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Exercise intensity

Sijie Tan, Cheng Chen, Mingyang Sui, Lunan Xue, Jianxiong Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of exercise training on body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in 5-year-old obese and lean children. METHODS: 42 obese and 62 lean children were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups separately. Body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness were measured at baseline and the end of the intervention. The exercise groups participated in 10 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training (at 50% of heart rate reserve), 50 training sessions in total...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Seong-Won Han, Dae-Yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim, Hae-Dong Lee
This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle -tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older, were randomly assigned into Control (CON, n=15) and WBV training groups (Exposure Time (ET, n=13) and Vibration Intensity (VI, n=12)). For the training groups, 4-week detraining period was subjected following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed 4 times (0, 4, 8, and 12-week) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Catherine A Martin, Usha Gowda, Ben J Smith, Andre M N Renzaho
A systematic review was undertaken to identify lifestyle intervention studies in South Asian migrant populations to determine the effect on the components of the metabolic syndrome. A total of seven studies were identified, of which six focused on educational advice and the seventh on intensive exercise intervention. Four studies were Randomised Controlled Trials of which two studies reported significant reductions in waist circumference. One of these studies focused on home based education with cooperation of the home cook (adjusted waist reduction of 1...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Samantha Greenwald, Edward Seger, David Nichols, Andrew D Ray, Todd C Rideout, Luc E Gosselin
Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercises, 15 repetitions per exercise with 30 seconds rest between each exercise); or 3) high-intensity interval running (10 one-minute intervals at a workload corresponding to 90% VO2max interspersed with one-minute active recovery periods)...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Nicholas J Hanson, Janet Buckworth
Time perception during exercise may be affected by chosen intensity, and may also affect enjoyment of exercise and subsequent long-term adherence. However, little is known about how individuals perceive the passage of time during exercise, or if factors such as sex are influential. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are sex related differences in perception of time during a bout of exercise in experienced runners. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men, 11 women) participated in a bout of treadmill running where they were allowed to select their intensity...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Michael E Holmstrup, Brock T Jensen, William S Evans, Emily C Marshall
The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Pavol Sajgalik, Vaclav Kremen, Alex R Carlson, Vratislav Fabian, Chul-Ho Kim, Courtney M Wheatley, Vaclav Gerla, John A Schirger, Thomas P Olson, Bruce D Johnson
Cardiac output (CO) assessment as a basic hemodynamic parameter has been of interest in exercise physiology, cardiology and anesthesiology. Non-invasive techniques available are technically challenging, and thus difficult to use outside of the clinical or laboratory setting. We propose a novel method of non-invasive CO assessment using a single upper arm cuff. The method uses the arterial pressure pulse wave signal acquired from the brachial artery during 20 second intervals of suprasystolic occlusion. This method was evaluated on a cohort of 12 healthy individuals (age of 27...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Victor M Niemeijer, Ruud F Spee, Thijs Schoots, Pieter F F Wijn, Hareld M Kemps
The extent and speed of transient skeletal muscle deoxygenation during exercise onset in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients is related to impairments of local O2 delivery and utilization. This study examined the physiological background of submaximal exercise performance in 19 moderately impaired CHF patients (Weber class A, B, and C) compared with 19 matched healthy control (HC) subjects by measuring skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO2) changes during cycling exercise. All subjects performed two subsequent moderate-intensity 6-minute exercise tests (bout 1 and 2) with measurements of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics, and SmO2 using near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) at the vastus lateralis for determination of absolute oxygenation values, amplitudes, kinetics (mean response time for onset), and deoxygenation overshoot characteristics...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Naoto Fujii, Maya Sarah Singh, Lyra Halili, Jeffrey C Louie, Glen P Kenny
During exercise, cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses occur, whereas these responses rapidly decrease during postexercise recovery. We hypothesized that the activation of endothelin A (ETA) receptors, but not endothelin B (ETB) receptors, attenuate cutaneous vasodilation during high-intensity exercise and contribute to the subsequent postexercise suppression of cutaneous vasodilation. We also hypothesized that both receptors increase sweating during and following high-intensity exercise. Eleven males (24 ± 4 years) performed an intermittent cycling protocol consisting of two 30-min bouts of moderate- (40% VO2peak) and high- (75% VO2peak) intensity exercise in the heat (35°C), each separated by a 20- and 40-min recovery period, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Chin-Pu Lin, Yi-Hui Lin, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
PURPOSE: Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. METHODS: Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Masaaki Miyauchi, Masao Toyoda, Noriko Kaneyama, Han Miyatake, Eitaro Tanaka, Moritsugu Kimura, Tomoya Umezono, Masafumi Fukagawa
We compared the efficacy of activity monitor (which displays exercise intensity and number of steps) versus that of pedometer in exercise therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were divided into the activity monitor group (n = 92) and pedometer group (n = 95). The primary goal was improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The exercise target was set at 8,000 steps/day and 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (≥3.5 metabolic equivalents). The activity monitor is equipped with a triple-axis accelerometer sensor capable of measuring medium-intensity walking duration, number of steps, walking distance, calorie consumption, and total calorie consumption...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Raoyrin Chanavirut, Pattarapong Makarawate, Ian A Macdonald, Naruemon Leelayuwat
BACKGROUND: Imbalances of the autonomic nervous (ANS), the cardiovascular system, and ionics might contribute to the manifestation of The Brugada Syndrome (BrS). Thus, this study has aimed to investigate the cardio-respiratory fitness and the responses of the ANS both at rest and during a sub-maximal exercise stress test, in BrS patients and in gender-matched and age-matched healthy sedentary controls. METHODS: Eleven BrS patients and 23 healthy controls were recruited in Khon Kaen, Thailand...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
Kyle T Aune, Joseph M Powers
BACKGROUND: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. HYPOTHESIS: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back...
October 19, 2016: Sports Health
Ryota Kobayashi, Yuto Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Hatakeyama, Takanobu Okamoto
Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Taewoong Oh, Sakura Tanaka, Tatsuki Naka, Shoji Igawa
PURPOSE: This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE)...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Shannon Jordan, Justin Karcher, Rebecca Rogers, Kathleen Kennedy, Anne Lawrence, Jenny Adams
PURPOSE: Updated cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and return-to-work guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) now include specificity of training for industrial athletes (exercise training that involves the muscle groups, movements, and energy systems that these patients use during occupational tasks). However, many CR facilities do not apply this principle, relying instead on the traditional protocol that consists primarily of aerobic exercise. This study was conducted to measure the metabolic cost of typical farming tasks and to compare 2 methods of calculating training intensities...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
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