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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931020/a-new-species-of-hermit-crab-diogenes-heteropsammicola-crustacea-decapoda-anomura-diogenidae-replaces-a-mutualistic-sipunculan-in-a-walking-coral-symbiosis
#1
Momoko Igawa, Makoto Kato
Symbiont shift is rare in obligate mutualisms because both the partners are reciprocally dependent on and specialized to each other. In the obligate accommodation-transportation mutualism between walking corals and sipunculans, however, an unusual saltatory symbiont shift was discovered. In shallow waters of southern Japan, an undescribed hermit crab species was found living in corallums of solitary scleractinian corals of the genera Heterocyathus and Heteropsammia, replacing the usual sipunculan symbiont. We described the hermit crab as a new species Diogenes heteropsammicola (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae), and explored its association with the walking corals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929370/a-termite-symbiotic-mushroom-maximizing-sexual-activity-at-growing-tips-of-vegetative-hyphae
#2
Huei-Mei Hsieh, Mei-Chu Chung, Pao-Yang Chen, Fei-Man Hsu, Wen-Wei Liao, Ai-Ning Sung, Chun-Ru Lin, Chung-Ju Rachel Wang, Yu-Hsin Kao, Mei-Jane Fang, Chi-Yung Lai, Chieh-Chen Huang, Jyh-Ching Chou, Wen-Neng Chou, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Yu-Ming Ju
BACKGROUND: Termitomyces mushrooms are mutualistically associated with fungus-growing termites, which are widely considered to cultivate a monogenotypic Termitomyces symbiont within a colony. Termitomyces cultures isolated directly from termite colonies are heterokaryotic, likely through mating between compatible homokaryons. RESULTS: After pairing homokaryons carrying different haplotypes at marker gene loci MIP and RCB from a Termitomyces fruiting body associated with Odontotermes formosanus, we observed nuclear fusion and division, which greatly resembled meiosis, during each hyphal cell division and conidial formation in the resulting heterokaryons...
September 19, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929338/a-perspective-on-the-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-neuron-metabolic-partnership-in-the-inner-retina
#3
REVIEW
A K Toft-Kehler, D M Skytt, Miriam Kolko
The Müller cells represent the predominant macroglial cell in the retina. In recent decades, Müller cells have been acknowledged to be far more influential on neuronal homeostasis in the retina than previously assumed. With its unique localization, spanning the entire retina being interposed between the vessels and neurons, Müller cells are responsible for the functional and metabolic support of the surrounding neurons. As a consequence of major energy demands in the retina, high levels of glucose are consumed and processed by Müller cells...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929200/high-efficiency-acetone-butanol-ethanol-production-and-recovery-in-non-strict-anaerobic-gas-stripping-fed-batch-fermentation
#4
Zhangnan Lin, Hongjuan Liu, Xiang Yan, Yujie Zhou, Keke Cheng, Jian'an Zhang
Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation coupled with gas stripping is conducted under strict anaerobic conditions. In this work, a fed-batch ABE fermentation integrated with gas stripping (FAFIGS) system using a non-strict anaerobic butanol-producing symbiotic system, TSH06, was investigated for the efficient production of butanol. To save energy and keep a high gas-stripping efficiency, the integrated fermentation was conducted by adjusting the butanol recovery rate. The gas-stripping efficiency increased when the butanol concentration increased from 6 to 12 g/L...
September 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928206/microbial-metabolic-networks-at-the-mucus-layer-lead-to-diet-independent-butyrate-and-vitamin-b12-production-by-intestinal-symbionts
#5
Clara Belzer, Loo Wee Chia, Steven Aalvink, Bhawani Chamlagain, Vieno Piironen, Jan Knol, Willem M de Vos
Akkermansia muciniphila has evolved to specialize in the degradation and utilization of host mucus, which it may use as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Mucus degradation and fermentation by A. muciniphila are known to result in the liberation of oligosaccharides and subsequent production of acetate, which becomes directly available to microorganisms in the vicinity of the intestinal mucosa. Coculturing experiments of Amuciniphila with non-mucus-degrading butyrate-producing bacteria Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii resulted in syntrophic growth and production of butyrate...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926539/the-immunology-of-the-allergy-epidemic-and-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#6
Bart N Lambrecht, Hamida Hammad
The immunology of the hygiene hypothesis of allergy is complex and involves the loss of cellular and humoral immunoregulatory pathways as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle and the disappearance of chronic infectious diseases. The influence of diet and reduced microbiome diversity now forms the foundation of scientific thinking on how the allergy epidemic occurred, although clear mechanistic insights into the process in humans are still lacking. Here we propose that barrier epithelial cells are heavily influenced by environmental factors and by microbiome-derived danger signals and metabolites, and thus act as important rheostats for immunoregulation, particularly during early postnatal development...
September 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926167/disentangling-environmental-and-host-sources-of-fungal-endophyte-communities-in-an-experimental-beachgrass-study
#7
Aaron S David, Eric W Seabloom, Georgiana May
Disentangling the ecological factors that contribute to the assembly of the microbial symbiont communities within eukaryotic hosts is an ongoing challenge. Broadly speaking, symbiont propagules arrive either from external sources in the environment or from internal sources within the same host individual. To understand the relative importance of these propagule sources to symbiont community assembly, we characterized symbiotic fungal endophyte communities within the roots of three species of beachgrass in a field experiment...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923004/regulatory-networks-underlying-mycorrhizal-development-delineated-by-genome-wide-expression-profiling-and-functional-analysis-of-the-transcription-factor-repertoire-of-the-plant-symbiotic-fungus-laccaria-bicolor
#8
Y Daguerre, E Levati, J Ruytinx, E Tisserant, E Morin, A Kohler, B Montanini, S Ottonello, A Brun, C Veneault-Fourrey, F Martin
BACKGROUND: Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi develop a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with the roots of their host plants. During this process, they undergo a series of developmental transitions from the running hyphae in the rhizosphere to the coenocytic hyphae forming finger-like structures within the root apoplastic space. These transitions, which involve profound, symbiosis-associated metabolic changes, also entail a substantial transcriptome reprogramming with coordinated waves of differentially expressed genes...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#9
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920588/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-homeostasis-and-host-defence-of-epithelial-barrier-tissues
#10
REVIEW
Morten M Nielsen, Deborah A Witherden, Wendy L Havran
Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body - namely, the epidermis and the intestine - and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity and repair, host homeostasis and protection in the context of the symbiotic relationship with the microbiome and during pathogen clearance...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919935/hybridization-of-single-nanocrystals-of-cs4pbbr6-and-cspbbr3
#11
Chris de Weerd, Junhao Lin, Leyre Gomez, Yasufumi Fujiwara, Kazutomo Suenaga, Tom Gregorkiewicz
Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in detail the optical characteristics of simultaneously synthesized green-emitting CsPbBr3 and insulating Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919360/the-roles-of-antimicrobial-peptide-rip-thanatin-in-the-midgut-of-riptortus-pedestris
#12
Kyoung-Eun Park, Seong Han Jang, Junbeom Lee, Seung Ah Lee, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Young-Su Seo, Bok Luel Lee
Recently, we have reported the structural determination of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as riptocin, rip-defensin, and rip-thanatin, from Riptortus pedestris. However, the biological roles of AMPs in the host midgut remain elusive. Here, we compared the expression levels of AMP genes in apo-symbiotic insects with those of symbiotic insects. Interestingly, the expression level of rip-thanatin was only significantly increased in the posterior midgut region of symbiotic insects. To further determine the role of rip-thanatin, we checked antimicrobial activity in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919016/metarhizium-brunneum-an-enzootic-wireworm-disease-and-evidence-for-its-suppression-by-bacterial-symbionts
#13
Todd Kabaluk, Erica Li-Leger, Sean Nam
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious agricultural pests, with soil-dwelling larvae attacking subterranean tissues of crop plants and their fruit when in contact with the soil surface. Researchers collect wireworms for laboratory experiments to study their behaviour and test pest control agents but frequently lose them to Metarhizium Petch (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) infection. We found latent M. brunneum infection in 13-100% of live, asymptomatic Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus wireworms acquired from agricultural fields and in wireworms maintained indoors, indicating its enzootic presence...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916743/comparative-analysis-reveals-regulatory-motifs-at-the-ains-ainr-pheromone-signaling-locus-of-vibrio-fischeri
#14
John H Kimbrough, Eric V Stabb
Vibrio fischeri uses the AinS/AinR pheromone-signaling system to control bioluminescence and other symbiotic colonization factors. The Ain system is thought to initiate cell-cell signaling at moderate cell densities and to prime the LuxI/LuxR signaling system. Here we compared and analyzed the ain locus from two V. fischeri strains and a Vibrio salmonicida strain to explore ain regulation. The ainS and ainR genes were predicted to constitute an operon, which we corroborated using RT-PCR. Comparisons between strains revealed a stark area of conservation across the ainS-ainR junction, including a large inverted repeat in ainR...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916561/succinate-transport-is-not-essential-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-by-sinorhizobium-meliloti-nor-rhizobium-leguminosarum
#15
Michael J Mitsch, George C diCenzo, Alison Cowie, Turlough M Finan
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) is an energetically expensive process performed by bacteria during endosymbiotic relationships with plants. The bacteria require the plant to provide a carbon source for generation of reductant to power SNF. While C4-dicarboxylates (succinate, fumarate, malate) appear to be the primary, if not sole, carbon source provided to the bacteria, the contribution of each C4-dicarboxylate is not known. We address this issue using a genetic and systems-level analyses. Expression of a malate specific transporter (MaeP) in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 dct mutants unable to transport C4-dicarboxylates resulted in malate import rates up to 30% that of wild type...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916558/potential-of-rice-stubble-as-a-reservoir-of-bradyrhizobial-inoculum-in-rice-legume-crop-rotation
#16
Pongdet Piromyou, Teerana Greetatorn, Kamonluck Teamtisong, Panlada Tittabutr, Nantakorn Boonkerd, Neung Teaumroong
Bradyrhizobium encompasses a variety of bacteria that can live in symbiotic and endophytic associations with leguminous and non-leguminous plants such as rice. Therefore, it can be expected that rice endophytic bradyrhizobia can be applied in the rice-legume crop rotation system. Some endophytic bradyrhizobial strains were isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) tissues. The rice biomass could be enhanced when supplying KNO3, NH4NO3, or urea with bradyrhizobial strain inoculation, especially strain SUTN9-2. In contrast, the strains which suppressed rice growth were photosynthetic bradyrhizobia and also found to produce nitric oxide (NO) in the rice root...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915923/season-but-not-symbiont-state-drives-microbiome-structure-in-the-temperate-coral-astrangia-poculata
#17
Koty H Sharp, Zoe A Pratte, Allison H Kerwin, Randi D Rotjan, Frank J Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding the associations among corals, their photosynthetic zooxanthella symbionts (Symbiodinium), and coral-associated prokaryotic microbiomes is critical for predicting the fidelity and strength of coral symbioses in the face of growing environmental threats. Most coral-microbiome associations are beneficial, yet the mechanisms that determine the composition of the coral microbiome remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized microbiome diversity in the temperate, facultatively symbiotic coral Astrangia poculata at four seasonal time points near the northernmost limit of the species range...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914770/silicon-and-nitrate-differentially-modulate-the-symbiotic-performances-of-healthy-and-virus-infected-bradyrhizobium-nodulated-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-yardlong-bean-v-unguiculata-subsp-sesquipedalis-and-mung-bean-v-radiata
#18
Maria Luisa Izaguirre-Mayoral, Miriam Brito, Bikash Baral, Mario José Garrido
The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls...
September 15, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912324/permanent-draft-genome-sequence-of-photorhabdus-temperata-strain-hm-an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-isolated-from-nematodes
#19
Shimaa Ghazal, Erik Swanson, Stephen Simpson, Krystalynne Morris, Feseha Abebe-Akele, W Kelley Thomas, Kamal M Khalil, Louis S Tisa
Photorhabdus temperata strain Hm is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. Here, we report a 5.0-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. temperata strain Hm with a G+C content of 44.1% and containing 4,226 candidate protein-encoding genes.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905167/molecular-diversity-and-phylogeny-of-indigenous-rhizobium-leguminosarum-strains-associated-with-trifolium-repens-plants-in-romania
#20
Rodica C Efrose, Craita M Rosu, Catalina Stedel, Andrei Stefan, Culita Sirbu, Lucian D Gorgan, Nikolaos E Labrou, Emmanouil Flemetakis
The symbiotic nitrogen fixing legumes play an essential role in sustainable agriculture. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is one of the most valuable perennial legumes in pastures and meadows of temperate regions. Despite its great agriculture and economic importance, there is no detailed available information on phylogenetic assignation and characterization of rhizobia associated with native white clover plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the present work, the diversity of indigenous white clover rhizobia originating in 11 different natural ecosystems in North-Eastern Romania were assessed by a polyphasic approach...
September 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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