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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103254/a-highly-active-endo-levanase-bt1760-of-a-dominant-mammalian-gut-commensal-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-cleaves-not-only-various-bacterial-levans-but-also-levan-of-timothy-grass
#1
Karin Mardo, Triinu Visnapuu, Heiki Vija, Anneli Aasamets, Katrin Viigand, Tiina Alamäe
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, an abundant commensal of the human gut, degrades numerous complex carbohydrates. Recently, it was reported to grow on a β-2,6-linked polyfructan levan produced by Zymomonas mobilis degrading the polymer into fructooligosaccharides (FOS) with a cell surface bound endo-levanase BT1760. The FOS are consumed by B. thetaiotaomicron, but also by other gut bacteria, including health-promoting bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here we characterize biochemical properties of BT1760, including the activity of BT1760 on six bacterial levans synthesized by the levansucrase Lsc3 of Pseudomonas syringae pv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098206/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-signaling-is-required-for-dietary-prebiotic-induced-strengthening-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#2
Richard Y Wu, Majd Abdullah, Pekka Määttänen, Ana Victoria C Pilar, Erin Scruten, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Scott Napper, Catherine O'Brien, Nicola L Jones, Philip M Sherman
Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#3
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096139/potential-health-benefits-of-combining-yogurt-and-fruits-based-on-their-probiotic-and-prebiotic-properties
#4
REVIEW
Melissa Anne Fernandez, André Marette
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096137/introduction-to-the-yogurt-in-nutrition-initiative-at-the-first-symposium-of-yogurt-in-mexico-the-balanced-diet-initiative
#5
REVIEW
Armando R Tovar, Guadalupe Herrera
In some European countries, yogurt consumption is common. However, such consumption is not common in Latin America, particularly in Mexico, partially because of the lack of a cultural tradition of consuming yogurt. Moreover, we also know that little information about the health benefits associated with yogurt consumption has been provided to the Mexican population. Thus, there is an immediate need to provide, at least to the nutrition community in the country, current scientific evidence about the health benefits of yogurt, with the aim that yogurt be included as part of the functional foods recommended to the population...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096125/dietary-supplements-and-risk-of-cause-specific-death-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-primary-prevention-trials
#6
REVIEW
Lukas Schwingshackl, Heiner Boeing, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marion Gottschald, Stefan Dietrich, Georg Hoffmann, Anna Chaimani
Our aim was to assess the efficacy of dietary supplements in the primary prevention of cause-specific death, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer by using meta-analytical approaches. Electronic and hand searches were performed until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) minimum intervention period of 12 mo; 2) primary prevention trials; 3) mean age ≥18 y; 4) interventions included vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, supplements containing combinations of vitamins and minerals, protein, fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics; and 5) primary outcome of all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes of mortality or incidence from CVD or cancer...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092444/engineering-of-the-bacillus-circulans-%C3%AE-galactosidase-product-specificity
#7
Huifang Yin, Tjaard Pijning, Xiangfeng Meng, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander Sebastiaan van Leeuwen
Microbial β-galactosidase enzymes are widely used as biocatalysts in industry to produce prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. GOS mixtures are used as beneficial additives in infant formula to mimic the prebiotic effects of human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS). The structural variety in GOS mixtures is significantly lower than in hMOS. Since this structural complexity is considered as the basis for the multiple biological functions of hMOS, it is important to broaden the variety of GOS structures...
January 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091546/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharides-activate-mucin-and-pectic-galactan-utilization-pathways-in-the-human-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#8
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Marieke Mulder, Sander van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088649/fumarate-reductase-superfamily-a-diverse-group-of-enzymes-whose-evolution-is-correlated-to-the-establishment-of-different-metabolic-pathways
#9
Douglas Jardim-Messeder, Caroline Cabreira-Cagliari, Rafael Rauber, Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet, Rogério Margis, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro
Fumarate and succinate are known to be present in prebiotic systems essential for the origin of life. The fumarate and succinate interconversion reactions have been conserved throughout evolution and are found in all living organisms. The fumarate and succinate interconversion is catalyzed by the enzymes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate reductase (FRD). In this work we show that SDH and FRD are part of a group of enzymes that we propose to designate "fumarate reductase superfamily". Our results demonstrate that these enzymes emerged from a common ancestor and were essential in the development of metabolic pathways involved in energy transduction...
January 11, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087885/absence-of-intestinal-microbiota-increases-%C3%A3-cyclodextrin-stimulated-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#10
Rima H Mistry, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
SCOPE: Non-digestible oligosaccharides are used as prebiotics for perceived health benefits, among these modulating lipid metabolism. However, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. The present study characterized the impact of dietary ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD, 10%, w/w), a cyclic oligosaccharide, on sterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in conventional and also germ-free mice to establish dependency on metabolism by intestinal bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: In conventional ßCD-fed C57BL/6J wild-type mice plasma cholesterol decreased significantly (-40%, p<0...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078750/metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-a-proof-of-concept-study
#11
M Mego, C Manichanh, A Accarino, D Campos, M Pozuelo, E Varela, J Vulevic, G Tzortzis, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics have been shown to reduce abdominal symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders, despite that they are fermented by colonic bacteria and may induce gas-related symptoms. AIM: To investigate changes in the metabolic activity of gut microbiota induced by a recognised prebiotic. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 20) were given a prebiotic (2.8 g/day HOST-G904, HOST Therabiomics, Jersey, Channel Islands) for 3 weeks...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076995/biosurfactants-in-cosmetic-formulations-trends-and-challenges
#12
X Vecino, J M Cruz, A B Moldes, L R Rodrigues
Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076487/technological-information-regarding-prebiotics-and-probiotics-nutrition-versus-the-patent-registers-what-is-new
#13
José Maciel Caldas Dos Reis, Maurício Fortuna Pinheiro, André Takashi Oti, Denilson José Silva Feitosa-Junior, Mauro de Souza Pantoja, Rui Sérgio Monteiro Barros
Introduction: Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Objective: Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071030/the-effect-of-replacing-pork-fat-of-inulin-on-the-physicochemical-and-sensory-quality-of-guinea-fowl-pate
#14
Agnieszka Latoch, Paweł Glibowski, Justyna Libera
BACKGROUND: Potentially, pâtés could be a functional food and are an important source of proteins, vitamin A, B complex vitamins and iron. Unfortunately, one problem in pâtés is the high level of animal fat, about 30%. Pâté with low-fat guinea fowl meat and animal fat replaced with inulin can result in this product being classified as a pro-health food. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect on pâté with guinea fowl meat of reducing its pork back fat content (about 1/3, 2/3 and 100%) and the adding inulin as a partial fat substitute...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069126/characterization-of-a-water-soluble-hyperbranched-arabinogalactan-from-yacon-smallanthus-sonchifolius-roots
#15
Alejandra Castro, Francisco Vilaplana, Lars Nilsson
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl.) roots are largely grown in Andean countries and have attracted recent interest due to their antioxidant and prebiotic effects. Yacon is typically consumed as a fruit due to its sweet taste and juiciness. The macromolecular properties of an aqueous extract of yacon are investigated using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detection. The method allows for determination of molar mass and size over the size distribution...
May 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068209/the-role-of-early-life-nutrition-in-the-establishment-of-gastrointestinal-microbial-composition-and-function
#16
Erin C Davis, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan
The development of the human infant intestinal microbiota is a sequential process that begins in utero and continues during the first 2 to 3 years of life. Microbial composition and diversity are shaped by host genetics and multiple environmental factors, of which diet is a principal contributor. An understanding of this process is of clinical importance as the microbiota acquired in early life influence gastrointestinal, immune and neural development, and reduced microbial diversity or dysbiosis during infancy is associated with disorders in infancy and later childhood...
January 9, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067845/selection-of-prebiotic-molecules-in-amphiphilic-environments
#17
Christian Mayer, Ulrich Schreiber, María J Dávila
A basic problem in all postulated pathways of prebiotic chemistry is the low concentration which generally is expected for interesting reactants in fluid environments. Even though compounds, like nucleobases, sugars or peptides, principally may form spontaneously under environmental conditions, they will always be rapidly diluted in an aqueous environment. In addition, any such reaction leads to side products which often exceed the desired compound and generally hamper the first steps of a subsequent molecular evolution...
January 7, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067041/utility-of-thermostable-xylanases-of-mycothermus-thermophilus-in-generating-prebiotic-xylooligosaccharides
#18
Rui Ma, Yingguo Bai, Huoqing Huang, Huiying Luo, Sanfeng Chen, Yunliu Fan, Lei Cai, Bin Yao
Xylooligosaccharides as emerging prebiotics are able to promote the growth of probiotic bacteria. In the present study, four neutral, thermostable xylanases (MtXyn11A, MtXyn11At, MtXyn11B and MtXyn11C) from compost fungus Mycothermus thermophilus CGMCC3.18119 were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and used to produce xylooligosaccharides from beechwood xylan. The enzymes showed similar enzymatic properties (maximal activities at pH 6.06.5 and 65 C) but varied in catalytic efficiency and cleaving actions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064261/clinical-effects-of-prebiotics-in-pediatric-population
#19
Rok Orel, Lea Vodušek Reberšak
CONTEXT: Prebiotics are non-digestible components of food that in a selective manner trigger the expansion of microbes in the gut with valuable effects for the health of the host. In our document, current literature pertaining to the clinical effects of the use of prebiotics for the treatment and prevention of some common pediatric pathology such as infantile colic, constipation, absorption of minerals, weight gain, diarrhea, respiratory infections, and eczema is reviewed. EVIDENCE: Data was collected through search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, UpToDate, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database as well as through references from relevant articles, all until September 2015...
December 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063358/chemical-input-reduction-in-the-arabinoxylan-and-lignocellulose-alkaline-extraction-and-xylooligosaccharides-production
#20
Franciane Cristina de Figueiredo, Ana Flavia Azevedo Carvalho, Michel Brienzo, Tania Sila Campioni, Pedro de Oliva-Neto
Lignocellulosic material breakdown by hydrolysis is an important step to open new perspectives for bioenergy and special foods production like prebiotic xylooligosaccharides. Improvement of lignocellulose and arabinoxylan alkaline extraction from sugarcane bagasse and enzymatic hydrolysis were performed. Treatments 1 (10% KOH at 70°C), 3 (5% KOH at 121°C) and ZD method (24% KOH at 35°C) showed solid lignocellulose recovery of respectively 75.2%, 74.2% and 73%. A range of 24.8-27% extracted material with high arabinoxylan content (72...
December 26, 2016: Bioresource Technology
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