The various sugars surveyed include ketoses and aldoses; tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses and are neutral, anionic, or cationic. Though they vary greatly in structure and properties, the data show that all sugars tested form glycosides with TAP...
January 8, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307721/exploring-the-prebiotic-effect-of-cyclodextrins-on-probiotic-bacteria-entrapped-in-carboxymetyl-cellulose-chitosan-particles
#13
Poonam Singh, Bruno Medronho, Artur J M Valente, Maria G Miguel, Björn Lindman
In this work the prebiotic effect of different cyclodextrins, CDs, on the viability of model probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) encapsulated in carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid particles was studied. All the CDs tested were observed to considerably improve the viability (quantitatively like common prebiotics, such as corn starch) and encapsulation efficiency when compared to the CD-free particles, as inferred by plate counting method and fluorescence microscopy. The SEM data suggests that the morphology of the particles, the roughness of the surface and porosity, are dependent on the type of CD and may reflect different interactions between the CDs and the matrix components...
December 11, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307330/habitual-dietary-fibre-intake-influences-gut-microbiota-response-to-an-inulin-type-fructan-prebiotic-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-human-intervention-study
#14
Genelle Healey, Rinki Murphy, Christine Butts, Louise Brough, Kevin Whelan, Jane Coad
Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic...
January 8, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303032/the-evaluation-of-the-quality-of-feng-huang-oolong-teas-and-their-modulatory-effect-on-intestinal-microbiota-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mice-model
#15
Yuhui Chen, Xin Zhang, Lu Cheng, Xiaojie Zheng, Zhicheng Zhang
The variations in the contents of tea catechins and free amino acids in relation to the quality of Fenghuang Oolong teas (FOT) were determined. It demonstrated that in FOT, which were grown at a high altitude, the contents of methylated estered tea catechins were relatively higher. By human flora-associated (HFA) mice model, the effect of FOT on high-fat diet-induced obesity was investigated by high-throughput sequencing. The shifts in relative abundance of the dominant taxa at the phylum, family and genus levels showed their dramatically effects...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301382/hydrogen-bonds-and-life-in-the-universe
#16
Giovanni Vladilo, Ali Hassanali
The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands...
January 3, 2018: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297910/effects-of-salinity-on-the-adsorption-of-nucleotides-onto-phyllosilicates
#17
Ulysse Pedreira-Segade, Laurent J Michot, Isabelle Daniel
In the context of the origin of life, phyllosilicate surfaces might favor the adsorption, concentration and reactivity of otherwise diluted prebiotic molecules. The primitive oceanic seafloor was certainly rich in Fe-Mg-rich phyllosilicates. The salinity of the primitive seawater remains largely unknown. Values ranging from 1 to 15 times modern salinity have been proposed and the salt composition of the primitive ocean also remains elusive although it may have played a role in the interactions between nucleotides and mineral surfaces...
January 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291154/in-vitro-fermentation-of-copra-meal-hydrolysate-by-chicken-microbiota
#18
Phatcharin Prayoonthien, Sunee Nitisinprasert, Suttipun Keawsompong
The aim of this study was to carry out preliminary investigations on the in vitro fermentation selectivity of copra meal hydrolysate (CMH) by chicken gut microbiota. The ileum and cecum contents from three 35-day-old birds were used as inocula. Yeast mannooligosaccharide (yeast-MOS) or α-mannan was selected as a positive control. Batch culture fermentation with fecal bacteria was performed at 42 °C for 24 h in an anaerobic chamber. Samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h of fermentation and evaluated using real-time PCR and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) analysis...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291048/toy-trains-loaded-dice-and-the-origin-of-life-dimerization-on-mineral-surfaces-under-periodic-drive-with-gaussian-inputs
#19
Rowena Ball, John Brindley
In a major extension of previous work, we model the putative hydrothermal rock pore setting for the origin of life on Earth as a series of coupled continuous flow units (the toy train). Perfusing through this train are reactants that set up thermochemical and pH oscillations, and an activated nucleotide that produces monomer and dimer monophosphates. The dynamical equations that model this system are thermally self-consistent. In an innovative step that breaks some new ground, we build stochasticity of the inputs into the model...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290443/construction-of-an-enzymatic-route-using-a-food-grade-recombinant-bacillus-subtilis-for-the-production-and-purification-of-epilactose-from-lactose
#20
Qiuming Chen, Weiwei He, Xin Yan, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
Lactose is a main by-product in the cheese industry. Many attempts have been made to convert the lactose to high value-added products, including epilactose. Epilactose is a valuable prebiotic and can be epimerized from lactose with cellobiose 2-epimerase (CEase). The objective of the present work was to construct a food-grade recombinant Bacillus subtilis that produces CEase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. The CEase was expressed in B. subtilis without antibiotic resistance genes. After fermentation, the maximum volumetric activity of the fermented broth was more than 7 U/mL...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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