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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734224/structural-characterization-of-glucosylated-lactose-derivatives-synthesized-by-the-lactobacillus-reuteri-gtfa-and-gtf180-glucansucrase-enzymes
#1
Hien T T Pham, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
Glucansucrase enzymes from lactic acid bacteria are receiving strong interest because of their wide range of gluco-oligosaccharide and polysaccharide products from sucrose, some of which have prebiotic potential. Glucansucrases GtfA and Gtf180 from Lactobacillus reuteri strains are known to convert sucrose into α-glucans with different types of linkages, but also to use other molecules as acceptor substrates. Here we report that incubation of (N-terminally truncated versions of) these enzymes with lactose plus sucrose resulted in synthesis of at least 5 glucosylated lactose products of a degree of polymerization (DP) of 3-4...
July 8, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730743/inulin-type-fructans-and-whey-protein-both-modulate-appetite-but-only-fructans-alter-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-overweight-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Raylene A Reimer, Holly J Willis, Jasmine M Tunnicliffe, Heekuk Park, Karen L Madsen, Adriana Soto-Vaca
SCOPE: Independently, prebiotics and dietary protein have been shown to improve weight loss and/or alter appetite. Our objective was to determine the effect of combined prebiotic and whey protein on appetite, body composition and gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 12 week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 125 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of: 1) Control; 2) Inulin-type fructans (ITF); 3) Whey protein; 4) ITF + Whey protein...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730708/evaluation-of-the-hypocholesterolemic-effect-and-prebiotic-activity-of-a-lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-extract
#3
Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Cinzia Cecchini, Pilar Vila Donat, Giovanni Caprioli, Carlo Cifani, Maria Magdalena Coman, Alberto Cresci, Dennis Fiorini, Massimo Ricciutelli, Stefania Silvi, Sauro Vittori, Gianni Sagratini
SCOPE: the aim of our work was to produce a hydroalcoholic extract of lentils and to examine: a) the hypocholesterolemic action in an animal model, by studying the plasma cholesterol level and the concentration of bile acids in the faeces; b) the potential prebiotic effect, by conducting an in vitro culture fermentation experiment and assessing the level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the faeces of rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lentil extract (LE) was obtained by extracting lentils with a solution of H2 0/EtOH (70/30 v/v) for 3 h, and the content of main nutrients was determined...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728254/-prebiotics-and-infant-intestinal-health
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728253/-effects-of-prebiotics-on-infants
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727932/laboratory-studies-of-methane-and-its-relationship-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#6
Kensei Kobayashi, Wolf D Geppert, Nathalie Carrasco, Nils G Holm, Olivier Mousis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, J Hunter Waite, Naoki Watanabe, Lucy M Ziurys
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role...
July 20, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#7
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723913/prebiotic-selection-for-motifs-in-a-model-of-template-free-elongation-of-polymers-within-compartments
#8
Grant Kinsler, Sam Sinai, Nicholas Keone Lee, Martin A Nowak
The transition from prelife where self-replication does not occur, to life which exhibits self-replication and evolution, has been a subject of interest for many decades. Membranes, forming compartments, seem to be a critical component of this transition as they provide several concurrent benefits. They maintain localized interactions, generate electro-chemical gradients, and help in selecting cooperative functions as they arise. These functions pave the way for the emergence and maintenance of simple metabolic cycles and polymers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723229/the-formation-of-nucleobases-from-the-ultraviolet-photoirradiation-of-purine-in-simple-astrophysical-ice-analogues
#9
Christopher K Materese, Michel Nuevo, Scott A Sandford
Nucleobases are the informational subunits of RNA and DNA and are essential to all known forms of life. The nucleobases can be divided into two groups of molecules: the pyrimidine-based compounds that include uracil, cytosine, and thymine, and the purine-based compounds that include adenine and guanine. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that uracil, cytosine, thymine, and other nonbiological, less common nucleobases can form abiotically from the UV photoirradiation of pyrimidine in simple astrophysical ice analogues containing combinations of H2O, NH3, and CH4...
July 19, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721495/diversity-and-survival-of-artificial-lifeforms-under-sedimentation-and-random-motion
#10
Nicolas Glade, Olivier Bastien, Pascal Ballet
Cellular automata are often used to explore the numerous possible scenarios of what could have occurred at the origins of life and before, during the prebiotic ages, when very simple molecules started to assemble and organise into larger catalytic or informative structures, or to simulate ecosystems. Artificial self-maintained spatial structures emerge in cellular automata and are often used to represent molecules or living organisms. They converge generally towards homogeneous stationary soups of still-life creatures...
July 18, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#11
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720287/occurrence-toxicity-bioaccessibility-and-mitigation-strategies-of-beauvericin-a-minor-fusarium-mycotoxin
#12
REVIEW
C Luz, F Saladino, F B Luciano, J Mañes, G Meca
Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins include the toxic secondary metabolites fusaproliferin, enniatins, beauvericin (BEA), and moniliform. BEA is produced by some entomo- and phytopathogenic Fusarium species and occurs naturally on corn and corn-based foods and feeds infected by Fusarium spp. BEA has shown various biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal) and possesses toxic activity, including the induction of apoptosis, increase cytoplasmic calcium concentration and lead to DNA fragmentation in mammalian cell lines...
July 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718839/dose-dependent-prebiotic-effect-of-lactulose-in-a-computer-controlled-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-large-intestine
#13
Melanie K Bothe, Annet J H Maathuis, Susann Bellmann, Jos M B M van der Vossen, Dirk Berressem, Annalena Koehler, Susann Schwejda-Guettes, Barbara Gaigg, Angelika Kuchinka-Koch, John F Stover
Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated. This study analyses changes in the microbiota and their metabolites after a 5 days Lactulose treatment using the TIM-2 system, a computer-controlled model of the proximal large intestine representing a complex, high density, metabolically active, anaerobic microbiota of human origin...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713364/immunomodulatory-activities-of-a-fungal-protein-extracted-from-hericium-erinaceus-through-regulating-the-gut-microbiota
#14
Chen Diling, Zheng Chaoqun, Yang Jian, Li Jian, Su Jiyan, Xie Yizhen, Lai Guoxiao
A single-band protein (HEP3) was isolated from Hericium erinaceus using a chemical separation combined with pharmacodynamic evaluation methods. This protein exhibited immunomodulatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by decreasing the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-κB p65. Further researches revealed that HEP3 could improve the immune system via regulating the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota to activate the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, stimulate the intestinal antigen-presenting cells in high-dose cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity in mice, and play a prebiotic role in the case of excessive antibiotics in inflammatory bowel disease model mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708927/orotidine-containing-rna-implications-for-the-hierarchical-selection-systems-chemistry-emergence-of-rna
#16
Eun-Kyong Kim, Vincent Martin, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy
The prebiotic synthesis of canonical nucleobases from HCN is a cornerstone for the RNA world hypothesis. However, their role in the primordial pathways to RNA is still debated. The very same process starting from HCN also gives rise to orotic acid, which (via orotidine) plays a crucial role in extant biology in the de novo synthesis of uridine and cytidine, the informational base-pairs in RNA. However, orotidine itself is absent in RNA. Given the prebiotic and biological relevance of orotic acid vis-à-vis uracil, we investigated orotidine containing RNA oligonucleotides and show that they have severely compromised base-pairing properties...
July 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705786/investigation-of-the-efficacy-of-synbiotics-in-the-treatment-of-functional-constipation-in-children-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#17
Ahmet Baştürk, Reha Artan, Atike Atalay, Aygen Yılmaz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and Bifidobacterium lactis and prebiotics [fiber, polydextrose, fructo-oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides]) treatment in children with functional constipation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed in patients aged 4-18 years, and the patients were diagnosed to have functional constipation according to the Roma III diagnostic criteria...
July 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702783/origins-of-life-research-a-bibliometric-approach
#18
Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Zehra Taşkın
This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wȁchtershȁuser 1988, etc...
July 13, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701177/longitudinal-development-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-preterm-neonates-with-late-onset-sepsis-and-healthy-controls
#19
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Tatiana Fofanova, Andrew Nelson, Tom Skeath, John D Perry, Joseph F Petrosino, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: Late onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. While studies have implicated gut bacteria in the aetiology of the disease, functional analysis and mechanistic insights are generally lacking. We performed temporal bacterial (n = 613) and metabolomic (n = 63) profiling on extensively sampled stool from 7 infants with LOS and 28 matched healthy (no LOS or NEC) controls. RESULTS: The bacteria isolated in diagnostic blood culture usually corresponded to the dominant bacterial genera in the gut microbiome...
July 12, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700697/simulating-the-origins-of-life-the-dual-role-of-rna-replicases-as-an-obstacle-to-evolution
#20
Natalia Szostak, Jaroslaw Synak, Marcin Borowski, Szymon Wasik, Jacek Blazewicz
Despite years of study, it is still not clear how life emerged from inanimate matter and evolved into the complex forms that we observe today. One of the most recognized hypotheses for the origins of life, the RNA World hypothesis, assumes that life was sparked by prebiotic replicating RNA chains. In this paper, we address the problems caused by the interplay between hypothetical prebiotic RNA replicases and RNA parasitic species. We consider the coexistence of parasite RNAs and RNA replicases as well as the impact of parasites on the further evolution of replicases...
2017: PloS One
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