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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161572/new-%C3%AE-galactosidase-producers-with-potential-for-prebiotic-synthesis
#1
Sara C Silvério, Eugénia A Macedo, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, a screening study was carried out to identify new fungal sources of β-galactosidase. A total of 50 fungi were evaluated using a chromogenic test performed in agar plates. The most promising microorganisms were validated as effective β-galactosidase producers under submerged fermentation conditions. The crude β-galactosidases were characterized regarding their optimal pH (3...
November 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161088/mechanistic-basis-for-obesity-related-increases-in-ozone-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-mice
#2
Stephanie A Shore
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, especially nonallergic asthma. Ozone, a common air pollutant, is a nonallergic asthma trigger. Importantly, ozone-induced decrements in lung function are greater in obese and overweight human subjects than in lean individuals. Obese mice also exhibit exaggerated pulmonary responses to ozone. Ozone causes greater increases in pulmonary resistance, in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, and in airway hyperresponsiveness in obese than in lean mice. Our data indicate that IL-33 plays a role in mediating these events...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156925/-new-ingredients-in-infant-formula-health-and-functional-benefits
#3
M Cristina De Almagro García, José Antonio Moreno Muñoz, Jesús Jiménez López, María Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma
There is an increasing body of evidence about the effect that early nutrition and lifestyle could have on the programming of later health and disease. Infant formula must cover all the nutritional needs to promote adequate infant growth and development. Currently, important research efforts have been made to supplement infant formulae with new bioactive ingredients with health benefits for the infant. The milk fat globule membrane is one of the new ingredients, which provides phospholipids and gangliosides, as well as bioactive proteins...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156761/extracts-from-hericium-erinaceus-relieve-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-regulating-immunity-and-gut-microbiota
#4
Chen Diling, Yang Xin, Zheng Chaoqun, Yang Jian, Tang Xiaocui, Chen Jun, Shuai Ou, Xie Yizhen
Hericium erinaceus (HE), a traditional edible mushroom, is known as a medicine food homology to ameliorate gastrointestinal diseases. To investigate whether HE is clinically effective in alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), HE extracts (polysaccharide, alcoholic extracts and whole extracts were prepared using solvent extraction methods) were administrated for 2 weeks in rats with IBD induced by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema (150 mg/kg). Significant clinical and histological changes in IBD rats were identified, including damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156594/chemical-transformations-in-proto-cytoplasmic-media-phosphorus-coupling-in-the-silica-hydrogel-phase
#5
Ian B Gorrell, Timothy W Henderson, Kamal Albdeery, Philip M Savage, Terence P Kee
It has been proposed that prebiotic chemical studies on the emergence of primitive life would be most relevant when performed in a hydrogel, rather than an aqueous, environment. In this paper we describe the ambient temperature coupling of phosphorus oxyacids [Pi] mediated by Fe(II) under aerobic conditions within a silica hydrogel (SHG) environment. We have chosen to examine SHGs as they have considerable geological precedence as key phases in silicification en route to rock formation. Following a description of the preparation and characterization studies on our SHG formulations, coupling experiments between Pi species are described across multiple permutations of (i) Pi compound; (ii) gel formulation; (iii) metal salt additive; and (iv) pH-modifying agent...
November 19, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155807/a-synbiotic-containing-amino-acid-based-formula-improves-gut-microbiota-in-non-ige-mediated-allergic-infants
#6
David C A Candy, Marleen T J Van Ampting, Manon M Oude Nijhuis, Harm Wopereis, Assad M Butt, Diego G Peroni, Yvan Vandenplas, Adam T Fox, Neil Shah, Christina E West, Johan Garssen, Lucien F Harthoorn, Jan Knol, Louise J Michaelis
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) can modify gut microbiota and have potential in allergy management when combined with amino acid-based formula (AAF) for infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an AAF including synbiotic blend on percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group (ER/CC) in feces from infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155107/structural-insights-of-rmxyn10a-a-prebiotic-producing-gh10-xylanase-with-a-non-conserved-aglycone-binding-region
#7
Anna Aronsson, Fatma Güler, Maxim V Petoukhov, Susan J Crennell, Dmitri I Svergun, Javier A Linares-Pastén, Eva Nordberg Karlsson
Hydrolysis of arabinoxylan (AX) by glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) xylanases produces xylo- and arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides ((A)XOS) which have shown prebiotic effects. The thermostable GH10 xylanase RmXyn10A has shown great potential to produce (A)XOS. In this study, the structure of RmXyn10A was investigated, the catalytic module by homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and the arrangement of its five domains by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Substrate specificity was explored in silico by manual docking and molecular dynamic simulations...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153882/identification-of-probiotic-effector-molecules-present-state-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Lebeer, Peter A Bron, Maria L Marco, Jan-Peter Van Pijkeren, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Colin Hill, Bruno Pot, Stefan Roos, Todd Klaenhammer
Comprehension of underlying mechanisms of probiotic action will support rationale selection of probiotic strains and targeted clinical study design with a higher likelihood of success. This will consequently contribute to better substantiation of health claims. Here, we aim to provide a perspective from a microbiology point of view that such comprehensive understanding is not straightforward. We show examples of well-documented probiotic effector molecules in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, including surface-located molecules such as specific pili, S-layer proteins, exopolysaccharides, muropeptides, as well as more widely produced metabolites such as tryptophan-related and histamine-related metabolites, CpG-rich DNA, and various enzymes such as lactase and bile salt hydrolases...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151980/synbiotic-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucans-from-cauliflower-mushroom-and-lactobacillus-fermentum-on-metabolic-changes-and-gut-microbiome-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#9
Seong-Yeop Jeong, Suna Kang, Cao Shi Hua, Zhang Ting, Sunmin Park
Background: We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods: OVX rats were fed with high-fat diets containing 1% dextrin (control), 1% lyophilized cauliflower mushroom extract (CFM), 0...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145201/dietary-fructo-oligosaccharides-attenuate-early-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-which-produce-both-th1-and-th2-cytokines-in-the-intestinal-lymphoid-tissues-of-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#10
Masato Tsuda, Haruka Arakawa, Narumi Ishii, Chihiro Ubukata, Mana Michimori, Masanari Noda, Kyoko Takahashi, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Akira Hosono
BACKGROUND: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. METHODS: OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation...
November 17, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#11
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#12
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135961/probiotic-prebiotic-and-brain-development
#13
REVIEW
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruíz, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134988/prebiotic-rna-polymerisation-energetics-of-nucleotide-adsorption-and-polymerisation-on-clay-mineral-surfaces
#14
S Jelavić, D J Tobler, T Hassenkam, J J De Yoreo, S L S Stipp, K K Sand
We measured the binding energy and bonding parameters between model nucleotide functional groups and model clay mineral surfaces in solutions of acidic pH. We demonstrate that basal surfaces of clay minerals interact most strongly with nucleobases and show that the adsorption of the phosphate group to clay edges could facilitate polymerisation. Our results suggest that Al- and Fe-rich edge sites behave similarly in nucleotide polymerisation through change of the phosphodiester bond strength. We present an internally consistent set of thermodynamic parameters that represent the nucleotide-clay mineral system...
November 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134293/medicinal-foods-for-functional-gi-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Brent W Acker, Brooks D Cash
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 10 years, there has been a dramatic increase in basic and clinical research involving functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). New diagnostic and biomarker procedures are helping to identify physiologic disruptions associated with FGIDs on cellular and molecular levels. Simultaneously, clinicians are using new approaches to help manage patients with FGIDs. Among these, an important component of care has been the use of medical foods. These include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, peppermint oil, caraway oil, curcumin, bovine immunoglobulin and many others...
November 13, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133454/protoenzymes-the-case-of-hyperbranched-polyesters
#16
Irena Mamajanov, George D Cody
Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133452/an-intermediate-level-of-abstraction-for-computational-systems-chemistry
#17
Jakob L Andersen, Christoph Flamm, Daniel Merkle, Peter F Stadler
Computational techniques are required for narrowing down the vast space of possibilities to plausible prebiotic scenarios, because precise information on the molecular composition, the dominant reaction chemistry and the conditions for that era are scarce. The exploration of large chemical reaction networks is a central aspect in this endeavour. While quantum chemical methods can accurately predict the structures and reactivities of small molecules, they are not efficient enough to cope with large-scale reaction systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133447/subsumed-complexity-abiogenesis-as-a-by-product-of-complex-energy-transduction
#18
Z R Adam, D Zubarev, M Aono, H James Cleaves
The origins of life bring into stark relief the inadequacy of our current synthesis of thermodynamic, chemical, physical and information theory to predict the conditions under which complex, living states of organic matter can arise. Origins research has traditionally proceeded under an array of implicit or explicit guiding principles in lieu of a universal formalism for abiogenesis. Within the framework of a new guiding principle for prebiotic chemistry called subsumed complexity, organic compounds are viewed as by-products of energy transduction phenomena at different scales (subatomic, atomic, molecular and polymeric) that retain energy in the form of bonds that inhibit energy from reaching the ground state...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133439/re-conceptualizing-the-origins-of-life
#19
Sara I Walker, N Packard, G D Cody
Over the last several hundred years of scientific progress, we have arrived at a deep understanding of the non-living world. We have not yet achieved an analogous, deep understanding of the living world. The origins of life is our best chance at discovering scientific laws governing life, because it marks the point of departure from the predictable physical and chemical world to the novel, history-dependent living world. This theme issue aims to explore ways to build a deeper understanding of the nature of biology, by modelling the origins of life on a sufficiently abstract level, starting from prebiotic conditions on Earth and possibly on other planets and bridging quantitative frameworks approaching universal aspects of life...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131221/organocatalysis-using-aldehydes-the-development-and-improvement-of-catalytic-hydroaminations-hydrations-and-hydrolyses
#20
Bin-Jie Li, Claudia Ei-Nachef, André M Beauchemin
Organocatalysis has emerged as a powerful approach to facilitate and accelerate various difficult reactions. This Feature article presents recent developments and improvements using aldehydes as catalysts in difficult Cope-type intermolecular hydroamination, hydration and hydrolysis reactions. Most reactions exploit temporary intramolecularity. In catalytic Cope-type hydroaminations of allylic amines, aldehydes act as tethering catalysts, and allow room temperature reactions and high enantio- or diastereoselectivities if chiral aldehydes or reagents are used...
November 13, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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